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Vroom, Hendrick Cornelisz
Haarlem, H. 1566 - Haarlem, 1640
Vroom, Hendrick Cornelisz
Haarlem, H. 1566 - Haarlem, 1640

Considered the pioneer of Dutch seascape painting, he received his training in Delft, where his mother’s family lived. According to Van Mander, his stepfather, a ceramic painter like Vroom’s father, wanted him to follow the same career path. Consequently, Hendrick Cornelisz fled and embarked to Spain. From there, he went to Italy, where he worked for various ecclesiastical patrons in Florence and

Wtewael, Joachim
Utrecht, 1566 - Utrecht, 1638
Wtewael, Joachim
Utrecht, 1566 - Utrecht, 1638

According to his mentor, the painter and treatise writer Karel van Mander (1548–1606), he began his training with his father Anthonis Jansz. Wtewael, a glassmaker in Utrecht, and continued with the painters Joos de Beer (+1591) and Abraham Bloemaaert (1564–1651). Around 1586, he moved to Italy with his patron Charles Debourgneuf de Cucé, the bishop of Saint Malo. Between 1588–1590, he lived in Pad

Wouwerman, Philips
Haarlem, 1619 - Haarlem, 1668
Wouwerman, Philips
Haarlem, 1619 - Haarlem, 1668

It is thought that he began his training at the workshop of his father, the history painter Paulus Joostenz. Wouwerman (+1642), by whom no work has been identified to date. According to Cornelis de Bie, he received training in Frans Hals’s workshop, but his painting does not reveal any connection to Hals’s. According to information provided by his student Matthias Scheits (around 1625/30–1700), in

Willaerts, Adam
London, 1577 - Utrecht, 1664
Willaerts, Adam
London, 1577 - Utrecht, 1664

He arrived in Holland around 1602 and was accepted as a citizen of Utrecht in 1608. His first surviving painting dates from that year, A Fleet from the Dutch East India Company heading East arriving on an Island off the West Coast of Africa. In 1611, he was a founding member of the Utrecht Guild of Saint Luke, where he repeatedly held the position of dean (1620–1622, 1624–1631 and 1636–1637). Desp

Vollenhoven, Herman van
Utrecht, H.1585 - Utrecht, H.1628
Vollenhoven, Herman van
Utrecht, H.1585 - Utrecht, H.1628

The only known information on this painter is that, in 1611, he belonged to the Guild of Saint Muller (the brotherhood of painters of Utrecht), of which he was a member in 1627–1628. He painted still lifes, portraits and religious scenes, although the latter are only known through prints (Posada Kubissa, T.: Pintura holandesa en el Museo Nacional del Prado. Catálogo razonado, 2009, p. 260).

Stom, Matthias (also called Stomer)
Amersfoort (Netherlands), H.1600 - Sicily (Italy), Después.1650
Stom, Matthias (also called Stomer)
Amersfoort (Netherlands), H.1600 - Sicily (Italy), Después.1650

Little is known about this Dutch painter who settled in Italy. The earliest extant documentary reference to Stom is the parish family book from 1630 and 1631 in the Roman church of San Nicola in Arcione, where it is recorded that he was 30 years old and lived on the strada dell’Olmo. Therefore, his date of birth can be placed around 1600. Amersfoort has been his assumed place of birth, although d

Steenwijck, Pieter van
Delft, H. 1615 - Después de 1656
Steenwijck, Pieter van
Delft, H. 1615 - Después de 1656

He was the son of Evert Steenwijck, Brillenmaecker (spectacle maker) of Delft, and the younger brother of the still life painter Herman Steenwijck (1602/22–1656/76). Documents reveal that his training took place in the workshop of his uncle David Bailly (1584–1657), an esteemed portrait and still life painter from Leiden. Upon completing his apprenticeship, he returned to Delft, where he joined th

Rubens, Peter Paul
Siegen, Westphalia (Germany), 1577 - Antwerp (Belgium), 1640
Rubens, Peter Paul
Siegen, Westphalia (Germany), 1577 - Antwerp (Belgium), 1640

No other 17th-century European painter combined artistic talent, social and economic success and a high cultural level like Rubens. Though primarily a painter, he also made numerous designs for prints, tapestries, architecture, sculpture and decorative objects. His abundant work is strikingly versatile in its subject matter, including paintings on mythological, religious and historical subjects as

Rembrandt (Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn)
Leiden (Netherlands), 1606 - Amsterdam (Netherlands), 1669
Rembrandt (Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn)
Leiden (Netherlands), 1606 - Amsterdam (Netherlands), 1669

He was the ninth child of a wealthy family from Leiden. His father, Harmen Gerritsz. van Rijn, came from a family of millers who had settled in the city and who adopted the nickname Van Rijn because the mill was located on the banks of the Rhine. His mother, Harmen Neeltgen van Zuytbroeck, was the daughter of a prosperous baker from the same city. In 1620 after he studied for seven years at a Lati

