The itinerary <em>TITULORECORRIDO</em> has been successfully created. Now you can add in works from the Collection browser
<em>TITULOOBRA</em> added to <em>TITULORECORRIDO</em> itinerary

Collection <Back
Danaë
Tiziano, Vecellio di Gregorio
Close Continuar a ficha de la obra

Tiziano, Vecellio di Gregorio

Pieve di Cadore (Belluno, Véneto), 1490 - Venecia, 1576

Miniatura autor

Danaë

1560 - 1565. Oil on canvas, 129.8 x 181.2 cm.

The first Poesie presented to Prince Philip were Danaë (1553, The Wellington Collection) and Venus and Adonis (1554, Museo del Prado, P422), versions of other previous works, but endowed with all the prestige of the commissioning party. In turn, these works became models for numerous replicas (Danaë receiving the Golden Rain, 1560-65, Museo del Prado, P425).

Danaë depicts the moment in which Jupiter possesses the princess in the form of golden rain. Titian painted his first Danaë in Rome in 1544-45 for Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, in reference to the Cardinal´s love affair with a courtesan. This Danaë was the model for the version created for Philip II, in which Cupid was replaced by an old nursemaid, whose inclusion enriched the painting by creating a series of sophisticated counterpoints: youth versus old age; beauty versus loyalty; a nude figure versus a dressed figure.

Philip II received this work (Danaë, The Wellington Collection) in 1553 and it was kept in the Spanish Royal Collection, first at the Alcázar and, subsequently, at the Buen Retiro Palace, until Ferdinand VII presented the work to the Duke of Wellington following the Peninsula War. Its original size was similar to that of Venus and Adonis, but at the end of the 18th century, the upper third of the painting was removed for reasons of preservation. Historical descriptions and a Flemish copy reveal that the upper section included Jupiter´s face and an eagle with bolts of lightning, both attributes of this particular god.

A few years later, in 1565, Titian painted the Danaë that belongs to the Museo del Prado, a work featuring a looser execution and an extraordinary quality. It was acquired by Velázquez, to whom in 1634 Jerónimo de Villanueva paid 1000 ducats for eighteen paintings para el adorno del Buen Retiro, among them la Dánae de Tiziano. From another, undated document, which records the physical delivery of the paintings to Villanueva, we know that this Danaë had a horizontal format, very different from the near-square of the version painted for Philip II. Velázquez must have acquired the new Danaë during his first sojourn in Italy (1629–31), since the group of works sold in 1634 included paintings of his own executed there, such as Joseph´s Bloody Coat (Patrimonio Nacional, Monasterio del Escorial) or the Forge of Vulcan (Museo del Prado, P1171).

Although Velázquez´s trip to Italy in 1629 took him to Venice, he may not have acquired the Danaë there. Only a single Danaë is documented in Venice before 1629, the quadro con Giove in pioggia d´oro di mano di Titiano mentioned in January 1606 in the posthumous inventory of the Flemish merchant Carlo Helman (who had died in Seville in 1605) and which Stefania Mason identifies with the quadro con Giove in pioggia d´oro, artist unnamed, included in the inventory of 13 May 1604 of Francesco Vrins, another Flemish merchant who resided in Venice. This Danaë must have left the Serenissima soon afterwards, for Ridolfi mentions no painting of the subject in Venice attributed to Titian. The possibility has been raised that it might be the painting inventoried in the possession of Giovanni Carlo Doria (1576-1625) in Genoa in 1621: Una piogia doro del Titiano.

Doria acquired his Danaë between 1617 and 1621, and it does not reappear in the family inventories after his death in 1625. Thus the Prado Danaë might have been owned by Doria and purchased by Velázquez when he arrived in Genoa in the autumn of 1629. The philo-Spanish sympathies of the Doria, and the letters of introduction that Velázquez carried with him, would no doubt have gained him access to the palaces of the Genoese aristocratcy. And that Velázquez acquired paintings in Genoa is implied by the fact that among the works in the 1634 sale was a Susanna and the Elders by the Genoese Luca Cambiaso (1527-1585). However, the Doria Danaë has alternatively been identified with that listed in 1633 in the collection of Louis Phélypeaux de la Vrillière (1598-1681) in Paris, and now in the Hermitage. The principal argument in favour of this hypothesis was that the Hermitage Danaë was the only version of the subject by Titian whose provenance was unrecorded before 1633; but now that we know that the provenance of the Prado Danaë is also uncertain, this association is open to reconsideration.

