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Diana and her Nymphs surprised by Satyrs
Oil on canvas. 1639 - 1640
Rubens, Peter Paul
Diana and her Nymphs surprised by Satyrs
Oil on canvas. 1639 - 1640
Rubens, Peter Paul

Diana the huntress is resting with her court of Nymphs in a clearing in the woods when she is attacked by a group of Satyrs. Rubens turned this painting into a virtuoso exercise in composition. In the foreground, two volumes lead to the rest of the scene: on the left are the hunting trophies attained by the nymphs, and on the right, a reclining nymph with her back to the viewer, one of the most se

Landscape with Carmelites
Oil on canvas. 1634 - 1639
Both, Jan
Landscape with Carmelites
Oil on canvas. 1634 - 1639
Both, Jan

This painting entered the Museum as an original work by Jan Both, attribution that has been maintained in the catalogues until the present day. In 1973 Valdivieso identifies it as the picture listed in the 1701 inventory of the Palace of the Buen Retiro and retains the ascription to Jan Both, which is supported by Luna (1984) and Capitelli (2005). Burke (1976) refers to it without an attribution.B

Still Life with Animals
Oil on canvas. 1680 - 1690
Hondecoeter, Melchior D´
Still Life with Animals
Oil on canvas. 1680 - 1690
Hondecoeter, Melchior D´

The painting featured here is an example of the characteristic compositions with poultry in which D`Hondecoeter specialised. This type of painting was brought to Utrecht in 1619 by Roeland Savery (1576-1639), who had, in turn, been introduced to this genre -of which the most prominent and influential practitioner was Frans Snyders (1592-1667)- while at the court of Rudolf II of Prague.D`Hondecoete

Saint Margaret resuscitating a Young Man
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1620
Serodine, Giovanni
Saint Margaret resuscitating a Young Man
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1620
Serodine, Giovanni

This painting is both beautiful in appearance and enigmatic on account of its problems of attribution, its authorship having fluctuated between several artists, all belonging to the aesthetic environment of Michelangelo Merisi, Caravaggio. Indeed, although it is now definitely ascribed to Serodine, some critics still believe it to be the work of the latter. Its history can be traced back to 1647,

The Embarkation of Saint Paula
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1639
Claude (Lorrain, Byname Of Claude Gellée)
The Embarkation of Saint Paula
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1639
Claude (Lorrain, Byname Of Claude Gellée)

A noble Roman widow and mother of five children, Saint Paula decided to retreat to the desert and abandon her worldly ways in favour of a life of prayer and penitence. In 285 AD she abandoned Rome with her son, Eustace, and moved to Antioch, where she joined Saint Jerome to share a hermit’s life. Claude Lorrain’s painting depicts her departure, offering an imaginary recreation of the port of Ostia

The Finding of Moses
Oil on canvas. 1639 - 1640
Claude (Lorrain, Byname Of Claude Gellée)
The Finding of Moses
Oil on canvas. 1639 - 1640
Claude (Lorrain, Byname Of Claude Gellée)

A broad landscape is the setting for Moses’s rescue from the Nile River by the Egyptian Pharaoh’s daughter and her retinue. In the foreground, a shepherd sleeps, indifferent to the events taking place behind him. The lush landscape, flowing river with a bridge, and the city in the background to the right are artistic license, and the original vegetation is evoked by only one element: the palm tree

Old Man reading by Candlelight
Oil on canvas. 1700 - 1706
Schalcken, Godfried
Old Man reading by Candlelight
Oil on canvas. 1700 - 1706
Schalcken, Godfried

The half-length figure of an old man is depicted against a dark background. He looks at the viewer out of the corner of his eye, with his torso turned slightly to the left and his head to the right, as he holds a candle in his right hand to light up a manuscript in his left, of which we can only see the back. Old Man reading by Candlelight is clearly a night scene, a genre in which Schalcken speci

The Baptism of Queen candace´s Eunuch
Oil on canvas. 1639 - 1641
Both, Jan
The Baptism of Queen candace´s Eunuch
Oil on canvas. 1639 - 1641
Both, Jan

This painting entered the museum as a work by Claude Lorrain, but in 1843, it appeared in the catalog as an original by Jan Both, an attribution that has been maintained in posterior catalogs and is accepted without argument by specialists.Drawn from Acts (VIII: 26-38), the subject is the conversion and baptism of Queen Candace of Ethiopia by the Apostle Philip the Eunuch, who did so while returni

A harbour scene
Oil on canvas. 1638 - 1639
Rosa, Salvator
A harbour scene
Oil on canvas. 1638 - 1639
Rosa, Salvator

This work poses two main problems. The first is its assignment to the Buen Retiro group, and the second, directly linked to the first, is its date. In 1961 Marcel G. Roethlisberger noted the painting’s possible link to the palace, but did not consider it one of those works originally commissioned because he was unable to find mention of it in the testament of Charles II.Barbara Von Barghahn did fi

View of the Waterfall at Tivoli, with Fishermen
Oil on canvas. 1639 - 1641
Anonymous
View of the Waterfall at Tivoli, with Fishermen
Oil on canvas. 1639 - 1641
Anonymous

