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The Agony in the Garden
Oil on canvas. 1558 - 1562
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)
The Agony in the Garden
Oil on canvas. 1558 - 1562
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)

On 13 July 1558, Philip II asked Titian to make haste with the completion of an Agony in the Garden which the artist had agreed to finish one year earlier, but which was only sent to the monarch in 1562 along with The Rape of Europa. Titian sent the king another painting of the same subject, probably in 1563, and Philip sent both to the Escorial where the second is still to be found. While the two

The Martyrdom of Saint Menas
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1580
Veronese, Paolo (Paolo Cagliari)
The Martyrdom of Saint Menas
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1580
Veronese, Paolo (Paolo Cagliari)

Saint Mena extends his arms and raises his gaze to Heaven, refusing to worship the graven idol presented to him at the left of the composition. As a result, he was martyred and decapitated. His suffering occurred in the year 296, under the rule of Diocletian. It is indicated here by the sword held by the person who has seized the saint, and by the pliers in the basket, which were used to pull out

Herd of Bulls by a River below a Castle
Oil on canvas. 1837
Pérez Villaamil y Duguet, Genaro
Herd of Bulls by a River below a Castle
Oil on canvas. 1837
Pérez Villaamil y Duguet, Genaro

A herd of bulls graze beside the backwaters of a quiet river, closely watched by the herdsmen resting on the bank. Farther back, two barges filled with local men prepare to cross the river. The closer of the two is being loaded with sacks of merchandise -possible contraband- carried by two donkeys near a ruined estate. A hill behind the lush woods that border the river is topped by an imposing for

Blind Man’s Buff
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1889
Jiménez Aranda, José
Blind Man’s Buff
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1889
Jiménez Aranda, José

During his time in Paris, Jiménez Aranda regularly produced tableautins (small, precisely painted works on eighteenth-century themes). The detailed description of the figures here contrasts with a freer approach to the background trees, revealing the artist’s powers as a landscape painter and the influence of French naturalism, which would determine his subsequent evolution.

The Mystic Marriage of Saint Catherine, with Saint Ursula and a Donor
Oil on panel. Ca. 1520
Anonymous
The Mystic Marriage of Saint Catherine, with Saint Ursula and a Donor
Oil on panel. Ca. 1520
Anonymous

This composition retains the structure of traditional triptychs, but the landscape links the three panels together to form a single scene, thus including the pilgrim-donor and Saint Ursula in the Mystic Marriage. The landscape includes scenes relating to the respective figures: walking pilgrims, the martyrdom of Saint Catherine, the Massacre of the Innocents and the Flight into Egypt.

Penitents in the Lower Basilica of Assisi
Oil on canvas mounted on panel. 1874
Jiménez Aranda, José
Penitents in the Lower Basilica of Assisi
Oil on canvas mounted on panel. 1874
Jiménez Aranda, José

Jiménez Aranda sets this scene of believers paying penance inside the well-known medieval basilica of Assisi, in Italy. Some of them carry large crosses and drag chains, while others pray at an altar, or chat with other characters dressed in eighteenth-century clothing. The subject clearly alludes to Goya´s abundant paintings of religious festivities. Nevertheless, the setting in an Italian

Diptych with 42 Monumental Views of Spanish Cities
Oil on paper, panel, tin plate. 1835 - 1839
Pérez Villaamil y Duguet, Genaro
Diptych with 42 Monumental Views of Spanish Cities
Oil on paper, panel, tin plate. 1835 - 1839
Pérez Villaamil y Duguet, Genaro

Genaro Pérez Villaamil (El Ferrol, 1807-Madrid, 1854) can be considered the most significant and influential Spanish Romantic landscape painter and an artist who had an intense interest, characteristic of that period, in depictions of cities and their monuments.The small size of the tin plates on which theses scenes are painted allowed Villaamil to work from the motif, as he generally did w

Saint John the Evangelist on Patmos
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1620
Orrente, Pedro de
Saint John the Evangelist on Patmos
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1620
Orrente, Pedro de

This canvas is a good example of the numerous influences that acted on Orrente’s style. They include his Venetian training, evident in his approach to the landscape in this painting, and unmistakable traces of the Roman Caravaggesque style, revealed here in the figure of the Evangelist, both in the arrangement of the figure and the way it is illuminated.