Whoever the first owner of the Prado Danaë might have been, we can draw two inferences from our study of the painting: one is that he must have been prepared to pay a very high price for the picture, given that the quality far outstrips that of the other known replicas such as those in Vienna and St Petersburg; secondly that he wanted a painting that was overtly erotic. The Prado Danaë greatly surpasses in sensuality the other autograph or studio versions in the voluptuousness of the figure, the absence of drapery, the ecstatic expression of Danaë´s face, her lips half-open to reveal her teeth, and the way that her left hand separates her thighs to ease the god´s access; even the presence of the dog could be seen as an allusion to lust in this context. Compared with the relatively mechanical execution of the versions at the Kunsthistorisches Museum and the Hermitage, largely executed by Titian´s bottega for foreign dignitaries, the exceptional quality of the Prado Danaë suggests a specific commission from a wealthy patron whom the painter knew and liked. Titian must have painted this work around 1560-65. He executed it with short and broken brushstrokes, with a medium so diluted as to reveal the weave in the canvas, as can be seen in other paintings of these years such as his Self-Portrait (P407) and Tityus (P427), both also in the Museo del Prado.

The infrared reflectogram reveals differences of treatment between Danaë, whose sharp silhouette demonstrates the employment of a tracing, and the elderly wardress, who was drawn freehand: the same distinction, in fact, that we have already seen in the version at Apsley House. The X-radiograph also reveals minor alterations to both figures. In Danaë these concern the initial position of her right leg, which was more contracted, and in which there are small alterations to the extension of the toes of her right foot and the position of her bracelet. As for the wardress, changes can be seen to her chin, her dress -initially a little lower-, and her head-gear, revealing a figure practically identical to the wardress in the Hermitage canvas (Text drawn from Falomir, M.; Joannides, P.: "Dánae y Venus y Adonis, las primeras poesías de Tiziano para Felipe II", Boletín del Museo del Prado, 2014, pp. 7-51).

Check the encyclopaedia

Multimedia

Technical data

Inventory number
P00425
Author
Tiziano, Vecellio di Gregorio
Title
Danaë
Date
1560 - 1565
Technique
Oil
Support
Canvas
Dimension
High/Height: 129.8 cm.; Width: 181.2 cm.
Provenance
Royal Collection (New Royal Palace, Madrid, "tercera pieza de la Furriera", 1747, no. 158; New Royal Palace, Madrid, "estudio de Andrés de la Calleja", 1772, no. 36; Casa de Rebeque, Madrid, 1794, no. 158; Academia, Madrid, Sala Reservada, 1827, no. 51).

Bibliography +

Inventario de la Casa Real del Pardo. 1564, Madrid, 1564.

Inventario del Alcázar.1636-1666, Madrid, 1666.

Inventario del Alcázar. 1686, Madrid, 1686.

Inventario Palacio Nuevo. 1734, Madrid, 1734.

Inventario Palacio Nuevo. 1747, Madrid, 1747.

Inventario Palacio Nuevo. 1772, Madrid, 1772.

Inventarios Palacio Nuevo. 1794, Madrid, 1794.

Inventario de las Pinturas del Museo Hecho a la Muerte del R, Madrid [s.n, 1834, pp. 75.

Reinach, Salomon, Repertoire de Peintures du Moyen Age et de la Renaissance. 1, Paris Ernest Leroux, 1905, pp. 724.

Gronau, Georg, Titian, Londres-Nueva York Duckworth and Co.Charles Scribners, 1911, pp. 303.

Caro-Delvaille, H., Titien, Paris Felix Alcan, 1913, pp. lám.20.

Hadeln, Baron von., Another version of the Danae by Titian THE BURLINGTON MAGAZINE PUBLICATION, 1926, pp. 78.

Beroqui, Pedro., Tiziano en el Museo del Prado. CONSEJO SUPERIOR DE INVESTIGACIONES, 1927, pp. 106.

