The itinerary <em>TITULORECORRIDO</em> has been successfully created. Now you can add in works from the Collection browser
<em>TITULOOBRA</em> added to <em>TITULORECORRIDO</em> itinerary

Collection <Back
The Haywain Triptych
El Bosco
Close Continuar a ficha de la obra

El Bosco

S'Hertogenbosch (Holanda), 1450 - S'Hertogenbosch (Holanda), 1516

The Haywain Triptych

1512 - 1515. Oil on panel

Bosch thus shows how man, irrespective of his social class or place of origin, is so possessed by the desire to enjoy and acquire material possessions that he allows himself to be deceived or seduced by the Devil. Thus the artist proposes that we should renounce earthly goods and the delights of the senses in order to avoid eternal damnation. The painting offers an exemplum of a different type to the ones commonly used at the time, in the sense that it is not a question of doing good but rather of avoiding evil and of adhering to this rule throughout life. In the closed triptych Bosch depicted the subject of the Pilgrimage of Life in full colour, rather than in grisaille or semi-grisaille as in the Rotterdam version of the subject. He shows a pedlar dressed in rags bent under the weight of his basket on his back and defending himself with his stick against a threatening dog. Despite his weak state, he has been able to fight off an attack of bandits and leave behind the pair of shepherds dancing to the bagpipe, which refers to lust. On the pilgrimage of his journey without destination, the direction of which is unknown to him, he has succeeded in avoiding the dangers of the road and knows that he must press on despite not knowing what may await him when he crosses the bridge. In the underdrawing Bosch depicted a cross behind the bridge which he eliminated in the final stage of execution, replacing it with a crucifix in a small altar located in the low tree beneath which a bagpipe-playing shepherd is seated, without anyone being aware of its presence. Every figure has its back to it and all of them have forgotten God, as in The Haywain.

The inside of the triptych is devoted to sin. The left panel depicts its origin, from the expulsion of the rebel angels to the expulsion from Paradise. Worthy of special mention is the way Bosch depicted the angels cast out of heaven for disobeying God, who metamorphose into monstrous hybrid figures. In the foreground the artist draws attention particular to the expulsion of Adam and Eve from Paradise. The Archangel, his sword raised, prevents them from crossing the raised, anthropomorphic bridge that separates Paradise -the setting for the creation of Eve and the serpent’s tempting of her- from the world in which the life of man takes place following Adam and Eve’s sin.

In the central panel Bosch shows humanity dragged along by sin, following behind a haywain, which illustrates the verse from Isaiah 40: 6: All flesh is like grass, and all its glory like the flowers of the field, referring to the ephemeral and perishable nature of earthly things. At the same time he illustrates a Flemish proverb which runs: The world is like a haywain and each man takes what he can. Attentively watched by Christ the Redeemer, all the different classes of society try to grab a handful of the hay, including the clergy, who are censured here for vices such as avarice and lust. Furthermore, they will stop at nothing to achieve their aim. In the meantime, daily life is seen taking place in the foreground, from the women looking after their children and going about their daily tasks to the tooth-puller. In contrast, the figures trying to get on to the wagon by whatever means they can fail to notice the devilish figures driving it who are leading them straight to Hell. Even less aware is the crowd following the haywain, led by the powerful of the earth riding on horseback -the Pope; the Emperor, wearing a crown similar to that of God the Father; a king, whose fleursde- lys on his crown associate him with the king of France; and a duke wearing a Burgundian headdress. Located between the despair of the guardian angel looking up towards Christ and the devil playing the trumpet, on the top of the haywain lust triumphs, encouraged by the music that accompanies the wealthy couple seated on the cart while their two servants frolic among the vegetation behind them.

In the right-hand panel Bosch depicts Hell in an equally innovative manner. In contrast to his other depictions of it, this one is still in the making. Like builders, the devils hurry to complete the circular tower, carrying their building materials up a long ladder located in the same position as the one that leans against the haywain, while others prepare the mortar in order to build the tower’s walls even higher. Concentrating on their labours, they have their backs to the devils who constantly bring in new sinners to receive their punishments.

