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Vermeyen, Jan
Brussels (Belgium), Ca. 1559 - Prague (Czech Republic), 1606
Vermeyen, Jan
Brussels (Belgium), Ca. 1559 - Prague (Czech Republic), 1606

He was born in Brussels before 1559 and died in Prague in 1606. He worked under the direct orders of the emperor and possible author of his magnificent crown. The work of this artist is characterized by the presence of pavilions, fruits and other stylized elements, excavated in the smooth surface of the gold and animated by transflower enamels, inlaid in varied chromatic contrast (Arbeteta, L.: El

Boscoli, Andrea
Florence (?), H. 1560 - Rome, 1608
Boscoli, Andrea
Florence (?), H. 1560 - Rome, 1608

Boscoli was a prolific draftsman. A student in the school of Santi di Tito (1536-1602), much of his knowledge was, however, self-taught. Time spent in Rome -probably early in the 1580s- enabled him to study both the antique and the more recent work of Polidoro da Caravaggio (c. 1499-c. 1543). Boscoli had returned to Florence by 1582, and thereafter he executed numerous private commissions, for the

Morán, Santiago
Madrid (Spain), Ca. 1571 - Valladolid (Spain), 1626
Morán, Santiago
Madrid (Spain), Ca. 1571 - Valladolid (Spain), 1626

Very little is known about this painter who worked mainly as a portraitist. His first known mention dates from 1597 and links him to Madrid and to Juan Pantoja de la Cruz, with whom he had special contact. In 1609, after a period in Valladolid while the Court was there (1601-1606) he succeeded Pantoja, who had died the previous year, as Philip III's chamber painter in Madrid. Documents show that,

Wtewael, Joachim
Utrecht, 1566 - Utrecht, 1638
Wtewael, Joachim
Utrecht, 1566 - Utrecht, 1638

According to his mentor, the painter and treatise writer Karel van Mander (1548–1606), he began his training with his father Anthonis Jansz. Wtewael, a glassmaker in Utrecht, and continued with the painters Joos de Beer (+1591) and Abraham Bloemaaert (1564–1651). Around 1586, he moved to Italy with his patron Charles Debourgneuf de Cucé, the bishop of Saint Malo. Between 1588–1590, he lived in Pad

Candid, Pieter
Bruges, H. 1548 - Munich, 1628
Candid, Pieter
Bruges, H. 1548 - Munich, 1628

A Netherlander by birth, Candid moved to Florence with his father, the bronze-caster Elias de Witte, when he was about ten years old. Biographical details are provided by Karel van Mander (1548-1606), whom he met in that city in 1574. According to van Mander, Candid assisted Vasari (1511-1574) with the decoration of the interior of the Sala Regia in the Vatican, as well as with the cupola of Flore

Tristán, Luis
Toledo?, 1580/85 - Toledo (Spain), 1624
Tristán, Luis
Toledo?, 1580/85 - Toledo (Spain), 1624

One of the most outstanding representatives of painting from Toledo during the early 17th-century, an especially fertile period for that city. The earliest mention of Tristán links him to Toledo's most important painter, calling him an apprentice to El Greco in 1603. He was still there in 1606, but that was the year that he made his first trip to Italy. According to Jusepe Martínez, he was accompa

Rubens, Peter Paul
Siegen, Westphalia (Germany), 1577 - Antwerp (Belgium), 1640
Rubens, Peter Paul
Siegen, Westphalia (Germany), 1577 - Antwerp (Belgium), 1640

No other 17th-century European painter combined artistic talent, social and economic success and a high cultural level like Rubens. Though primarily a painter, he also made numerous designs for prints, tapestries, architecture, sculpture and decorative objects. His abundant work is strikingly versatile in its subject matter, including paintings on mythological, religious and historical subjects as

Roelas, Juan de
Olivares, Sevilla (Spain), 1625
Roelas, Juan de
Olivares, Sevilla (Spain), 1625

His style suggests that he learned to paint in Italy, although there is no documentation of his presence in that country. In 1598 he worked in Valladolid, collaborating on the funeral monument to commemorate the death of Philip II. He continued working in that city until 1604, when he obtained a prebend or favor from the Count-Duke of Olivares. From then on, he was a protege of that nobleman in th

Ribalta, Francisco
Solsona, Lérida (Spain), 1565 - Valencia (Spain), 1628
Ribalta, Francisco
Solsona, Lérida (Spain), 1565 - Valencia (Spain), 1628

This artist of Catalan origin received his early training in El Escorial, where he was surrounded by Spanish and Italian artists and their works and was able to follow their most significant innovations. He thus developed an eclectic style that combined Cincinato's rhetoric with Tibaldi's daring foreshortening and Bartolomé Carducho's gravity with Navarrete's dramatic approach, as well as the chia

Rembrandt (Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn)
Leiden (Netherlands), 1606 - Amsterdam (Netherlands), 1669
Rembrandt (Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn)
Leiden (Netherlands), 1606 - Amsterdam (Netherlands), 1669