Suida, Wilhelm, Le Titien, Paris Weber, 1935, pp. lám.224a.

Les chefs-d'oeuvre du Musée du Prado: exposition, Musée d'ar, Ginebra Musée d'Art et d'Histoire, 1939.

Faure, Élie, Historia del arte, Buenos Aires Editorial Poseidon, 1943, pp. 199.

Sarfatti, Margarita G.De, Tiziano O de la Fe en la Vida, Buenos Aires Editorial Poseidon, 1944, pp. 92.

Beroqui, Pedro (m. 1958)), Tiziano en el Museo del Prado., Madrid Hauser y Menet,, 1946, pp. 138.

Zucker, Paul, Styles in Painting. A Comparative Study, Nueva York Dover Publications, 1963, pp. 40/ lám.21.

Tüngel, Richard, 400 Jahre Kunst, Kultur, und Geschichte im Prado, Zurich Schweizer Verlagshaus, 1964, pp. 88/ lám.35.

Ceán Bermúdez, Juan Agustín1749-1829, Diccionario histórico de los más ilustres profesores de las, Madrid Reales Academias de Bellas Artes de San Fernando y, 1965, pp. 34.

Panofsky, Erwin1892-1968, Problems in Titian Mostly Iconographic, Londres Phaidon, 1969, pp. lám.158.

Pallucchini, Rodolfo, Tiziano. Vol. I, Florencia G.C.Sansoni, 1969, pp. 386-387.

Cagli, Corrado, La obra pictórica completa de Tiziano, Barcelona.Madrid Noguer, 1971.

Onieva, A.J., La Mitologia en el Museo del Prado, Madrid Offo, 1972, pp. 76.

Aguilera, Emiliano M., El Desnudo en las Artes, Madrid Giner, 1972, pp. 147.

Ponz, Antonio., Viage de España, Madrid, 1972, pp. 57.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Museo del Prado: catálogo de las pinturas, Madrid Museo del Prado, 1972.

Posner, Donald, Watteau: a lady at her toilet, Londres Penguin Books, 1973, pp. 27.

Wilde, Johannes, Venetian Art From Bellini To Titian, Oxford Clarendon Press, 1974, pp. 185.

Bermejo de la Rica, A., La Mitologia en el Museo del Prado, Madrid Editora Nacional, 1974, pp. 85-87.

Inventarios reales: testamentaria del Rey Carlos II : 1701-1, Madrid Museo del PradoPatronato Nacional de Museos, 1975, pp. 67.

Inventarios reales: testamentaria del Rey Carlos II : 1701-1, Madrid Museo del PradoPatronato Nacional de Museos, 1975, pp. 449.

Wethey, Harold E., The paintings of Titian, Londres Phaidon, 1975.

Trevor-Roper, H., Princes and Artists. Patronage and Ideology at Four Habsburg, Londres Thames and Hudson,, 1976, pp. 53.

Rizzatti, Maria Luisa, Tiziano, Barcelona Editorial Marin, 1977, pp. 76-77.

Pallucchini, Rodolfo, Profilo Di Tiziano, Florencia Aldo Martello, 1977, pp. lám.40.

Rosand, David, Titian, Nueva York Harrry N.Abrams, 1978, pp. 41/ lám.56.

Freedberg, S.J., Pintura en Italia: 1500-1600, Madrid Cátedra, 1978, pp. 508.

Sutton, Denys., Charles Ricketts and Titian. APOLLO MAGAZINE, 1978, pp. 432.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Museo del Prado: pintura italiana anterior a 1600, Madrid Gredos, 1979, pp. 141-144.

Chiericati, C., Velazquez, Barcelona Editorial Marin, 1979, pp. 87.

Bettini, S., Tiziano e Venezia, Vicenza Neri Pozza, 1980, pp. lám.24.

Hope, Charles, Titian, London Jupiter Book, 1980, pp. lám.22.

Fasolo, Ugo, Ticiano, Florencia Becocci, 1980, pp. 68.

Beck, James, Italian Renaissance Painting, Nueva York Harper and Row, 1981, pp. 358.

Nash, Jane., Titian, The Naples Danaë und the Venus of Urbino. FUNDAÇAO CALOUSTE GULBENKIAN, 1981, pp. 14-19.

