Presiding over this space devoted to sculpture is the fi gure of a Renaissance monarch: Philip II, a great art lover and patron of artists such as Titian. The king is represented in a small bust attributed to the Italian sculptor Pompeo Leoni who was one of Philip’s favourite artists. As with painting, sculpture could also be expressed in small formats without losing any of its grandeur in order to fi t into domestic spaces dedicated to the cult of antiquity. Works of this type include the wounded Meleager, an exquisite example of Tuscan Mannerism by Silvio Cosini, and some almost transparent alabaster reliefs. An art form favoured by the powerful, the essentially noble nature of sculpture meant that it could be used to emphasise the glory of these patrons and to immortalise their features. During the Renaissance it also involved the recovery of the Roman portrait type, as in the above-mentioned bust of Philip II and the relief of Francesco I de’Medici by the Flemish-born sculptor Giambologna who worked in Florence. Dürer’s infl uence is also evident in the ivory copy by the prolifi c German sculptor Hering Loy of his famous print of Adam and Eve, which constituted a summary of his study of human proportions. A rare articulated manikin attributed to Dürer or his immediate circle refl ects a similar interest in the human body and its proportions. It points to a new artistic practice based on the habitual drawing of models from life or, when not available, of small manikins such as this one, with bodies and limbs that could be adjusted to create diff erent poses.

 
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