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Espinosa, Juan de
Doc. 1628 - Doc. 1659
Espinosa, Juan de
Doc. 1628 - Doc. 1659

This painter, whose biography is unknown, may have been mainly active during the first half of the 17th century in Madrid. His name is cited in relation to other Madrid painters in documents dated 1628 and 1659. Other surviving information appears to add to the vagueness surrounding this figure, as there were at least two painters by the same name working at the court; one had died in 1641 and the

Arias, Ignacio
Madrid, Ca. 1618 - Madrid, 1653
Arias, Ignacio
Madrid, Ca. 1618 - Madrid, 1653

What little is known of this artist appears in documents that permanently locate him in Madrid. These documents list his marriage in 1636, the birth of his daughters, his work appraising paintings, and his death in 1653. His signature is also known from its presence on his surviving works. His careful, detailed work is linked to the tradition of Juan van der Hamen and Antonio Ponce and he may have

Bramer, Leonaert
Delft, 1596 - Delft, 1674
Bramer, Leonaert
Delft, 1596 - Delft, 1674

The son of Hendrick Bramer and Christynge Jans, nothing is known about his training. The first documented biographical fact is the journey he started through France and Italy in 1614. He resided in Arras and Amiens in 1614 and in Aix-en-Provence in 1616 on his way to Rome, where he lived between 1619 and 1627 (although not continuously). Cornelis de Bie states that he spent time in Venice, Florenc

Zurbarán, Francisco de
Fuente de Cantos, Badajoz (Spain), 1598 - Madrid (Spain), 1664
Zurbarán, Francisco de
Fuente de Cantos, Badajoz (Spain), 1598 - Madrid (Spain), 1664

He learned art in Seville with Pedro Díaz de Villanueva (1614), but was undoubtedly friendly with Pacheco and Velázquez as well. History views him as the quintessential monastic painter, absolutely indentified with devout passion and miracles that he presented in a straightforward, direct, severe and everyday manner. He settled in Seville in 1628 and painted innumerable works there, including the

Utrecht, Adriaen van
Antwerp, 1599 - 1652
Utrecht, Adriaen van
Antwerp, 1599 - 1652

A Flemish painter, he was an apprentice to Herman de Ryt from 1614 and visited France, Italy and Germany. In 1625, he returned to Antwerp, where he worked as a master. His work was based on that of Snyders, of whose he became a faithful follower, particularly in the detailed and decorative conception of his still lifes. Nevertheless, although Utrecht’s work adopts the same abundant arrangement com

Trometta
Pesaro, H. 1540 - Rome, H. 1610
Trometta
Pesaro, H. 1540 - Rome, H. 1610

While still a young artist, Trometta moved to Rome, where he trained in the workshop of the Zuccaro brothers. He was particularly influenced by the work of Taddeo Zuccaro (1529-1566) and, along with Cesare Nebbia (c. 1536-1614), rose to become one of the workshop's principal members. He had acquired independence by 1565, when he received the commission to decorate a Chapel in S. Maria della Consol

Tavarone, Lazzaro
Genoa, H. 1556 - Genoa, 1641
Tavarone, Lazzaro
Genoa, H. 1556 - Genoa, 1641

A student of Luca Cambiaso (1527-85) from around the late 1560s, they both moved to Spain in 1583, when the master accepted an invitation to work for Philip II. Although Cambiaso died shortly thereafter, Tavarone remained in Spain and is subsequently documented as working with Fabrizio Castello (c. 1560-1617) and Nicolas Granello (c. 1550-1593). He returned to Genoa in 1591, here his most successf

Seghers, Daniel
Antwerp, 1590 - Antwerp, 1661
Seghers, Daniel
Antwerp, 1590 - Antwerp, 1661

Son of a silk merchant, he emigrated early on with his family to the Northern Netherlands, where he converted to Calvinism. He started studying painting 1605, and upon returning to Antwerp in 1611, he entered the Guild of San Lucas after a period of apprenticeship with Jan Brueghel de Velours. In 1614, he re-embraced the Catholic faith and entered the Jesuits in Mechelen as a layman. Afterwards, h

Rubens, Peter Paul
Siegen, Westphalia (Germany), 1577 - Antwerp (Belgium), 1640
Rubens, Peter Paul
Siegen, Westphalia (Germany), 1577 - Antwerp (Belgium), 1640

No other 17th-century European painter combined artistic talent, social and economic success and a high cultural level like Rubens. Though primarily a painter, he also made numerous designs for prints, tapestries, architecture, sculpture and decorative objects. His abundant work is strikingly versatile in its subject matter, including paintings on mythological, religious and historical subjects as

Roelas, Juan de
Olivares, Sevilla (Spain), 1625
Roelas, Juan de
Olivares, Sevilla (Spain), 1625