López Torrijos, Rosa, La mitología en la pintura española del siglo XVII, Madrid Editorial de la Universidad Complutense, 1982, pp. 515.

Rosand, David, Titian. His World and His Legacy, Nueva York Columbia University Press, 1982, pp. 13.

Farmer, Norman K., Poets and the Visual Arts in Renaissance England, Austin University of Texas Press, 1984, pp. 12/ lám.6.

Pierre, José., Introduction a la Peinture. Editions Aimery Somogy,, 1985, pp. 26.

Bosque, Andree De, Mithologie et Manierisme, Paris Albin Michel, 1985, pp. 44.

Daval, Jean-Luc, La Peinture a L'Huile, Genova Skira, 1985, pp. 38.

Carroggio, Fernando, Historia del arte, Barcelona CarroggioS.A., 1985, pp. 151.

Nash Clinton, Jane., Veiled Images. Titian's mythological paintings for Philip II, Filadelfia, 1985, pp. 24-29,51,55/ lám.1.

Museo Nacional del Prado., Museo del Prado : catálogo de las pinturas /, Madrid Museo del Prado,, 1985, pp. 701.

Morán Turina, José Miguel, El coleccionismo en España: de la cámara de maravillas a la, Madrid Cátedra, 1985, pp. 125.

Bertelli, C., Storia Dell'Arte Italiana. Vol. I, Milan ElectaBruno Mondadori, 1986, pp. 219.

Ciudades del siglo de Oro: las vistas españolas de Anton Van, Madrid Ediciones El Viso, 1986, pp. 19/ lám.5.

Barghahn, Barbara Von, Philip IV and the Golden House of the Buen Retiro in the Tra, Nueva York.Londres Garland PublishingInc., 1986, pp. lám.1335.

Lawner, Lynne, Lives of the Courtesans. Portraits of the Renaissance, Nueva York Rizzoli, 1987, pp. 151.

Anatra, Bruno, Venezia e la Spagna, Milan Electa, 1988, pp. 56,83/ lám.58.

Fernandez Miranda y Lozana, Fernando, Inventarios Reales. Carlos III. 1789-1790. Vol. I, Madrid Patrimonio Nacional, 1988, pp. 77.

Hislop, Richard, The Art Sales Index. 1987-1988. Vol. I. Oil Paintings, Water, Leningrado Art Sales Index Ltd, 1988.

Gentili, Augusto, Da Tiziano a Tiziano. Mito e Allegoria Nella Cultura Venezia, Roma Bulzoni Editore, 1988, pp. 162/ lám.79.

Nash, Jane Clinton, Titian's Poesie For Philip II. Tesis Doctoral, Ann Arbor University Microfilms International, 1988, pp. 34,55.

Wilde, Johannes, La pintura veneciana: de Bellini a Ticiano, Madrid Nerea, 1988, pp. 201/ lám.154.

Saxl, Fritz, La vida de las imagenes: estudios iconográficos sobre el art, Madrid Alianza Editorial, 1989, pp. lám.109.

Harris, Enriqueta, Goya's Majas at the National Gallery, Londres The National Gallery, 1990, pp. 12/ lám.12.

Vosters, Simon A., Rubens y España: estudio artistico-literario sobre la estéti, Madrid Cátedra, 1990, pp. 39.

Walther, Angelo, Tizian, Leipzig E.A.Seemann Verlag, 1990, pp. lám.55,59.

Guillaud, M., La Femme Chez Titien, Paris.Nueva York Guillaud Editions, 1990.

Doce artistas de vanguardia en el Museo del Prado:Saura, Bar, Madrid Mondadori, 1990, pp. 166.

Trevor-Roper, Hugh, Príncipes y artistas: mecenazgo e ideología en cuatro Cortes, Madrid Celeste, 1992, pp. 66.

Ferreira, Antonio., Veneza em Ticiano. FUNDAÇAO CALOUSTE GULBENKIAN, 1992, pp. 37.

Checa Cremades, Fernando, Felipe II: mecenas de las artes, Madrid Nerea, 1992, pp. 92,93.