Mariana de Austria in Prayer
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1655
Velázquez, Diego Rodríguez de Silva y (Workshop Of)
Mariana de Austria in Prayer
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1655
Velázquez, Diego Rodríguez de Silva y (Workshop Of)

This pair of portraits (P01220 and P01222) combines several aspects of Spanish portraiture of the Baroque period. In principle, the figures of Philip IV and his second wife, Mariana of Austria, are a continuation of the donor-tradition that goes back to medieval religious painting. The client would be incorporated, kneeling or prostrate in a reverential position, into the religious scene that he o

Saint Andrew
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1631
Ribera, Jusepe de, lo Spagnoletto
Saint Andrew
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1631
Ribera, Jusepe de, lo Spagnoletto

A man stands before a dark background, portrayed more than half-length with his torso bare and his hair and beard white from age. With his left hand he holds a cross and with his right he holds a hook caught in the mouth of a fish. Both motifs allow us to identify him as the apostle Saint Andrew. The X-shaped cross recalls the one on which he was crucified and the fish with a hook is a reminder th

The Painter Carlos Luis de Ribera
Oil on canvas. 1839
Madrazo y Kuntz, Federico de
The Painter Carlos Luis de Ribera
Oil on canvas. 1839
Madrazo y Kuntz, Federico de

Carlos Luis de Ribera y Fievé, eldest son of the neoclassical painter, Juan Antonio de Ribera, was also a painter and a friend of Federico de Madrazo, who made this portrait while both lived in Paris. It is the result of an agreement that each would paint the image of the other, and then send the works to the annual painting exhibition at the Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando in Madrid.

The Archangel Raphael and Tobias
Oil on canvas. 1639 - 1640
Claude (Lorrain, Byname Of Claude Gellée)
The Archangel Raphael and Tobias
Oil on canvas. 1639 - 1640
Claude (Lorrain, Byname Of Claude Gellée)

This painting shows the moment when, following an angel’s instructions, Tobias pulls out an enormous fish’s heart and entrails to cure his father’s blindness with them (Book of Tobit: VII, 15). The setting is a landscape with a flowing river that runs diagonally behind the figures. Three fifths of the canvas are occupied by the sky, beginning at the top with an intense blue and concluding at the h

Christ carrying the Cross
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1602
el Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulos)
Christ carrying the Cross
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1602
el Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulos)

A slightly more than half-length image of Jesus wearing a red tunic and blue robes. Holding the cross with both hands, he rests it on his left shoulder. His head is slightly raised and his watery eyes bear a serene, resigned expression as he looks to the heavens. The crown of thorns on his head is reinforced by a luminous rhomboidal halo. The precisely rendered crown shows each of the tender, inte

The Burial of Christ
Oil on canvas. 1559
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)
The Burial of Christ
Oil on canvas. 1559
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)

Titian represented the Gospel account of the burial of Christ (Matthew 27: 57-61; Mark 15: 44-47; Luke 23: 50-54; John 19: 38-42) on several occasions. There is a notable difference between his first version (Paris, Louvre) of around 1526 which is clearly indebted to Raphael´s painting of that subject (Rome, Galleria Borghese), and his other versions painted between 1559 and 1572. The main differe

The Holy Family with a Lamb
Oil on panel. 1507
Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio)
The Holy Family with a Lamb
Oil on panel. 1507
Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio)

In 1504, after training with Perugino, Raphael moved from Perugia to Florence, where he remained for four years to absorb the work of Leonardo and Michelangelo. His gradual mastery of classicism is visible in a series of Madonne that constitute a delicate series of variations on the subject of motherly love. One of these is the Holy Family of the Lamb, which is based on a preparatory drawing by Le

Christ’s Descent into Limbo
Oil on canvas. 1516
Piombo, Sebastiano del
Christ’s Descent into Limbo
Oil on canvas. 1516
Piombo, Sebastiano del

Wearing a white tunic and bearing the standard of victory, Christ leans toward Adam and Eve who, nude, hope to be rescued from Limbo and taken to the Kingdom of Heaven. This passage appears in the Apocrypha, specifically in the Gospel of Nicodemus, which tells of the Resurrection of Christ. The painting's composition reveals two fundamental influences: Michelangelo, in the monumentality of the fig

The Lovers of Teruel
Oil on canvas. 1884
Muñoz Degrain, Antonio
The Lovers of Teruel
Oil on canvas. 1884
Muñoz Degrain, Antonio

Dying of love is a theme often drawn from legendary literature, and was recurrent in nineteenth-century Spanish painting. Beginning with the story Juan Yagüe found in the Archives of the Moot Halls of Teruel, Degrain depicts the impossible love between Isabel Segura and the empoverished nobleman, Diego de Marsilla, which occurred in 1212. The painter chooses the tragic outcome of the two love

The Visitation
Oil on panel transferred to canvas. Ca. 1517
Romano, Giulio (Giovanni Francesco Penni); Penni, Giovanni Francesco
The Visitation
Oil on panel transferred to canvas. Ca. 1517
Romano, Giulio (Giovanni Francesco Penni); Penni, Giovanni Francesco

The Virgin Mary visits her cousin, Elisabeth, who is pregnant with Saint John, as told in the New Testament (Luke 1, 39-45). That is the moment when the Virgin sings the Magnificat. The two figures can be told apart by their age. Mary is depicted as a young woman while Elizabeth, on the left, is almost an old woman, which emphasizes the miracle of her pregnancy, as the Bible texts have it. The sce

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