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Still Life with a silver beaker and a clock
Oil on panel. 1633
Heda, Willem Claesz
Still Life with a silver beaker and a clock
Oil on panel. 1633
Heda, Willem Claesz

In addition to the Roemer goblet, other glasses common in this kind of monochrome still life presented here include the Berkemeyer, in this case tipped over and broken, and the delicate Façon-de-Venise wineglass, in fashion at the time and likewise made in the Netherlands. Also featured is an exquisitely decorated silver goblet. Alongside them is a knife with a sheath and an open clock that

Still Life with a Maid
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1633
Snyders, Frans
Still Life with a Maid
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1633
Snyders, Frans

This opulent still-life scene typical of the Baroque Flemish school includes a human figure and two animals, as was common in the period, in accordance with the tastes of the clients, whose wealth and prosperity was also reflected in this genre of paintings. Snyders´ clientele were members of the nobility and haute bourgeoisie who were interested in his paintings as testimonies to wealth as well a

Smokers and Drinkers
Oil on panel. 1652
Teniers The Younger, David
Smokers and Drinkers
Oil on panel. 1652
Teniers The Younger, David

Three figures enjoy tobacco in an expressive manner in the foreground while an onlooker leans through the window. Around a table in the background, another group of figures drinks or plays cards. This is an example of scenes inside taverns with smokers, drinkers and players, which Teniers made during the sixteen thirties. He began with figures by his teacher, Adriaen Brouwer (1605/1606-1638), whic

Landscape with Carmelites
Oil on canvas. 1634 - 1639
Both, Jan
Landscape with Carmelites
Oil on canvas. 1634 - 1639
Both, Jan

This painting entered the Museum as an original work by Jan Both, attribution that has been maintained in the catalogues until the present day. In 1973 Valdivieso identifies it as the picture listed in the 1701 inventory of the Palace of the Buen Retiro and retains the ascription to Jan Both, which is supported by Luna (1984) and Capitelli (2005). Burke (1976) refers to it without an attribution.B

The Surrender of Breda
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1635
Velázquez, Diego Rodríguez de Silva y
The Surrender of Breda
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1635
Velázquez, Diego Rodríguez de Silva y

On June 5, 1625 the Dutch governor of Breda, Justinus van Nassau, surrendered the keys of that city to Ambrosio Spínola, the Genoese general commanding the Spanish tercios (a group of soldiers that included pikemen, swordsmen and musketeers) of Flanders. Breda`s extraordinary strategic importance made it one of the most disputed cities in the Spanish monarchy`s prolonged war against the Uni

Still Life with Vase of Flowers and a Puppy
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1625
Hamen y León, Juan Van Der
Still Life with Vase of Flowers and a Puppy
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1625
Hamen y León, Juan Van Der

This work and its companion (P6413) belonged to Jean de Croy, Count of Solre and captain of the Flemish Royal Guard of Archers, of which Van der Hamen was a member. Unframed, the two paintings hung in De Croy’s Madrid palace, where they flanked the entrance to the painting gallery. As such, they may have served as a trompe l’oeil expansion of the real space, whose floor they probably reproduce. Th

Cavalry Combat
Oil on canvas. 1650 - 1655
Wouwerman, Philips
Cavalry Combat
Oil on canvas. 1650 - 1655
Wouwerman, Philips

The main scene occupies the foreground, though it is no longer set in the plane closest to the viewer as in the previous period, but slightly further back. As a result, the figures are smaller in size. The horizon line is also lower, affording the sky greater prominence. Furthermore, although the composition is still partly enclosed in the background by a diagonal, it extends into the distance on

Saint Peter weeping
Oil on canvas. 1620 - 1630
Anonymous
Saint Peter weeping
Oil on canvas. 1620 - 1630
Anonymous

After denying that he was a follower of Christ, Saint Peter repented of his actions. This canvas deploys the chromatic restraint and compositional rigour of Velázquez’s early works, combined here with a freer and more relaxed although equally deft pictorial handling.

Village Kitchen
Oil on panel. Ca. 1632
Ostade, Adriaen Van
Village Kitchen
Oil on panel. Ca. 1632
Ostade, Adriaen Van

This work belongs to the so-called peasant interiors, one of the new genres of painting that emerged and developed in Flanders and Holland in the early seventeenth century. In Houbraken and in early inventories they are described as een boertje (a little peasant) or as toeback rookerchen (tobacco smokers). The consolidation and appreciation of this genre was fostered by the satirical and moralisin

Praying Hermit
Oil on canvas. 1637 - 1638
Lemaire, Jean
Praying Hermit
Oil on canvas. 1637 - 1638
Lemaire, Jean

This is the largest of the paintings that Lemaire, a French artist working in Rome, produced for the decoration of the Buen Retiro Palace in Madrid. The architectural ruins and sculptural fragments are real but their arrangement in the scene is imaginary. The identity of the hermit remains unclear.