The underdrawing is executed with brush and a very liquid medium. Owing to the thin, transparent nature of the pictorial layer, it has risen to the surface and is very visible in numerous places. In general, Bosch drew rapidly in this work, using simple lines of a schematic type to locate the principal elements of the composition. In some cases he reinforced the outlines of the figures and the folds of their clothes. The faces have almost caricatural shapes and the artist frequently drew them with just a few dots to indicate the eyes, nose and mouth. Only a very few areas are more fully modelled, such as the angel on the haywain looking up to Heaven, and particularly the Archangel expelling Adam and Eve from Paradise. On the Archangel’s mantel Bosch drew very close parallel lines adapted in length and design to the forms of the folds and similar to those to be seen in other works of this late period, such as the Saint Anthony Triptych in Lisbon. A few other zones have less complete modelling, particularly in the clothing as well as in some body parts, including the faces. Rather than significant changes, in general the underdrawing phase reveals changes of position of lesser degrees of importance and, above all, corrections. There are also differences between the underdrawing and the pictorial layer. Some of the drawn elements were not ultimately painted, such as the cross next to the bridge on the outer wings, as mentioned above.

The existence of various references to different versions of The Haywain, two of them in Spain (the original in the Museo del Prado and the copy in El Escorial) has given rise to a degree of confusion about their origins. There are no documentary references to confirm the provenance or the intended destination of these two works, both signed, but it is known that in 1570 Philip II purchased one of them from the heirs of the collector and courtier Felipe de Guevara (c. 1500-1563) although it is not known where the king had it sent. Given the date when he acquired it, everything would seem to suggest that the one that belonged to the Guevaras was the painting that came to the monastery among the first group of works sent there by the King in 1574 and that it has remained there ever since. Felipe de Guevara, who must have inherited the painting from his father, Diego de Guevara, considered it to be an original by Bosch and it appears as such in the document recording its sale by Guevara’s heirs to Philip II. Furthermore, some scholars believed it to be by Bosch himself until technical analyses made it clear that it was a copy of the original in the Prado. As for the present triptych in the Museo del Prado, its provenance and the moment it entered the Spanish royal collections are not known. However, Bosch could have painted it during the reign of Philip II and the King could in fact have acquired it before Guevara acquired his, if one considers the reference to it in a text by the humanist Ambrosio de Morales. In his study of Morales’s text, Abdón Salazar concluded that the author had included this reference to the triptych belonging to the Spanish monarch when he published his text in 1586, by which date the Guevara version was in El Escorial, and not in or before 1549, when he wrote it. Otherwise, at the present time the only thing that can be stated with certainty regarding the triptych in the Prado is that it is recorded for the first time in the inventory of the Alcázar in Madrid of 1636 (Text drawn from Silva, P.: Bosch. The 5th Centenary Exhibition, Museo Nacional del Prado, 2016, pp. 283-291).

Check the encyclopaedia

Multimedia

Technical data

Inventory number
P02052
Author
El Bosco
Title
The Haywain Triptych
Date
1512 - 1515
Technique
Oil
Support
Panel
Dimension
Height including frame: 147.1 cm.; Width including frame: 224.3 cm.
Provenance
Alcázar de Madrid, 1636; Casa de Campo, Madrid, 1788; broken up during the Peninsular Wars. Central panel (The Haywain): collection of the I Marquis of Salamanca (1811-1883); acquired in 1848 by Isabel II, who sent it to the Palace of Aranjuez, then to the monastery of El Escorial, where it remained until 1914. Left panel (Paradise): Museo del Prado, 1839. Right panel (Hell): in the Monastery of El Escorial until 1914; Alfonso XIII ceded the right and central panels to the Museo del Prado in 1914 in order to complete the triptych; the complete triptych has been in the Museo del Prado since 1914.

Bibliography +

Ponz, Antonio, Viage de España. Vol. I, II, Joachin Ibarra, Madrid, 1773, pp. 152.

Justi, Carl, Miscellaneen aus drei Jahrhunderten spanischen Kunstlebens, G.Grote, Berlin, 1908, pp. 80.

Lafond, Paul, Hieronymus Bosch. Son Art, Son Influence, Ses Disciples, G.Van Oest, Bruselas.Paris, 1914.

