The campaign to acquire works of art to decorate the Buen Retiro Palace also included a significant number of landscapes, which were painted by artists active in Rome during the 1630s. These works were commissioned by the Marqués de Castel Rodrigo, Philip IV's ambassador in Rome (1632-1641), who was also responsible for the choice of artists.

At least two series of paintings were commissioned: a cycle of landscapes with hermit saints (some twenty-four works), most of which were sent from Rome in 1639; and a set of bucolic or pastoral landscapes (at least ten), which arrived in Spain around 1641. Some of the best landscape artists of the period, such as Claude Lorrain, Nicholas Poussin, Jan Both, Jean Lemaire, Herman Swanevelt and Gaspard Dughet, participated in this series. The commission was one of the most significant in seventeenth-century European landscape painting.

In Madrid, the pictures were installed in a room known as the "Landscape Gallery" located in the west wing of the Buen Retiro.

Room 2 of the Museo del Prado displays a selection of landscapes that also belonged to this group.

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