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Religion assisted by Spain
Oil on canvas. 1572 - 1575
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)
Religion assisted by Spain
Oil on canvas. 1572 - 1575
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)

Religion succoured by Spain (c.1572-75), belongs to the last group of paintings that Titian sent to Philip II in 1576, one year before the artist’s death. As such, it is almost seven decades older than the earliest work by Titian, The Virgin and Child between Saint Anthony of Padua and Saint Roch (P288), c.1510. Contemplating the two together allows viewers to recognise and admire Titian’s excepti

Allegory of the Education of Philip III
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1590
Tiel, Justus
Allegory of the Education of Philip III
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1590
Tiel, Justus

Philip III (1578-1621) was the son of Philip II and his fourth wife, Anne of Austria. Tiel portrays Philip while he was heir to the throne. He is depicted standing, full-length, and wearing an elaborate suit of Milanese armour and a helmet. Like Hercules at the Crossroads, he must choose between Virtue and Vice, helped by Chronos who pushes Cupid away while bringing the figure of Virtue closer to

The Judgement of Paris
Oil on panel. 1606 - 1608
Rubens, Peter Paul
The Judgement of Paris
Oil on panel. 1606 - 1608
Rubens, Peter Paul

As Homer tells it in The Iliad, Paris the shepherd, son of Priam, had to decide with of the three goddesses —Juno, Venus or Minerva— was the most beautiful, and give her the golden apple Mercury he had received from Mercury. On the left, Paris appears to be meditating, with the apple still in his hands. His attention is focused on Venus, in the middle of the composition. Minerva´s weapons are visi

Achilles discovered among the Daughters of Lycomedes
Oil on panel. 1630 - 1635
Rubens, Peter Paul (And Workshop)
Achilles discovered among the Daughters of Lycomedes
Oil on panel. 1630 - 1635
Rubens, Peter Paul (And Workshop)

A model for the tapestry on the same subject that belongs to a series of eight about the Greek hero. The Story of Achilles is smaller than other projects by Rubens, but the quality of its sketches, models and tapestries make it one of his most important."Betrayed", wrote the seventeenth-century painter Pieter van Lint on his small drawing after one of the versions of the tapestry depicting Achille

The Judgement of Paris
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1638
Rubens, Peter Paul
The Judgement of Paris
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1638
Rubens, Peter Paul

The mythological story of the Judgment of Paris begins with the wedding of Thetis and Peleus, where Eris, goddess of Discord, challenged the most beautiful goddesses to take a golden apple which she threw among the guests. Juno, Minerva and Venus started to argue and Jupiter decided to give the apple to Mercury and let Paris be the judge of this dispute. This judgment is told by the Roman poet Ovi

The Recapture of Bahía de Todos los Santos
Oil on canvas. 1634 - 1635
Maíno, Fray Juan Bautista
The Recapture of Bahía de Todos los Santos
Oil on canvas. 1634 - 1635
Maíno, Fray Juan Bautista

The Recapture of Bahía de Todos los Santos was commissioned from Maíno towards the end of 1634. The artist was still working on it on 24 March 1635, date on which he received the first 18,600 maravedíes on account, corresponding to an order of payment from the Chief Notary of the Council of Aragon, Jerónimo de Villanueva (died 1653). Maíno completed the painting

The Rape of Proserpine
Oil on canvas. 1636 - 1637
Rubens, Peter Paul -Painter- (And Workshop)
The Rape of Proserpine
Oil on canvas. 1636 - 1637
Rubens, Peter Paul -Painter- (And Workshop)

Proserpine, daughter of the earth goddess Ceres, was kidnapped by Pluto, the god of the underworld. Despite the resistance put up by Minerva, Venus and Diana, their relationship would blossom into love, as revealed by the presence of the cupids holding the chariot reigns and urging the horses on. This story of passion was part of the decoration of the Torre de la Parada.

Marriage of Peleus and Thetis
Oil on canvas. 1636 - 1638
Jordaens, Jacques
Marriage of Peleus and Thetis
Oil on canvas. 1636 - 1638
Jordaens, Jacques

As with the Rape of Hippodamia (P01658), this marriage scene was commissioned from Rubens as part of the mythological cycle drawn from Ovid´s Metamorphoses, which was to serve as the main artistic decoration of the Torre de la Parada. While Rubens prepared the oil sketch for the scene (Art Institute of Chicago), the Marriage of Peleus and Thetis was one of the numerous full-scale canvases whose ex

Cadmus and Minerva
Oil on canvas. 1636 - 1638
Jordaens, Jacques
Cadmus and Minerva
Oil on canvas. 1636 - 1638
Jordaens, Jacques

