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Praying Hermit
Oil on canvas. 1637 - 1638
Lemaire, Jean
Praying Hermit
Oil on canvas. 1637 - 1638
Lemaire, Jean

This is the largest of the paintings that Lemaire, a French artist working in Rome, produced for the decoration of the Buen Retiro Palace in Madrid. The architectural ruins and sculptural fragments are real but their arrangement in the scene is imaginary. The identity of the hermit remains unclear.

Saints Andrew and Francis
Oil on unlined canvas. Ca. 1595
el Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulos)
Saints Andrew and Francis
Oil on unlined canvas. Ca. 1595
el Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulos)

Under a sky filled with leaden-gray storm clouds, Saint Andrew and Saint Francis of Assisi stand next to each other in conversation. The apostle appears on the viewer’s left, wearing a cobalt blue tunic and green robes whose purple silk lining has grey reflections. He faces the viewer and leans on his characteristic x-shaped cross, turning his head to his left, where Saint Francis stands. The latt

The Annunciation
Oil on panel. XVI century
Anonymous
The Annunciation
Oil on panel. XVI century
Anonymous

The Denial of Saint Peter
Oil on copperplate. 1600 - 1649
Steenwijck, Hendrick Van
The Denial of Saint Peter
Oil on copperplate. 1600 - 1649
Steenwijck, Hendrick Van

Protagoniza el mismo escenario arquitectónico, de idéntico contenido bíblico, del cobre Jesús en el atrio del Pontífice. Los personajes de la nave lateral del fondo evocan la narración, inmediatamente posterior al prendimiento de Jesús, de San Lucas: Pedro se sentó también entre ellos. Viéndole en él dijo: Éste estaba también con Él. Él lo negó, diciendo: No le conozco, mujer. Vuelto el Señor, mir

Sailing Boats in a River Estuary
Oil on panel. XVII century
Anonymous
Sailing Boats in a River Estuary
Oil on panel. XVII century
Anonymous

These two seascapes (P1581 and P1582) are traditionally considered pendants. In the Museum’s older catalogues and inventories they are attributed to Cornelis Molenaer (ca. 1540-1589) until 1933. As of 1889, however, it is recorded that Bredius considers them originals by Simon de Vlieger (1600-1653). The highly schematic architecture in the background, the clumsy depiction of the figures and the r

Noah after the Flood
Oil on canvas. Second half of the XVI century
Anonymous
Noah after the Flood
Oil on canvas. Second half of the XVI century
Anonymous

If we compare this painting with the Animals Entering the Ark (P22), we find that the iconographic elements which identify the subject have been shifted to a middle plane -Noah thanking God for bringing the flood to an end by means of a burnt offering (Genesis 8: 20-22) and the appearance of the rainbow as a symbol of the covenant between God and man (Genesis, 9: I-17)- while the foreground depict

View of the Gardens of the Villa Medici, Rome
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1630
Velázquez, Diego Rodríguez de Silva y
View of the Gardens of the Villa Medici, Rome
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1630
Velázquez, Diego Rodríguez de Silva y

A masterpiece in the history of Western landscape painting, in which Velázquez set out his idea of landscape without any narrative excuse to justify it, this Roman scene and its companion work (P01211) are two of his most singular works. Both combine architecture, plant life and sculpture with living figures and integrate them into a landscaped setting in a very natural way. Critics have re

Landscape with the Burial of Saint Serapia
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1639
Claude (Lorrain, Byname Of Claude Gellée)
Landscape with the Burial of Saint Serapia
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1639
Claude (Lorrain, Byname Of Claude Gellée)

Saint Sabina, the noble Roman widow, became a Christian through the influence of her maid, Saint Serapia, a native of Antioch who fled the religious persecution of Christians there. The painting presents Serapia’s burial. Her body is carried by a group of matrons who place it in the tomb. Dressed in red and orange, Sabina stands out among all of them, mournfully contemplating the scene from above.