His style suggests that he learned to paint in Italy, although there is no documentation of his presence in that country. In 1598 he worked in Valladolid, collaborating on the funeral monument to commemorate the death of Philip II. He continued working in that city until 1604, when he obtained a prebend or favor from the Count-Duke of Olivares. From then on, he was a protege of that nobleman in th

Reni, Guido
Calvezzano, Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, 04/11/1575 - Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, 18/08/1642
Reni, Guido
Calvezzano, Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, 04/11/1575 - Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, 18/08/1642

The triumph of Annibale's oeuvre in Rome paved the way for the disciples of the Carracci family to work at the court of the popes, especially when a cardinal of Bologna acceded to the papal throne as Gregory XV. One of these followers was Reni, who is considered the best known and most prolific artist of the Bolognese school and also the most important. He is without a doubt the best artist who em

Nebbia, Cesare
Orvieto, H. 1536 - Orvieto, 1614
Nebbia, Cesare
Orvieto, H. 1536 - Orvieto, 1614

Nebbia was a prolific painter and draftsman, a student under Girolamo Muziano (1532-1592), but influenced also by Federico Zuccaro (1540/42-1609). Between 1562 and 1575 he worked continuously as a frescoist in the cathedral at Orvieto, for which he also executed altarpieces. He subsequently moved to Rome, where again he produced altarpieces for various churches, as well as decorations at the Sforz

Lilio, Andrea
Ancona, Le Marche, Ca. 1570 - Ascoli Piceno, Le Marche, 1635
Lilio, Andrea
Ancona, Le Marche, Ca. 1570 - Ascoli Piceno, Le Marche, 1635

The sources on Lilio's early life are sparse and sometimes contradictory. As a youth he was already active in Rome, since he is recorded in 1583 as beginning work on the four Evangelists beneath the cupola in the Gesu. His early training seems to have been with Cesare Nebbia (c. 1536-1614) and Giovanni Guerra (1544-1618), though he soon after gravitated to the circle of Barocci's followers then wo

Guerra, Giovanni
Modena, 1544 - Rome, 1618
Guerra, Giovanni
Modena, 1544 - Rome, 1618

Guerra arrived in Rome in 1562, where he became a member of the Accademia di S. Luca. He established a workshop with Cesare Nebbia (c. 1536-1614) and together they secured numerous papal commissions. These included the decoration of the Salone Sisto in the Vatican Library (1585-1589) and that of the Scala Santa at Porta S. Giovanni. Guerra and Nebbia collaborated in prepSring the designs for these

El Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulos)
Candia, Crete (Greece), 1541 - Toledo (Spain), 1614
El Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulos)
Candia, Crete (Greece), 1541 - Toledo (Spain), 1614

This Spanish painter of Greek origin was born in the capital city of the Isle of Crete, which then belonged to the Republic of Venice. His family was Greek, but probably Catholic rather than Orthodox, and its members collaborated with the colonial powers. He was trained as an Icon painter in the late-Byzantine tradition, but contact with Italian engravings allowed him to absorb and partially emplo

Gentileschi, Artemisa
Rome, 1593 - Naples, 1652/3
Gentileschi, Artemisa
Rome, 1593 - Naples, 1652/3

This Italian painter learned art from her father, the artist Orazio Gentileschi, whose influence is particularly evident in her early works. Following a period in Florence (1614-1620), se settled in Rome, where she lived between 1620 and 1627, with brief visits to Genoa and Venice. By 1630 she was living in Naples, with her own studio and continuous contact with Stanzione. There, she develop her m

Fernández, Gregorio
Sarriá, Lugo (Spain), 1576 - Valladolid (Spain), 1636
Fernández, Gregorio
Sarriá, Lugo (Spain), 1576 - Valladolid (Spain), 1636

The artistic tradition associated with Valladolid -which had reached such a high level in the 16th century- and the fact that it was the Spanish monarchy's favorite city between 1601 and 1606, was responsible for a considerable number of 17th-century artists who prolonged the splendor attained earlier by Alonso Berruguete, Juan de Juni and Pompeo Leoni. This indisputable reality was reinforced by

Carreño de Miranda, Juan
Avilés, Asturias (Spain), 1614 - Madrid (Spain), 1685
Carreño de Miranda, Juan
Avilés, Asturias (Spain), 1614 - Madrid (Spain), 1685

Born into a noble family of the Principality of Asturias, Carreño de Miranda received his early training in Madrid at the workshop of Pedro de las Cuevas, where he may have coincided with Antonio de Pereda, Francisco Camilo and Antonio Arias. He went on to study with Bartolomé Román and, after his formative period, began to paint religious themes as an independent master around the 1650s. He was s

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