The Surrender of Jülich
Oil on canvas. 1634 - 1635
Leonardo, Jusepe
The Surrender of Jülich
Oil on canvas. 1634 - 1635
Leonardo, Jusepe

The capitulation of the Rhenish city of Jülich was one of the most outstanding events at the beginning of the Thirty Years War (1618-1648). Occupied by Maurice of Nassau’s French troops since 1610, Jülich surrendered to an army led by the Marquis of Los Balbases, General Ambrosio de Spínola, who would later triumph at Breda. This event took place after the truce established in 160

Cats fighting in a Larder
Oil on canvas. 1630 - 1640
Vos, Paul de
Cats fighting in a Larder
Oil on canvas. 1630 - 1640
Vos, Paul de

With the owners or house servants away, the animals sneak into the larder, giving free rein to their instincts. This leads to a fight. Scenes of animal fights in domestic settings were customary in mid-seventeenth-century Flemish painting. They were also frequent in the literature of proverbs, where they were interpreted as moral allusions to the abandonment of responsibilities and their consequen

Saint Judas Thaddaeus
Oil on canvas. 1630 - 1635
Ribera, Jusepe de, lo Spagnoletto
Saint Judas Thaddaeus
Oil on canvas. 1630 - 1635
Ribera, Jusepe de, lo Spagnoletto

Series of Apostles became very popular during the Counter-reformation; they were usually half-length figures against a neutral background, holding their iconographical attributes. One of the most important series is the one that Ribera painted around 1630. It is mentioned for the first time in the Royal Collection towards the end of the eighteenth century and is made up of paintings of varying qua

Saint Andrew
Oil on canvas. 1641
Ribera, Jusepe de, lo Spagnoletto
Saint Andrew
Oil on canvas. 1641
Ribera, Jusepe de, lo Spagnoletto

Series of Apostles became very popular during the Counter-reformation; they were usually half-length figures against a neutral background, holding their iconographical attributes. One of the most important series is the one that Ribera painted around 1630. It is mentioned for the first time in the Royal Collection towards the end of the eighteenth century and is made up of paintings of varying qua

Saint Agatha
Oil on unlined canvas. Ca. 1635
Vaccaro, Andrea
Saint Agatha
Oil on unlined canvas. Ca. 1635
Vaccaro, Andrea

The Sicilian saint looks imploringly to heaven as she is martyred and both her breasts cut off. The work of the Neapolitan Vaccaro reveals the influence of Guido Reni, here evident in the saint’s mystic pose and the calm resignation with which she accepts her fate.

Abraham and the three Angels
Oil on panel. Ca. 1640
Bramer, Leonaert
Abraham and the three Angels
Oil on panel. Ca. 1640
Bramer, Leonaert

The date of this painting has been the subject of critical debate for over a century. The 1889 edition of the Prado catalogue states that it was signed but fails to mention a date. The 1910 version describes it as being signed and dated in 1620. The question is not addressed in subsequent publications until that of 1985, which refers to it as being signed and dated in 1630, the year that is again

Landscape with Mercury and Herse
Oil on panel. Ca. 1635
Francken II, Frans; Wildens, Jan
Landscape with Mercury and Herse
Oil on panel. Ca. 1635
Francken II, Frans; Wildens, Jan

In The Metamorphosis, the poet Ovid very precisely describes the moment when Mercury, on his way to Athens, met a group of Nymphs carrying offerings to the goddess Palas. Mercury immediately fell in love with Herse, the most beautiful of all. The canvas, with an extremely horizontal format, sets the scene in a wooded landscape where the nymphs chat and play on their way towards the temple in the b

River Landscape
Oil on panel. 1645 - 1648
Schoeff, Johan Pietersz.
River Landscape
Oil on panel. 1645 - 1648
Schoeff, Johan Pietersz.

This is the type of river landscape in which Schoeff specialised. In its compositional arrangement and diverse elements -tree, windmill, fishing boats- it closely resembles the river landscapes painted by Jan van Goyen (1596-1656) in the 1630s, or those produced by Salomon van Ruysdael (1600/02-1670) from the 1640s onwards.The composition is neither detailed nor anecdotal, since its aim is to capt

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