La historia de Cadmo y la aparición de Minerva aparece en el libro III de las Metamorfosis (95-114): "(...) Mientras el vencedor calcula el tamaño del enemigo vencido, se oyó de repente una voz; no era posible saber de donde venía, pero se oyó: "¿Por qué miras, hijo de Agénor, la serpiente que has matado? También tú serás serpiente y te mirarán" (...)Deslizándose por el cielo aparece Palas y le or

The Sciences and the Arts
Oil on panel. Ca. 1650
Stalbent, Adriaen Van
The Sciences and the Arts
Oil on panel. Ca. 1650
Stalbent, Adriaen Van

A group of scholars discuss various questions in a room. Some are sitting around tables while others contemplate some of the many paintings and art objects scattered around the room. Depictions of dilettantes or aficionados in collectors´ galleries or rooms ornamented with art objects constituted a customary genre among seventeenth-century Flemish painters, glorifying the practice of collecting as

The judgement of Paris
Oil on canvas. 1650 - 1660
Albani, Francesco
The judgement of Paris
Oil on canvas. 1650 - 1660
Albani, Francesco

Francesco Albani was a much favoured pupil of Annibale Carracci. His success was partially due to mythological paintings such as The toilet of Venus (P1) and The judgement of Paris (P2), whose refined and lyrical view of nature helped disseminate the classical ideals of the Carracci`s landscapes.Albani`s The judgement of Paris, c.1650-60, shows the shepherd prince admiring the beauty of three godd

The Spinners, or the Fable of Arachne
Oil on canvas. 1655 - 1660
Velázquez, Diego Rodríguez de Silva y
The Spinners, or the Fable of Arachne
Oil on canvas. 1655 - 1660
Velázquez, Diego Rodríguez de Silva y

This painting is the result of two acts carried out in different periods. First, Velázquez painted the surface occupied by the figures and the tapestry in the background. Later, in the 18th century, a wide strip (with the arch and oculus) was added to the top, along with narrower ones on the left, right and bottom (these additions are not visible in the current presentation of this work). T

Vault with the Apotheosis of the Spanish Monarchy
Fresco-secco, Fresco painting on wall covering. Ca. 1697
Giordano, Luca
Vault with the Apotheosis of the Spanish Monarchy
Fresco-secco, Fresco painting on wall covering. Ca. 1697
Giordano, Luca

The vault of the former Hall of Ambassadors at the Buen Retiro Palace, constructed alongside the former Royal Quarters of San Jerónimo at the behest of the Count-Duke of Olivares as a royal residence for leisure and for the monarchs’ public and official receptions. In the eastern part of this complex, a small building was erected after the palace itself was completed (1632). It was designed

Olympus. The Battle of the Giants
Oil on canvas. 1767 - 1768
Bayeu, Francisco
Olympus. The Battle of the Giants
Oil on canvas. 1767 - 1768
Bayeu, Francisco

Francisco Bayeu, who came from minor nobility, trained in Zaragoza under José Luzán (who, years later, would also teach Francisco de Goya). However, a decisive change in the young Bayeu´s style came about under the influence of Antonio González Velázquez (1723-93), who visited Zaragoza soon after returning from Italy in 1752, carrying models and drawings by his Italian

Garland of Flowers with Minerva and Mercury
Oil on panel. Ca. 1790
Espinós, Benito
Garland of Flowers with Minerva and Mercury
Oil on panel. Ca. 1790
Espinós, Benito

Espinós structures his composition into three contrasting parts, including a mythological scene with two sculptural Olympian gods in the centre. They are surrounded by a large and colourful garland of flowers, while in the foreground we see a pedestal and another stone element with low-relief decoration. The result is a harmonious composition that combines contrasting elements to great deco

Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos
Oil on canvas. 1798
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos
Oil on canvas. 1798
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos was one of the most illustrious representatives of the Spanish Enlightenment, a man of letters, writer and poet, as well as a statesman with advanced ideas. Born in Gijón in 1744, he received his Doctorate in Law from the University of Salamanca. He was interested in art and admired Goya from early on, having commissioned him to paint his portrait shortly after

Charles IV and his Family honoured by the University of Valencia
Oil on canvas. 1802
López Portaña, Vicente
Charles IV and his Family honoured by the University of Valencia
Oil on canvas. 1802
López Portaña, Vicente

During his visit to Valencia in 1802, the Literary University of the city gave the King this painting which shows the university, personified as a young matron, introducing the royal family to the various faculties: Theology, Law, Philosophy and Medicine. They are accompanied by the goddess Minerva, who points to Peace, Victory and Abundance, who fly over this symbolic reception.

Minerva
Pencil, Pencil ground, Grey-brown ink, Wash on paper. XVI century
Anonymous
Minerva
Pencil, Pencil ground, Grey-brown ink, Wash on paper. XVI century
Anonymous

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