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The Birth of the Virgin. The Annunciation. The Adoration of the Shepherds
Oil on panel. Before 1550
Coxcie, Michiel
The Birth of the Virgin. The Annunciation. The Adoration of the Shepherds
Oil on panel. Before 1550
Coxcie, Michiel

This triptych was made for the cathedral of Saints Michael and Gudule in Brussels and later sold "to Spain for a very high price" according to Carel van Mander (1604). Philip II donated it to El Escorial in 1586. A fine Romanist, Coxcie remained faithful to what he had learned in Italy: the old lady reading in The Nativity is a copy of the Persian Sybil that Michelangelo painted in the dome of the

Expulsion of the Merchants from the Temple
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1568
Bassano, Jacopo (Jacopo Dal Ponte)
Expulsion of the Merchants from the Temple
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1568
Bassano, Jacopo (Jacopo Dal Ponte)

Although for this first version Jacopo borrowed elements from early works such as the young man peeking his head round the column, which appears in the 1536 La fornace ardente (Bassano del Grappa, Museo Civico), he drew mainly from Stefano Cernotto´s Expulsion of the Merchants from the Temple (Venice, Accademia, deposited at the Ceni Foundation). Cernotto, an artist of Dalmatian origin who worked

Rest on the Flight into Egypt
Oil on panel. 1520 - 1530
Anonymous
Rest on the Flight into Egypt
Oil on panel. 1520 - 1530
Anonymous

Aún no se ha identificado a su autor; pero en algunos aspectos coincide con las obras salidas del taller de Joos van Cleve, que también colaboró con Patinir representando figuras para sus escenas de paisaje, igual que hizo Quintin Massys en Las tentaciones de San Antonio Abad (P1615). Por lo que se refiere al paisaje, las obras de van Cleve están mucho más trabajadas en superficie que las de Patin

The penitent Saint Jerome
Oil on panel. 1525 - 1530
Anonymous
The penitent Saint Jerome
Oil on panel. 1525 - 1530
Anonymous

Located against a background landscape resembling those of Joachim Patinir (c. 1480-1524), Saint Jerome kneels in prayer before a crucifix and skull. In this case he is not depicted inside a cave or by its entrance. His red robe and hat identify him as a cardinal while the book refers to his role as a Father of the Church and the translator of the Bible into Latin. Behind him is the lion who accom

The Archery Contest
Oil on panel. Ca. 1645
Teniers The Younger, David
The Archery Contest
Oil on panel. Ca. 1645
Teniers The Younger, David

A group of villagers pass the time by testing their aim with a bow. One shoots at the target placed in the ruins of a wall while the others look on, standing or sitting, and a small group converse. The horizontal layout of this composition is more pronounced than in other scenes by this painter, which reinforces the idea of movement in the event. Stylistic motives like the evening light that flood

Saint Cecilia
Oil on canvas. 1569
Coxcie, Michiel
Saint Cecilia
Oil on canvas. 1569
Coxcie, Michiel

Saint Cecile has been associated with music since the fifteenth century. Here she appears playing the clavichord, an instrument with which she is customarily portrayed in renaissance works. Three singing angels accompany the saint. In this work, Coxcie reflects his knowledge of the work of Raphael and his followers, which was the result of his trip to Rome between 1530 and 1539. This influence can

Federico Gonzaga, Ist Duke of Mantua
Oil on panel. 1529
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)
Federico Gonzaga, Ist Duke of Mantua
Oil on panel. 1529
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)

On 16 April 1529 Federico II Gonzaga, First Duke of Mantua (1500-1540), apologised to his uncle Alfonso d’Este for retaining Titian: perché ha conienzo un retratto mio qual molto desidero sii finito (because he has started a portrait of me which I greatly desire to be finished). In 1530 a second portrait of Federico in armour is also recorded. Typologically and conceptually, the present por

River Landscape with Fishing Boats and a Windmill on the Bank
Oil on panel. XVII century
Hulst, Frans Anthonisz. de
River Landscape with Fishing Boats and a Windmill on the Bank
Oil on panel. XVII century
Hulst, Frans Anthonisz. de

Until 1920, this painting appears in the Prado catalogues as an original by Cornelis Molenaer (1530/50-1589). However, in the 1889 edition it is noted that Bredius believes it to have been painted by Pieter Nolpe (1613-1653). This attribution was officially accepted by the Museum from 1933 until the 1985 catalogue, when it is ascribed to Jan Coelenbier (1610-1680), as proposed by Valdivieso and su

The Emperor Charles V
Oil on canvas. 1605
Pantoja de la Cruz, Juan
The Emperor Charles V
Oil on canvas. 1605
Pantoja de la Cruz, Juan

A fire in El Pardo Palace on March 13, 1604, destroyed the portraits in the Hall of Kings. These portraits had been painted by the finest artists of the time, including Titian, Antonio Moro, Alonso Sánchez Coello, and Sofonisba Anguisciola. Encased in stucco frames attached to the walls of the gallery, which had been organized by Sánchez Coello at the behest of Philip II, these portr