Fierens-Gevaert, Hippolyte, Histoire de la Peinture Flamande des Origines a la Fin du XV, G.Van Oest, Paris.Bruselas, 1929.

Daniel, Howard, Jheronimus Bosch. Jerome Bosch Van Aeken, Hyperion, Paris, 1947, pp. 19, 21, 22.

Brans, J.V.L., Hieronymus Bosch (El Bosco) en el Prado y en el Escorial, Omega, Barcelona, 1948, pp. 54.

Pigler, A, Astrology and Jerome Bosch, The Burlington Magazine, 92, 1950, pp. 132-136.

Benesch, Otto, Hieronymus Bosch and the Thinking of the Late Middle Ages. S, Sartryck Ur Konsthistorisk Tidskrif, Viena, 1957, pp. 104, 105.

Pemán, Cesar, Sobre la interpretación del viandante al reverso del Carro de Heno de El Bosco., Archivo español de arte, 34, 1961, pp. 125.

Dohmann, Albrecht, Die Altniederlandische Malerei des Funfzehnten Jahrhunderts, E.A.Seemann BuchUnd Kunstverlag, Leipzig, 1964, pp. lám.262.

De Tolnay, Charles, Hieronymus Bosch, Reynal and CompanyWilliam Morrow and Company, Baden-Baden, 1965, pp. 118, 355.

Mateo Gómez, Isabel, El Bosco en España, Instituto Diego Velázquez, del C.S.I.C., Madrid, 1965, pp. 23, 24/ lám.28-36.

Friedländer, Max J., Tout L'Oeuvre Peint de Jerome Bosch, Flammarion, Paris, 1967, pp. 19-22.

Boon, K.G., Jheronimus Bosch, Hieronymus Bosch Exhibition Foundat, 's-Hertongenbosch, 1967, pp. lám.4-7.

Buzatti, Dino, La obra pictórica completa de el Bosco, Noguer, Barcelona.Madrid, 1968.

Elmer, L., Hieronymus Bosch Den Forste Surrealisten, [s.n], 1969, pp. 13.

Friedländer, Max J., Early netherlandish painting, A.W.Sijthoff, Leyden-Bruselas, 1969.

Reutersward, Patrik, Hieronymus Bosch, Rudolf Zeidter, Upsala, 1970, pp. láms.21-23.

Linfert, Carl, Hieronymus Bosch, Harry N.AbramsInc., Nueva York, 1971, pp. 16-18, 56-62/ láms.18,20,21.

Mateos, Isabel, El Bosco, Reales Sitios: Revista del Patrimonio Nacional, 1971, pp. 44.

Einem, H.Von, Zur Deutung des Heuwagentriptychons Von Hieronymus Bosch, Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, Gottingen, 1975, pp. 3-20.

Rowlands, John, Bosch, Faidon, Londres, 1975, pp. lám.6-13.

Schuder, Rosemarie, Hieronymus Bosch, Union Verlag, Berlin, 1975, pp. lám.11-13.

Goertz, Heinrich, Hieronymus Bosch in Selbtzeugenissen Und Bilddokumenten, Rowohlt, Hamburgo, 1977, pp. 46, 111.

Chailley, Jacques, Jérôme Bosch et ses symboles: essai de décryptage, Académie Royale de Belgique, Bruselas, 1978, pp. 117-130.

Bax, Dirk, Hieronymus Bosch. His Picture-Writing Deciphered, A.A.Balkema, Rotterdam, 1979.

Tuttle, Virginia, Boch's image of poverty, The Art Bulletin, 1981, pp. 88-95.

Bango Torviso, Isidro, Bosch: realidad, símbolo y fantasía, Silex, Vitoria, 1982, pp. 155.

Joiner, Dorothy Marie, Hieronymus Bosch and the Esoteric Tradition. Tesis Doctoral, University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, 1982, pp. lám.3.

Bermejo, Elisa, La pintura de los primitivos flamencos en España, C.S.I.C., Instituto Diego Velázquez, Madrid, 1982.

Graziani, René, Bosch's wanderer and a poverty commonplace fron Juvenal, Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 45, 1982, pp. 211-216.