He was the ninth child of a wealthy family from Leiden. His father, Harmen Gerritsz. van Rijn, came from a family of millers who had settled in the city and who adopted the nickname Van Rijn because the mill was located on the banks of the Rhine. His mother, Harmen Neeltgen van Zuytbroeck, was the daughter of a prosperous baker from the same city. In 1620 after he studied for seven years at a Lati

Fernández, Gregorio
Sarriá, Lugo (Spain), 1576 - Valladolid (Spain), 1636
Fernández, Gregorio
Sarriá, Lugo (Spain), 1576 - Valladolid (Spain), 1636

The artistic tradition associated with Valladolid -which had reached such a high level in the 16th century- and the fact that it was the Spanish monarchy's favorite city between 1601 and 1606, was responsible for a considerable number of 17th-century artists who prolonged the splendor attained earlier by Alonso Berruguete, Juan de Juni and Pompeo Leoni. This indisputable reality was reinforced by

Farinati, Paolo
Verona, Veneto, 1524 - Verona, Veneto, 1606
Farinati, Paolo
Verona, Veneto, 1524 - Verona, Veneto, 1606

His earliest documented painting, St. Martin and the Beggar (1552), was commissioned by Cardinal Ercole Gonzaga for Mantua cathedral, which had recently been reconstructed by Giulio Romano (c. 1499-1546). In this, Farinati adopted a Mannerist style and restricted palette absorbed from works by Francesco Torbido (1482/85-1561/62), and by Nicola Giolfino (1476-1555) in whose workshop he probably tra

Claesz., Pieter
Berchem (Belgium), 1596/1597 - Haarlem, 1660
Claesz., Pieter
Berchem (Belgium), 1596/1597 - Haarlem, 1660

Little is known about his life with certainty. From a document dated 29 September 1640, in which the painter states that he was 41 years old, it can be presumed that he was born between 1596 and 1597. His marriage date to Geertje Hendricksdr in Haarlem is documented as 21 May 1617. The couple had two children, Riekje and Claes, the latter of whom became a well-known landscape painter with the name

Carducho, Bartolomé
Florence (Italy), Ca. 1560 - Madrid (Spain), 1608
Carducho, Bartolomé
Florence (Italy), Ca. 1560 - Madrid (Spain), 1608

Of this Italian painter, sculptor and architect, Ceán Bermúdez observed: "Few painters from Italy have been as useful for the fine arts in Spain as Carducho." And indeed, he is a key figure for understanding the development of painting at the Spanish court at the beginning of the 17th century. This is due not so much to his work as to the school of artists that trained under him, beginning with h

Cardi, Ludovico
Castelvecchio di Cigoli, Tuscany, 1559 - Rome, 1613
Cardi, Ludovico
Castelvecchio di Cigoli, Tuscany, 1559 - Rome, 1613

A student of the Florentine painters Alessandro Allori (1535-1607) and Santi di Tito (1536-1602), and of the architect Bernardo Buontalenti (1536-1608). During the early 1580s Cigoli painted two lunettes in the Chiostro Grande of S. Maria Novella, Florence. In the same decade he also received numerous commissions from the Medici family, such as that to design decorations to celebrate the marriage

Brusasorci, Domenico
Verona, 1516 - Verona, 1567
Brusasorci, Domenico
Verona, 1516 - Verona, 1567

Brusasorci probably began training in the workshop of his father, Agostino Brusasorci (1482-1555), before subsequently studying under Gian Francesco Caroto (c. 1480-c. 1555). Some time after 1543 he frescoed the choir vault of S. Stefano, in his native city, in which he showed awareness of the frescoes decorating Verona cathedral, which had been designed by Giulio Romano (c. 1499-1546) and execute

Brueghel the Elder, Jan (Jan 'Velvet' Brueghel)
Brussels (Belgium), 1568 - Antwerp (Belgium), 1625
Brueghel the Elder, Jan (Jan 'Velvet' Brueghel)
Brussels (Belgium), 1568 - Antwerp (Belgium), 1625

Born to a family of extraordinary artists, he was the son of Pieter Brueghel the Elder and grandson of Pieter Coecke and Mayken Verhulst Bessermers. Tradition has it that she was his first teacher, as his father died when he was a child. According to writer Karel van Mander his principal teacher was Pieter Goetkind. While he was somewhat influenced by the work of his brilliant father, he always fo

Both, Jan
Utrecht, 1618/1622 - Utrecht, 1652
Both, Jan
Utrecht, 1618/1622 - Utrecht, 1652

According to Von Sandrart, he trained in Gerard van Honthorst’s workshop between 1634 and 1637. Burke (1976) suggests that he may have later started out as an Italianate landscape painter in the workshop of Charles Cornelisz. de Hooch (1600/1606–1638). The first documented record is that of his 1638 admission to the Academy of Saint Luke in Rome, where he must have arrived around 1635, if not earl

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