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The Virgin Dolorosa with her Hands apart
Oil. 1555
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)
The Virgin Dolorosa with her Hands apart
Oil. 1555
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)

We know from a letter of 30 June 1553 from the Spanish Ambassador in Venice that Titian was waiting for instructions from the emperor to paint a panel of Our Lady the same as the Ecce Homo which Your Majesty has. This painting was completed in 1554 and can be identified with The Virgin Dolorosa with her Hands joined (P443). In another letter of 1554 there is a reference to another Virgin Dolorosa

The Descent from the Cross
Oil on copperplate. Ca. 1550
Allori, Alessandro
The Descent from the Cross
Oil on copperplate. Ca. 1550
Allori, Alessandro

Christ´s dead body is taken off the Cross by Joseph of Arimathea, Nicodemus and Saint John the Evangelist. Among the people at his feet are the Virgin Mary, the mother of Joseph —also called Mary— as well as Salomé and Mary Magdalene, who raises her arms as a sign of her suffering. The good and bad thieves are crucified on trees. This scene follows the New Testament story of the Jesus´ desc

Philip II on Horseback
Oil on canvas. 1629 - 1640
Rubens, Peter Paul
Philip II on Horseback
Oil on canvas. 1629 - 1640
Rubens, Peter Paul

A posthumous portrait of Felipe II wearing full body armor, a cape and a hat and riding a horse. Victory crowns him with laurels. The background alludes to a battle, probably that of San Quentín in 1557.Inspired by the knightly ideas of the sixteenth century, this portrait is based on representations of Roman emperors that circulated on Flemish and Italian prints, as well as an image of Car

John Frederick I of Saxony
Oil on canvas. 1548
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)
John Frederick I of Saxony
Oil on canvas. 1548
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)

John Frederick I of Saxony (Torgau, 30 June 1503–Jena, 3 March 1554), Duke of Saxony-Wittenberg from 1532, was the principal defender of Luther, a fact that brought him into conflict with Charles V. In 1546 these differences resulted in an armed conflict that culminated at Mühlberg on 24 April 1547 when the Imperial army defeated the Schmalkaldic League and captured its leaders, John Frederic

Mater Dolorosa with Clasped Hands
Oil on panel. 1554
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)
Mater Dolorosa with Clasped Hands
Oil on panel. 1554
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)

We know from a letter of 30 June 1553 from the Spanish Ambassador in Venice that Titian was waiting for instructions from the emperor to paint a panel of Our Lady the same as the Ecce Homo which Your Majesty has. This painting was completed in 1554 and can be identified with The Virgin Dolorosa with her Hands joined (P443). In another letter of 1554 there is a reference to another Virgin Dolorosa

Philip II
Oil on canvas. 1549 - 1550
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio) (Workshop Of)
Philip II
Oil on canvas. 1549 - 1550
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio) (Workshop Of)

Philip II (r. 1556-98) was Titian´s most important patron, and together they forged one of the most fruitful artistic relationships of the European Renaissance. Philip surpassed all of the Venetian painter´s previous patrons both in the number of commissions and in their variety. Unlike his father, Emperor Charles V (r. 1519-56), Philip was not satisfied with only portraits and devotional works; h

Perejón, Buffoon of the Count of Benavente and of the Grand Duke of Alba
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1560
Mor, Anthonis
Perejón, Buffoon of the Count of Benavente and of the Grand Duke of Alba
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1560
Mor, Anthonis

The doubts that existed regarding the dating of this work were increased when the sitter was identified. He is documented from 1544 in the accounts of Prince Philip (later Philip II) as Pero Hernández de la Cruz, known as Perejón, one of the two ‘Pericos’ whose role at Court was to amuse the prince. The inventory of the Alcázar in Madrid of 1636 confirms this identification th

Joanna of Austria, sister of King Philip II of Spain, Princess of Portugal
Oil on canvas. Early Finales del siglo XVI - XVII century
Pantoja de la Cruz, Juan
Joanna of Austria, sister of King Philip II of Spain, Princess of Portugal
Oil on canvas. Early Finales del siglo XVI - XVII century
Pantoja de la Cruz, Juan

Joanna, the daughter of Charles V and Isabella of Portugal was born in 1535, and later married her cousin Joao Manuel, prince of Brazil. On the death of her husband in 1554, and having soon after given birth to their son, Don Sebastián, she left Portugal and returned to Spain, where she died in 1573.