Prevenir, Walter, Les Pays-Bas Bourguignons, AlbinMichel, Paris, 1983, pp. 128.

Erlande-Brandenburg, Alain, L'art gothique, Éditions d'Art Lucien Mazenod, Paris, 1983, pp. 299/ lám.121.

Vallese, Glloria, Il tema della follia nell'arte di Bosch. Iconografia e stile, Paragone Arte: Rivista Mensile di Arte Figurativa e Letteratura Fondata da Roberto Longhi, 34, 1983.

Morganstern, Anne M., Notes the rest of Bosch's ship of fools, The art bulletin, 66 (2), 1984, pp. 300/ lám.10.

Barghahn, Barbara Von., Age of Gold, Age of Iron. Renaissance Spain and Symbols of M, University Press of America, Lanham.Nueva York, 1985, pp. lám.747.

Marijnissen, Roger H., Hieronymus Bosch. The Complete Works, Tabard Press, Amberes, 1987, pp. 52-59.

Mander, Karel Van, Hirneves Nemetalfodi Es Nemet Festok Elete, Helikon Kiado, Budapest, 1987, pp. lám.24.

Araujo, Ceferino, Dos trípticos del Bosco, Revista de Archivos, Bibliotecas y Museos, 1987, pp. 528.

Hollander, Hans, Hieronimus Bosch. Weiltbilder Und Traumwerk, Dumont Buchverlag, Colonia, 1988, pp. 35/ láms.8-11.

Linfert, Carl, Jerome Bosch, Editions Cercle D'Art, Paris, 1988, pp. 16-18, 56-63.

Falkenburg, Reindert L., Joachim Patinir. Landscape As An Image of the Pilgrimage of, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam.Filadelfia, 1988, pp. lám.43.

Matilla Tascón, Antonio, Felipe II adquiere pinturas del Bosco y Patinir, Goya, 1988, pp. 259.

Museo Nacional del Prado, La pintura flamenca en el Prado, Ibercaja Fonds Mercator, Amberes, 1989, pp. 57.

Delevoy, R.L., Bosch, Skira, Ginebra, 1990, pp. 33.

Bosing, W., Jerome Bosch Environ 1450-1516. Entre Le Ciel et L'Enfer, Benedikt Taschen Verlag, Colonia, 1990, pp. 47.

Checa Cremades, Fernando, Felipe II: mecenas de las artes, Nerea, Madrid, 1992, pp. 437.

Bildbefragung von, Rose-Marie; Rainer, Hagen, Ein Wagen rollt in den Abgrund der ewigen Verdammnis, Art das Kunstmagazin, 11, 1992, pp. 96-101.

Les primitifs flamands et leur temps, La Renaissance du Livre, Belgique, 1994, pp. 446.

Marijnissen, Roger H., Bosch, Electa, Milano, 1995, pp. 24.

Schwartz, Gary, Hieronymus Bosch, Harry N.Abrams, New York, 1997, pp. 81.

Mateo, Isabel, El peregrino de la vida humana del Bosco, Archivo español de arte, 70 (279), 1997, pp. 297.

Un príncipe del renacimiento: Felipe II, un monarca y su época, Sociedad Estatal para la Conmemoración de los centenarios de Felipe II y Carlos V, Madrid, 1998, pp. 450.

Carolus. Charles Quint 1500-1558., Snoeck: Ducaju & Zoom, Gand, 1999, pp. 137.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Pintura flamenca de los siglos XV y XVI: guía, Museo del PradoAldeasa, Madrid, 2001, pp. 184.

The World of Bosch, Heine Uitgevers, Hertogenbosch, 2001, pp. 116.

Koldeweij, Jos, Hieronymus Bosch. New Insights Into His Life and Work, Nai Publishers, Rotterdam/Ludion Gen, 2001, pp. 21, 31.

Mateo, Isabel, 'La pintura flamenca en El Escorial: Roger van der Weyden'..En, El Monasterio del Escorial y la pintura. (Instituto Escurialense de Investigaciones Históricas. Actas del simposium 1/5-IX-2001), San Lorenzo De El Escorial, 2001, pp. 17.

Hieronymus Bosch. Das Gesamtwerk, Belser Verlag, 2001.