The painting resembles the View of Tivoli, in size, type of support and subject matter. Indeed, the overhanging rock in the foreground beside the fishermen would appear to be inspired by that beneath which the shepherds are located. Moreover, the tree that emerges in the upper left part is similar to the one that stands between the two temples in View of Tivoli. In the 1701 inventory both works, t

Liberation of Saint Peter
Oil on canvas. 1639
Ribera, Jusepe de, lo Spagnoletto
Liberation of Saint Peter
Oil on canvas. 1639
Ribera, Jusepe de, lo Spagnoletto

Saint Peter lies in prison where his sleep is interrupted by an angel who frees him. This subject allows Ribera to create a work in which he can show the very best of his mature style. The work combines his naturalist style with strong chiaroscuro effects and with the warm palette that Ribera used increasingly in the last years of the 1630s. This painting forms a pair with Jacob’s Dream (P-1117) w

Mountain Landscape with Hut and Vegetables
Oil on canvas. 1634 - 1639
Swanevelt, Herman Van
Mountain Landscape with Hut and Vegetables
Oil on canvas. 1634 - 1639
Swanevelt, Herman Van

The painting entered the Museum`s holdings as a work of the school of Jan Both, but it is listed as an original by the painter in the 1843 catalogue. In 1973 Valdivieso identifies it as one of the landscapes recorded in the Buen Retiro inventory of 1701 and proposes it be ascribed to Herman van Swanevelt. This attribution is backed by Luna (1984), Barghahn (1986) and Steland (2001 and forthcoming)

The Beheading of Saint John the Baptist
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1637
Leonardo, Jusepe
The Beheading of Saint John the Baptist
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1637
Leonardo, Jusepe

En un lienzo de formato cuadrado el artista ha representado el momento en que el verdugo, por orden de Herodes, quien satisface el deseo de Salomé y la venganza de Herodías, su madre (Marcos, 6 14-29), se dispone a descargar la espada sobre el cuello del Bautista, que, de rodillas y rezando, espera el momento de la ejecución. La composición, no exenta de teatralidad, está formada por tres grupos i

Landscape with Wayfarers, Boy and Dog
Oil on canvas. 1639 - 1641
Swanevelt, Herman Van
Landscape with Wayfarers, Boy and Dog
Oil on canvas. 1639 - 1641
Swanevelt, Herman Van

The painting entered the Museum`s holdings as an original work by Herman van Swanevelt, an attribution that has been maintained by subsequent catalogues. In 1973 Valdivieso identifies it as the landscape described in the inventory of 1701 and maintains the ascription to Van Swanevelt, which is also backed by Burke (1976), Luna (1984), Barghahn (1986), Galera Mendoza (2001) and Steland (forthcoming

Bishop Rovenius blessing a Family (that of Jacob van Wassenaer?)
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1650
Breenbergh, Bartholomeus
Bishop Rovenius blessing a Family (that of Jacob van Wassenaer?)
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1650
Breenbergh, Bartholomeus

This painting entered the holdings of the Museo del Prado as an anonymous Flemish work, although the 1873 catalogue reports the attribution to the Le Nain brothers proposed by M. de Chennevières based on its purported similarity to The Procession (Paris, Musée du Louvre, inv. 6841), then held to be an original work by these artists. From 1942 onwards it is listed as executed by Frans

The Recapture of Bahía de Todos los Santos
Oil on canvas. 1634 - 1635
Maíno, Fray Juan Bautista
The Recapture of Bahía de Todos los Santos
Oil on canvas. 1634 - 1635
Maíno, Fray Juan Bautista

The Recapture of Bahía de Todos los Santos was commissioned from Maíno towards the end of 1634. The artist was still working on it on 24 March 1635, date on which he received the first 18,600 maravedíes on account, corresponding to an order of payment from the Chief Notary of the Council of Aragon, Jerónimo de Villanueva (died 1653). Maíno completed the painting

Sacrifice to Bacchus
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1634
Stanzione, Massimo
Sacrifice to Bacchus
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1634
Stanzione, Massimo

While it is first listed in 1666 at the Alcázar, where it hung alongside Ribera’s Fable of Bacchus or Teoxenia (of which only three fragments have survived: two at the Museo del Prado and one in a private collection), this work’s subject and dimensions suggest it may originally have been commissioned for the Buen Retiro Palace. Along with Finoglia’s Triumph of Bacchus (P7309), Poussin’s Sac

Landscape with Hermit bound in Chains
Oil on canvas. 1634 - 1639
Swanevelt, Herman Van
Landscape with Hermit bound in Chains
Oil on canvas. 1634 - 1639
Swanevelt, Herman Van

This painting entered the Museum`s holdings as a copy of a work by Jan Both, described as Saint Francis in Penitence and listed as the companion piece to Landscape with Saint Francis in Meditation. It was later catalogued as an anonymous work of the Germanic schools and from 1910 onwards as an anonymous Flemish work. However, this landscape can be identified with one of the pictures described in t

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