Saint John the Baptist
Oil on canvas. 1550 - 1555
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)
Saint John the Baptist
Oil on canvas. 1550 - 1555
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)

This work joins the two known compositions on this subject by the artist, one in the Galleria dell’Accademia in Venice (ca. 1530-1532) and the other in El Escorial (1565-1570). When he produced a painting Titian would generally execute a copy of it to be kept in his studio as a reference point for subsequent commission. This copy was created by tracing, but once the original image had been transfe

Emperor Charles V with a Dog
Oil on canvas. 1533
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)
Emperor Charles V with a Dog
Oil on canvas. 1533
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)

The period between 1530 and 1533 was crucial for the formulation of the image of Charles V. The image that ultimately proved most influential was invented by Jacob Seisenegger who painted five full-length portraits of Charles V between 1530 and 1532, creating a totally innovative typology for the depiction of the Emperor but one that had numerous precedents in German art (Cranach, Strigel, Amberge

Adam and Eve
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1550
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)
Adam and Eve
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1550
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)

The painting is a faithful visualisation of Genesis 30, 9-19 in which Eve is blamed for accepting the forbidden fruit (although the type of fruit is not stated, Titian follows tradition and opts for an apple) and there is a reference to a second tree, a fig, whose leaves are used by Adam and Eve to cover their nakedness. Although we do not have a definite date for this painting, nor do we know the

Portrait of a Woman (Agnese, the painter’s sister-in-law?)
Oil on unlined canvas. 1525 - 1530
Licinio, Bernardino
Portrait of a Woman (Agnese, the painter’s sister-in-law?)
Oil on unlined canvas. 1525 - 1530
Licinio, Bernardino

Modigliani identified the sitter as Agnese, the painter’s sister-in-law, through her resemblance to the woman who appears in the Portrait of Arrigo Licinio and his Family (Rome, Galleria Borghese, inv. 115). As that painting is datable to around 1540, the present work must have been executed between 1525 and 1530 as Agnese here appears considerably younger than in the Rome portrait, by which point

The Eucharistic Christ
Oil on panel. 1520 - 1530
Yáñez de la Almedina, Fernando
The Eucharistic Christ
Oil on panel. 1520 - 1530
Yáñez de la Almedina, Fernando

The composition derives from a lost work by Leonardo repeated by Yáñez on two other occasions with some variants. Here he includes a chalice and a consecrated Host, a Eucharistic reference that enjoyed a lengthy tradition in Spanish and particularly Valencian art. The emphasis on anatomical definition, subtle colour and a unifying light are characteristic of the artist at this period

The Holy Trinity
Oil on panel. 1530 - 1540
Vermeyen, Jan Cornelisz
The Holy Trinity
Oil on panel. 1530 - 1540
Vermeyen, Jan Cornelisz

Surrounded by angels holding the symbols of the Passion, God the Father, the dead Christ and the Holy Spirit are shown in a cloud of glory over a landscape. This device, which derives from prints by Dürer, would also be used by Titian for The Glory in the Museo del Prado. The figures reveal the influence of Raphael. Vermeyen was highly appreciated at the court of Charles V and undertook impor

The Death of the Virgin (centre); The Birth of the Virgin (left); The Presentation of the Virgin (right)
Grisaille, Oil on panel. Before 1550
Coxcie, Michiel
The Death of the Virgin (centre); The Birth of the Virgin (left); The Presentation of the Virgin (right)
Grisaille, Oil on panel. Before 1550
Coxcie, Michiel

This triptych was executed for the church of Saint Gudule in Brussels. According to Carel van Mander (1604) it was subsequently sold "for a very high price to Spain". Philip II sent it to El Escorial in 1586. Coxcie spent time in Italy and his style was inspired by Roman Renaissance painting. The old woman reading in The Birth of the Virgin is based on the Persian Sibyl in Michelangelo’s Sistine C

Saint Jerome
Oil on oak panel. 1530 - 1540
Massys, Jan (Workshop Of)
Saint Jerome
Oil on oak panel. 1530 - 1540
Massys, Jan (Workshop Of)

The workshop of Jan Massys (c. 1509-1575) in Amberes produced a number of copies of this image based on a protoype by Quinten Massys, Jan’s father. Notable is the saint’s powerful look, which bestows dignity upon him. In line with new humanist ideas, the Church Father’s appearance of an aged scholar is abandoned, while the reference to the transience of life made through the skull and the depictio

The Mass of Saint Gregory
Oil on panel. 1515 - 1530
Isenbrandt, Adriaen
The Mass of Saint Gregory
Oil on panel. 1515 - 1530
Isenbrandt, Adriaen

Indebted to the Bruges tradition, the priest holding Saint Gregory’s tiara stems from Jan van Eyck’s Portrait of a Man with Carnation in Berlin and the composition accentuates the sfumato and the grace of Gerard David (c. 1460-1523). However, the architectures and the dynamic poses of the figures also echo Antwerp mannerism.

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