Madrazo, Pedro de (1816-1898), Catálogo de los cuadros del Museo del Prado de Madrid /, Paris [s.n.],, 1993, pp. 585,586.

Stedman Sheard, Wendy., Le siecle de Titien. COLLEGE ART ASSOCIATION, 1994, pp. 86-88.

Checa Cremades, Fernando, Tiziano y la monarquía hispánica: usos y funciones de la pin, Madrid Nerea, 1994, pp. 124; 265-266, n. 36.

Foncea López, Rosana, Santiago: Iconografía Jacobea en la Rioja, New Haven, London Museo de la Rioja, 1994, pp. 220/ lám.125.

Buendía, José Rogelio, El Prado. Colecciones de Pintura, Barcelona Lunwerg Editores, 1994, pp. 266.

Bettagno, Alessandro, El Museo del Prado, Madrid Fonds MercatorFundación Amigos del Museo del Prado, 1996, pp. 206.

Un principe del renacimiento: Felipe II, un monarca y su épo, Madrid Sociedad Estatal para la Commemoración de los centenarios, 1998, pp. 376.

Portús, Javier1961-, La sala reservada y el desnudo en el Museo del Prado, Madrid Museo Nacional del PradoTurner, 2002, pp. 86.

Campenhausen, Britta Von, Eloquente Pittore, Pingente Oratore : Studien Zu Mythologisc, München Scaneg, 2003.

Horky, Mila, Amors Pfeil : Tizian Un Die Erotik in Der Kunst, Bramsche Rasch Drukerei Und Verlag, 2003, pp. 14.

Titian, London Yale University Press, 2003, pp. 132.

Checa Cremades, F., Inventio a la veneciana: las ''poesie'' de Tiziano para el Rey de España. En Historias inmortales, Barcelona, 2003, pp. 145-164.

Falomir Faus, Miguel, Tiziano, Madrid Museo Nacional del Prado, 2003, pp. 236.

Humfrey, Peter (1947-)), The Age of Titian : Venetian Renaissance Art From Scottish C, Edimburg National Galleries of Scotland,, 2004, pp. 26 / lám. 26.

Boccardo, Piero, L'Eta di Rubens : Dimore, Committenti e Collezionisti Genove, Milán Skira, 2004, pp. 250.

Puttfarken, Thomas, Titian & Tragic Painting : Aristotle's Poetics and the Rise, New Haven Yale University Press, 2005, pp. 158.

D'Elia U Na Roman, The Poetics of Titian's Religious Paintings, Cambridge Cambridge Uniersity Press, 2005, pp. 136.

Der späte Tizian : und die Sinnlichkeit der Malerei : Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien, 2007, pp. 232.

Brock, M., Deux observations sur le Tarquin et Lucrèce de Titien : Bulzoni, 2008, pp. 91-116.

Titian, Tintoretto, Veronese : rivals in Renaissance Venice... : MFA : Distributed Art Publishers, 2009, pp. 180, 294.

Titien, Tintoret, Veronèse... :rivalités à Venise : Hazan : Musée du Louvre, 2009, pp. 294-317.

Nichols,T, Defining genres.The survival of mythological painting in counter- reformation Venice : Ashgate, 2009, pp. 119-148.

Alberti, F., Bizzarri componimenti e straordinarie invenzione: la Dánae de Tintoret, une peinture comique, 2009, pp. 11-40.

Le botteghe di Tiziano : Alinari 24 ORE, 2009, pp. 233,235,243,352,367,369.

Cranston, Jodi, The muddied mirror : materiality and figuration in Titian's... : Pennsylvania State University Pre, 2010, pp. 47-73 / 9.

Joannides, P, Titian´s Vienna `Mars and Venus´ its lost pendant and a variant : Sansoni Editore, 2010, pp. 3-27.

National Galleries of Scotland, Titian and the golden age of venetian painting : masterpiece... : Museum of Fine Arts, Houston : In, 2010, pp. 10-24.

Garrard, Mary D., Brunelleschi' s egg : nature, art, and gender in Renaissance... : University of California Press, 2010, pp. 193-236.

Cassegrain, Guillaume, Tintoret : Hazan Editions, 2010, pp. 122.

Luckow, Almuth, Das caritas-motiv in Titians 'Tempelgang der Maria' : IRSA, 2012, pp. 133-152.