Silver, Larry, God in detail: Bosch and judgment(s), The art bulletin, 83 (4), 2001, pp. 636-637.

Garrido Pérez, Carmen, El Bosco en el Museo del Prado. Estudio TÉcnico, Museo del Prado Aldeasa, Madrid, 2001, pp. 123.

Bozal, Valeriano, 'Cómico, grotesco y mortal. El Bosco y Brueghel' en Historias Mortales: La vida cotidiana en el arte, GALAXIA GUTENBERG, Barcelona, 2004, pp. 165.

Elsig, Frédéric., Jheronimus Bosch. La question de la chronologie, Droz, Genève, 2004, pp. 32-46 L.3 fg.7, fg.8.

Hartau, Johannes, Bosch and the Jews, Anales del Instituo de Investigaciones Estéticas, Mexico, 86, 2005, pp. 42-44 / lám. 10 y 11.

Rudolf, Karl Friedrich, 'El carro en el siglo XV' en Historia del carruaje en España, Fomento de Construcciones y Contratas, Madrid, 2005, pp. 88.

Hartau, Johannaes, Das neue Triptychon von Hieronymus Bosch als Allegorie über den 'unnützen Reichtum', Zeitschrift fur Kunstgeschichte, 68 (3), 2005, pp. 326-329 / lám. 14 y 15.

Enciclopedia del Museo del Prado, II, T.F. Editores: Fundación Amigos, Madrid, 2006, pp. 652.

Marijnissen, Roger H., Jérôme Bosch : Tout l' oeuvre peint et dessiné, Mercatorfonds, 2007, pp. 52.

Pinson, Yona, The fools' journey : a myth of obsession in northern Renaissance, Brepols, 2008, pp. 124-148,149-174.

Ausoni, Alberto, Music in art, J. Paul Getty Museum, 2009, pp. 54.

Fischer, Stefan, Hieronymus Bosch : malerei als vision, lehrbild und kunstwer..., Böhlau, Colonia, 2009, pp. fig. 19.

Gibson, Walter S., Figures of speech : picturing proverbs in Renaissance Nether..., University of California Press, 2010, pp. 39-79.

El nacimiento de una pintura : de lo visile a lo invisible, Consorci de Museus de la Comunita, 2010, pp. 14-29.

Sullivan, Margaret, Bruegel and the creative process, 1559-1563, Ashgate, 2010, pp. 143-173.

Vermet, B., On the genealogy of a composition: tracing the roots of 'Christ Driving the Trades from Temple'. En: 'On the trail of Bosch and Bruegel. Four paintings united under Cross-examination', Archetype Publications, London, 2012, pp. 11-20, n. 2.

García-Frías Checa, Carmen, 'De la grandeza y variedad de la pintura que hay en esta casa' La colección pictórica de Felipe II en El Monasterio de El Escorialo, De El Bosco a Tiziano: arte y maravilla en El Escorial, Patrimonio Nacional, Madrid, 2013, pp. 35-51 [41].

Saénz de Miera, Jesús, 'Desengañar al vulgo y más que vulgo' y escribir para 'gente que repara poco en lo que mira' Felipe de Guevara, Fray José de Sigüenza y los Boscos de El Escorial, De El Bosco a Tiziano: arte y maravilla en El Escorial, Patrimonio Nacional, Madrid, 2013, pp. 53-63 [56 f.29].

Blanco, Miguel Angel, Historias naturales: un proyecto de Miguel Ángel Blanco, Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, 2013, pp. 56-59 119.

Krischel, Roland, Bilder die klappen zurkinetik religiöser gemälde im spätmittelalterlichen köln., Wallraf-Richartz-Jahrbuch, LXXV, 2014, pp. 51-130 [108-110 f.19.a - c].

España e Inglaterra: Juan Luis Vives y Tomás Moro., Consorcio de Museos de la Comunidad de Valencia, Valencia, 2014, pp. 28.

De Bruyn, Eric, 'Jheronimus Bosch: his patrons and his public. What we know and would like to know' En:, Jheronimus Bosch, his patrons and his public . International Jheronimus Bosch Conference (3trd) 16-18 september 2012. 's-Hertogenbosch, 2014, pp. 14-17 [24].