David with the Head of Goliath
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1600
Caravaggio (Michelangelo Merisi Da Caravaggio)
David with the Head of Goliath
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1600
Caravaggio (Michelangelo Merisi Da Caravaggio)

The Bible story (Samuel 1:17) depicted here corresponds to the moment when, as a young shepherd, David kills Goliath, the giant, with his sling and cuts off his head to triumphantly exhibit it. The episode of tying the giant’s tresses to reveal his head has no iconographic precedent and is not explicitly mentioned in the Bible, making this work yet another example of Caravaggio’s originality and i

Flight into Egypt
Oil on canvas. Second half of the XVI century
Bassano, Francesco
Flight into Egypt
Oil on canvas. Second half of the XVI century
Bassano, Francesco

Unlike the adoration of the shepherds, which took place at night according to the gospel account, the nocturnal setting for the Holy Family´s flight into Egypt was an invention of the painter, since Mathew 2: 13-15 narrates how an angel appeared to Joseph in a dream and warned him that the child was in danger, but does not state that the Family departed at night or preferred to leave at sunset. In

Port with Castle
Oil on copperplate. Ca. 1601
Bril, Paul
Port with Castle
Oil on copperplate. Ca. 1601
Bril, Paul

En un puerto, los habitantes de la aldea enclavada en el acantilado que cierra el espacio por la derecha están ocupados en diversas tareas: cargando y afianzando las mercancías en las barcazas ancladas en la orilla, pescando o reparando un bote. En el primer plano, a la derecha, tres hombres se han sentado a descansar en torno a una hoguera encendida bajo un chamizo protegido por las rocas y el ár

Saint Augustine
Oil on canvas. 1601
Pantoja de la Cruz, Juan
Saint Augustine
Oil on canvas. 1601
Pantoja de la Cruz, Juan

Shortly after El Greco completed the high altar for the church of the Colegio de Doña María de Aragón (Madrid), Juan Pantoja de la Cruz executed these two canvases, which were to flank El Greco’s work. While primarily known as a portraitist, Pantoja also produced notable religious compositions such as the present monumental figures, which are imbued with a dynamism and express

A Crossbowman
Oil on oak panel. Second half of the XVI century
Bosch, Hieronymus (Copy)
A Crossbowman
Oil on oak panel. Second half of the XVI century
Bosch, Hieronymus (Copy)

A model similar to this one appears in the Crown of Thorns at the Royal Museum of Fine Arts in Antwerp, specifically, the figure who is supposed to place the crown of thorns on Christ´s head. The figure in the present work differs from it in the presence of a silver shell on his hat and a crossbow-shaped broach on his suit. Recent studies consider it a copy made during the second half of the sixte

The Adoration of the Shepherds
Oil on canvas. XVI century
Anonymous
The Adoration of the Shepherds
Oil on canvas. XVI century
Anonymous

Lady with a dog
Oil on panel. XVI century
Neufchatel, Nicolas de
Lady with a dog
Oil on panel. XVI century
Neufchatel, Nicolas de

Landscape with Carmelites
Oil on canvas. 1634 - 1639
Both, Jan
Landscape with Carmelites
Oil on canvas. 1634 - 1639
Both, Jan

This painting entered the Museum as an original work by Jan Both, attribution that has been maintained in the catalogues until the present day. In 1973 Valdivieso identifies it as the picture listed in the 1701 inventory of the Palace of the Buen Retiro and retains the ascription to Jan Both, which is supported by Luna (1984) and Capitelli (2005). Burke (1976) refers to it without an attribution.B

The Embarkation of Saint Paula
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1639
Claude (Lorrain, Byname Of Claude Gellée)
The Embarkation of Saint Paula
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1639
Claude (Lorrain, Byname Of Claude Gellée)

A noble Roman widow and mother of five children, Saint Paula decided to retreat to the desert and abandon her worldly ways in favour of a life of prayer and penitence. In 285 AD she abandoned Rome with her son, Eustace, and moved to Antioch, where she joined Saint Jerome to share a hermit’s life. Claude Lorrain’s painting depicts her departure, offering an imaginary recreation of the port of Ostia

Portrait of a Knight of the Order of Santiago
Oil on panel. XVI century
González, Bartolomé
Portrait of a Knight of the Order of Santiago
Oil on panel. XVI century
González, Bartolomé

Ha figurado como obra de Alonso Sánchez Coello. Repite el retrato, fechado en 1558, del Museo de Budapest, que se atribuye a Antonio Moro. Para su identificación se han barajado diversos nombres, ninguno de ellos de manera convincente.

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