Checa Cremades, Fernando, Tiziano y las cortes del Renacimiento Marcial Pons Historia, 2013, pp. 345, f.47.

Zamperini, Alessandra, Paolo Veronese Arsenale, 2013, pp. 284.

Weissert, Caecilie Peosche, Sabine, Büttner, Nils, Zwischen Lust und Frust. Die Kunst in den Niederlanden und am Hof philipps II von Spanien (1527-1598), Koln, Weimar, Wien Böhlau - Weimar, 2013, pp. 176 f.3.

Georgievska-Shine, Aneta Silver, Larry, Rubens, Velázquez, and the King of Spain, Surrey Ashgate, 2014, pp. 16.

Falomir Faus, Miguel, Poesias para Felipe II : Museo del Prado, 2014, pp. 7-15.

Falomir, M. Joannides, P., Dánae y Venus y Adonis: origen y evolución : Museo del Prado, 2014, pp. 16-51 [16-31 fg.24, fg.27].

Molina Cortón, Juan., Dánae. Mito, poder y erotismo en la pintura occidental Cultiva Libros,, 2014, pp. 113-156.

Hope, Charles, Titian's Danae for Philip II of Spain: a clarification. The Burlington Magazine Publications Ltd.,, 2015, pp. 672-677 f.2.

Millner Kahr, Madlyn, Danaë: Virtuous,Voluptuous, Venal Woman THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART, pp. 43-55.

Other inventories +

Inv. Felipe V, Palacio Nuevo, 1747. Núm. 158.
PINTURAS EXISTENTES ANTIGUAS [...] En la tercera pieza [...] {10377} 158 / Otra fabula de la lluvia de oro de dos varas y quarta de largo y mas de vara de cayda original del Ticiano = 15 mil rs

Inv. Carlos III, Palacio Nuevo, 1772. Núm. 36.
Estudio de don Andres de la Calleja [...] {13312} 36 / Otro [quadro] de Danae quando la lluvia de oro de dos varas y media de largo y vara y dos tercias de alto original de dho Ticiano

Inv. Testamentaría Carlos III, Casa de Rebeque, 1794. Núm. 158.
[741] 158 / Mas de dos varas de largo, y vara y media de alto. Danae y Jupiter que se combierte en llubia de oro. Ticiano ... 6000

Academia, Sala Reservada, 1827. Núm. 51.
Danae y Jupiter transformado en lluvia de oro. / [Autor] Tiziano / [Alto] 4 [pies] 8 [pulgs.] / [Ancho] 6 [pies] 6 [pulgs.]

Inv. Testamentaría Fernando VII, Real Museo, Sala Reservada, 1834. Núm. 74.
SETENTA Y QUATRO. Dánae: Colocada bajo de un pabellón encarnado recibe en el seno la llubia de oro: una vieja á sus pies recibe con ansia en la falda parte de la lluvia. / El Ticiano. Veneciana / L. / 200.220

Inv. Real Museo, 1857. Núm. 2342.
Tiziano / 2342. La lluvia de oro. / Ancho 6 pies, 5 pulg; alto 4 pies, 7 pulg, 6 lin.

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1872-1907. Núm. 458.

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1910. Núm. 425.

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1942-1996. Núm. 425.

Exhibitions +

Titian: Danaë, Venus and Adonis. The early poesie
19.11.2014 - 01.03.2015

Exposición didáctica: El Museo del Prado en Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo, República Dominicana
07.07.2011 - 11.10.2011

Titian, Tintoretto, Veronese: Rivals in Renaissance Venice
París
14.09.2009 - 05.01.2010

Tiziano maduro y la sensualidad de la pintura
Viena
17.10.2007 - 06.01.2008

Titian
10.06.2003 - 07.09.2003

Le siecle de titien, de Giorgione a Veronese
París
09.03.1993 - 14.06.1993

Location +

Room 044 (On Display)

Update date: 19-01-2016 | Registry created on 28-04-2015

Other works by Tiziano, Vecellio di Gregorio

Print on demand

Print artworks available in our catalogue in high quality and your preferred size and finish.

Image archive

Request artworks available in our catalogue in digital format.

Up