Pérez de Tudela, Almudena, 'Acceptance of Bosch's works by courtiers during the reing of Philip II: new examples' En:, Jheronimus Bosch, his patrons and his public . International Jheronimus Bosch Conference (3trd) 16-18 september 2012. 's-Hertogenbosch, 2014, pp. 190-205 [193,198].

Vázquez Dueñas, E, 'Bosch: more than just an Inventor of Monsters and Chimeras. Felipe de Guevara and his commentary on painting and ancient painters' En:, Jheronimus Bosch, his patrons and his public . International Jheronimus Bosch Conference (3trd) 16-18 september 2012. 's-Hertogenbosch, 2014, pp. 284-304 [291].

Colenbrander, H, 'Jheronimus Bosch and Diego de Guevara: 'the third' Haywain' En:, Jheronimus Bosch, his patrons and his public . International Jheronimus Bosch Conference (3trd) 16-18 september 2012. 's-Hertogenbosch, 2014, pp. 84-102.

Withee, Diana K., 'Some additions to Bosch's circle of noble patrons' En:, Jheronimus Bosch, his patrons and his public . International Jheronimus Bosch Conference (3trd) 16-18 september 2012. 's-Hertogenbosch, 2014, pp. 334-363 [350].

van de Coelen, P. Lammertse, F, De ontdekking van het dagelijks leven van Bosch tot Bruegel., Museum Boijmans van Beuningen, 2015, pp. 56-60 fg.45 n.13.

Santos Bueso, Enrique, Oftalmología en el Museo del Prado, Gertograf, 2015, pp. 56.

El Bosco en El Escorial : [V Centenario]., Patrimonio Nacional,, Madrid, 2016, pp. 10-13 26-27.

Bosch Research and Conservation Project, Jérôme Bosch. Peintre et dessinateur. Catalogue raisonné, Actes sud,, 2016, pp. 336-355 n.20.

BRCP, Hieronymus Bosch. Painter and draughtsman, technical studies., Mercatorfonds ; Yale University Press,, 2016, pp. n.20 296-313,456.

Silva, Pilar, 'El Bosco. Tríptico del carro de heno' En:, El Bosco. La exposición del V Centenario, Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, 2016, pp. n.35 283-291.

Bruyn, Eric de, 'Textos e imágenes: Las fuentes del arte del Bosco.' En:, El Bosco : la exposición del V Centenario, Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, 2016, pp. 73-89 [75,77,78,83,87, il.11.2 11.3,11.8].

Other inventories +

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1854-1858. Núm. 460.

Inv. Real Museo, 1857. Núm. 460.
Bosch. / 460. Caída de los ángeles rebeldes, formación del hombre y de la muger, tentación de la serpiente y salida del paraiso terrenal. / Estos diversos hechos del Génesis forman un solo cuadro de diversos términos. Adán y Eva hechados del Paraiso ocupan el primero, como el más cercano á nosotros, al paso que la caida de Luzbel está representada en la mas remota lontananza. (E.) (Tabla.) / Alto 4 pies, 10 pulg, 6 lin; Ancho 1 pie, 8 pulg, 6 lin.

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1872-1907. Núm. 1179.

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1910. Núm. 2052.

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1942-1996. Núm. 2052.

Exhibitions +

Bosch. The 5th Centenary Exhibition
31.05.2016 - 11.09.2016

El Bosco
'S-Hertogenbosch
11.02.2016 - 08.05.2016

From Bosch to Bruegel. The Beginnings of Genre Painting in the Low Countries
Rotterdam
10.10.2015 - 24.01.2016

Historias Naturales
Madrid
19.11.2013 - 27.04.2014

Los trípticos cerrados del Museo del Prado. De grisalla a color
05.11.2012 - 26.05.2013

Patinir
03.07.2007 - 07.10.2007

Location +

Room A (Temporary Exhibition)

Exposición Temporal
Update date: 30-06-2016 | Registry created on 28-04-2015

Other works by El Bosco

Prado Shop

Print on demand

Print artworks available in our catalogue in high quality and your preferred size and finish.

Image archive

Request artworks available in our catalogue in digital format.

Up