Lady with a Fan
Oil on panel. 1570 - 1573
Sánchez Coello, Alonso
Lady with a Fan
Oil on panel. 1570 - 1573
Sánchez Coello, Alonso

In this half-length portrait, the lady is wearing a dark brown velvet overdress luxuriously ornamented with gold chain-stitched embroidery, slit sleeves, and a high collar open in front in the Flemish style. This is a notable example of Spanish portraiture during the reign of Philip II. To begin with, it is painted on a finegrained reddish tropical wood, mahogany perhaps, a support that was quite

Christ Justifying his Passion
Oil on panel. Ca. 1565
Morales, Luis de
Christ Justifying his Passion
Oil on panel. Ca. 1565
Morales, Luis de

This work is an example of an exceptional iconography within the subject matter habitually dedicated to the Passion by the painter, and even within that of the European art of his time as a whole. Although his most frequent subjects were the traditional ones of the Ecce Homo (alone or accompanied by executioners, by Pontius Pilate and an executioner, or by the Virgin and St John), Christ at the Co

Mary Tudor, Queen of England, Second Wife of Philip II
Oil on panel. 1554
Mor, Anthonis
Mary Tudor, Queen of England, Second Wife of Philip II
Oil on panel. 1554
Mor, Anthonis

In 1604 in his biography of Mor, Karel van Mander referred to the artist’s trip to London in 1554, where he was sent on the orders of Charles V to paint Mary Tudor (1516–1558), and to the success of the resulting work.1 The queen is depicted seated, almost full-length, following Raphael’s portrait of Julius II of 1512 (London, National Gallery), and that of Juana of Aragon of 1518 (Paris, Mus&eacu

Sisyphus
Oil on canvas. 1548 - 1549
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)
Sisyphus
Oil on canvas. 1548 - 1549
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)

The literary source for the Furies is Ovid´s Metamorphoses (IV, 447-464) and Virgil´s Aeneid (VI, 457-8), which recounts the eternal sufferings in Hades of Tityus, whose liver was devoured by a vulture as a punishment for having raped Latona; Tantalus, condemned to try to reach food and drink in vain for having killed and cooked his son Pelops as a banquet for the gods; Sisyphus, founder and king

Don Sebastian, King of Portugal
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1580
Sánchez Coello, Alonso
Don Sebastian, King of Portugal
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1580
Sánchez Coello, Alonso

This three-quarters portrait is especially direct, thanks to the absence of any background elements other than the model´s powerful shadow. It presents don Sebastian (1554-1580) in the final years of his brief life, dressed in the Spanish style, with a black jerkin and matching cape that bring out the sumptuousness of his breeches and doublet, embroidered in gold on a white background. To convey h

Joanna of Austria, sister of King Philip II of Spain
Oil on canvas. 1560
Mor, Anthonis
Joanna of Austria, sister of King Philip II of Spain
Oil on canvas. 1560
Mor, Anthonis

Joanna of Austria (1535-73) was the daughter of Emperor Charles V, and sister of King Philip II of Spain. In 1552, she married her first cousin, the Portuguese Prince John Manuel (Joao Manuel). The prince died in January 1554, days before Joanna gave birth to their son, Sebastian, who would become King of Portugal from 1568 to 1578. In July 1554, Joanna returned to Spain to serve as regent in the

Lady with the Jewel
Oil on panel. Ca. 1552
Mor, Anthonis
Lady with the Jewel
Oil on panel. Ca. 1552
Mor, Anthonis

In the eighteenth century this unidentified lady was thought to be the Empress Isabel, wife of Carlos V. She was later groundlessly associated with Maria of Portugal, whom Mor portrait in 1552 while she was engaged to Felipe II. The latter broke off the engagement to marry Mary Tudor. This more than half-length portrait is of great technical quality. The feminine face, with its reserved expression

Danaë and the Shower of Gold
Oil on canvas. 1560 - 1565
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)
Danaë and the Shower of Gold
Oil on canvas. 1560 - 1565
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)

The first Poesie presented to Prince Philip were Danaë (1553, The Wellington Collection) and Venus and Adonis (1554, Museo del Prado, P422), versions of other previous works, but endowed with all the prestige of the commissioning party. In turn, these works became models for numerous replicas (Danaë receiving the Golden Rain, 1560-65, Museo del Prado, P425).Danaë depicts the moment

Landscape with Psyche and Jupiter
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1610
Rubens, Peter Paul; Bril, Paul
Landscape with Psyche and Jupiter
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1610
Rubens, Peter Paul; Bril, Paul

On a number of occasions, Peter Paul Rubens partially overpainted finished pictures. He did this to paintings by his own hand, such as Nymphs and Satyrs (P1666), which he retouched and enlarged twenty years after he first painted it. He also made changes to drawings and paintings by other artists that he owned. This painting is an example of such reworking, albeit in a radical mode that changed th

Portrait of an Unidentified Boy
Oil on oak panel. Ca. 1570
Anonymous
Portrait of an Unidentified Boy
Oil on oak panel. Ca. 1570
Anonymous

This more-than-half-length portrait presents a boy dressed in black with a white shirt. He rests his left hand on his waist while holding his gloves in his right. A gold chain around his neck is matched by another at his waist that bears a sword with a gilded hilt. It has been suggested that this panel may represent François, Duke of Alençon (b. 1554, d. 1584), son of Henri II of Fra

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