Mierevelt, Michiel Jansz. Van
Delft, 1567 - Delft, 1641
Mierevelt, Michiel Jansz. Van
Delft, 1567 - Delft, 1641

Son of the goldsmith Jan Michelsz. van Mierevelt (1528–1612), Michiel was the most prominent representative of official Dutch portrait painting during the first decades of the 17th century. He became a history painter in Utrecht at the workshop of Anthonis van Blockland (1533/34–1583) and remained there for two years until the master’s death. Afterwards, he returned to Delft where he established h

Metsu, Gabriël
Leiden, 1629 - Amsterdam, 1667
Metsu, Gabriël
Leiden, 1629 - Amsterdam, 1667

He was the son of Jacques Metsu (1587/89–1629), a Flemish painter based in Leiden. In 1648, he played an active role in founding the Guild of Saint Luke in his native city. The records held at the guild’s register reveal that he left Leiden in 1650. He returned in 1654, and in 1657, he moved permanently to Amsterdam, where he remained until his death. In 1658, he married Isabella de Wolff, who was

Heda, Willem Claesz
Haarlem, 1594 - Haarlem, 1680
Heda, Willem Claesz
Haarlem, 1594 - Haarlem, 1680

He came from a wealthy family. Nothing is known about his artistic training. A document from 1620 already cites him as a painter in Haarlem. From 1631 onwards, he is documented in the book of the Haarlem Guild of Saint Luke, of which he was a council member on repeated occasions between 1637 and 1652; deken (dean) in 1641 and 1642 and hoofdman (captain) in 1637, 1643 and 1651. Since 1637, he admit

Dubbels, Hendrick Jacobsz
Amsterdam, 1621 - Amsterdam, 1707
Dubbels, Hendrick Jacobsz
Amsterdam, 1621 - Amsterdam, 1707

Little is known about this painter, who was active in Amsterdam beginning in approximately 1641 as a painter of seascapes, harbour views, beaches and winter landscapes. His early works, grey and blue seascapes, reveal the stylistic influence of Jan Porcellis’s paintings (1583/1585–1632). Between 1650–53, he worked in the workshop of Simon de Vlieger (1600/01–1653), whose influence is perceptible i

Claesz., Pieter
Berchem (Belgium), 1596/1597 - Haarlem, 1660
Claesz., Pieter
Berchem (Belgium), 1596/1597 - Haarlem, 1660

Little is known about his life with certainty. From a document dated 29 September 1640, in which the painter states that he was 41 years old, it can be presumed that he was born between 1596 and 1597. His marriage date to Geertje Hendricksdr in Haarlem is documented as 21 May 1617. The couple had two children, Riekje and Claes, the latter of whom became a well-known landscape painter with the name

Breenbergh, Bartholomeus
Deventer, 1598 - Amsterdam, 1657
Breenbergh, Bartholomeus
Deventer, 1598 - Amsterdam, 1657

The son of a pharmacist, he settled in the city of Deventer. After the death of his father around 1607, the family decided to leave the city. It was possible he began his training in Amsterdam in the workshop of one of the numerous landscape painters then active in the city and now unknown. According to his own testimony, in 1620 he moved to Rome, where he remained more than seven years. There he

Bray, Salomon de
Amsterdam, 1597 - Haarlem, 1664
Bray, Salomon de
Amsterdam, 1597 - Haarlem, 1664

He was a history painter, a portraitist and a landscape artist. There is no information about his childhood in Amsterdam. He had moved to Haarlem prior to 1617, as that year he was accepted into the circle of rhetoricians De Wijngaardranke (the vineyard assembly). In that city, he studied with Hendrick Goltzius (1558–1617) and Cornelis Cornelisz. van Haarlem (1562–1638). There is evidence that Chr

Bramer, Leonaert
Delft, 1596 - Delft, 1674
Bramer, Leonaert
Delft, 1596 - Delft, 1674

The son of Hendrick Bramer and Christynge Jans, nothing is known about his training. The first documented biographical fact is the journey he started through France and Italy in 1614. He resided in Arras and Amiens in 1614 and in Aix-en-Provence in 1616 on his way to Rome, where he lived between 1619 and 1627 (although not continuously). Cornelis de Bie states that he spent time in Venice, Florenc

Both, Jan
Utrecht, 1618/1622 - Utrecht, 1652
Both, Jan
Utrecht, 1618/1622 - Utrecht, 1652

According to Von Sandrart, he trained in Gerard van Honthorst’s workshop between 1634 and 1637. Burke (1976) suggests that he may have later started out as an Italianate landscape painter in the workshop of Charles Cornelisz. de Hooch (1600/1606–1638). The first documented record is that of his 1638 admission to the Academy of Saint Luke in Rome, where he must have arrived around 1635, if not earl

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