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Cardinal Juan Everardo Nithard
Oil on canvas. 1674
Arco, Alonso del
Cardinal Juan Everardo Nithard
Oil on canvas. 1674
Arco, Alonso del

Born to an Austrian Catholic family, Juan Everardo Nithard (Falkenstein, 1607-Rome, 1681)became a Jesuit. His solid grounding in theology led Emperor Ferdinand III to appoint him confessor to his children, Leopold and Mariana, and when the latter married Philip IV, he accompanied her to Madrid in the same role. Widowed, Mariana became reagent for her son, Charles, until he came of age, and during

Philip II
Oil on canvas. 1551
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)
Philip II
Oil on canvas. 1551
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)

Philip II was Titian’s most important patron, and the pair’s artistic relationship was one of the most fecund of the Renaissance. They met twice while Philip was still a prince, in Milan (December 1548-January 1549) and Augsburg (November 1550-1551), and Titian painted the prince’s portrait on both occasions. On 29 January 1549 Philip paid the painter 1000 escudos for certain portraits he paints a

The Sense of Hearing
Oil on panel. 1617 - 1618
Rubens, Peter Paul; Brueghel The Elder, Jan (Jan 'velvet' Brueghel)
The Sense of Hearing
Oil on panel. 1617 - 1618
Rubens, Peter Paul; Brueghel The Elder, Jan (Jan 'velvet' Brueghel)

This set of paintings on the five senses (Sight, Hearing, Smell, Taste, Touch) was one of the most successful collaborations of Peter Paul Rubens and Jan Brueghel “the elder.” Rubens placed his figures in the magnificent courtly scenes created by Brueghel as settings for these allegories of the senses, resulting in a series of enormous quality and esthetic appeal. The subject was widely employed i

The Foundation of Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome. The Patrician recounts his Dream to the Pope
Oil on canvas. 1664 - 1665
Murillo, Bartolomé Esteban
The Foundation of Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome. The Patrician recounts his Dream to the Pope
Oil on canvas. 1664 - 1665
Murillo, Bartolomé Esteban

This painting and its companion, The Patrician’s Dream (P994), are among Murillo’s most renowned works. The two arched works were intended to hang beneath a small dome in the recently remodeled Sevillian church of Santa María la Blanca in 1665, and they narrate the story of the founding of the Roman basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore as succinctly set out in the Roman Breviary’s information a

Hecuba' s Grief
Oil on copperplate. Ca. 1630
Bramer, Leonaert
Hecuba' s Grief
Oil on copperplate. Ca. 1630
Bramer, Leonaert

Both the royal inventories and Stchavinsky (1912) identify this scene as the story of Hecuba, wife of Priam of Troy. Wichmann (1923) disagrees, believing it to be the Finding of the bodies of Hero and Leander, an interpretation supported by Valdivieso (1973), Pigler (1974), Salerno (1977-80) and Sluijter (1986). Luna (1984), however, has called attention to the inscription HECVBA / OVIDIVS./ LIB.

The Legend of the Monk King
Oil on canvas. 1880
Casado del Alisal, José
The Legend of the Monk King
Oil on canvas. 1880
Casado del Alisal, José

Traditionally known as The Bell of Huesca, this painting depicts one of the most terrifying events in the history of Medieval Spain. Ramiro II of Aragon decapitated all the noblemen who had dared to challenge his royal power, one by one. As he had promised to make a bell that would ring to reaffirm his power, he did so with the heads of the rebel noblemen. For the clapper, he used the head of the

The Viaticum
Oil on canvas. 1840
Alenza, Leonardo
The Viaticum
Oil on canvas. 1840
Alenza, Leonardo

Leonardo Alenza y Nieto was, without doubt, the painter par excellence of romantic costumbrismo from Madrid. (Costumbrismo refers to nineteenth-century genre scenes representing folkloric subjects and local customs.) Alenza is traditionally considered a follower of Goya for the application of his sharp, honest skills of observation to the least favoured social classes in the Spain of his era, at t

The Temptations of Saint Anthony Abbot
Oil on panel. 1543 - 1550
Coecke Van Aelst, Pieter
The Temptations of Saint Anthony Abbot
Oil on panel. 1543 - 1550
Coecke Van Aelst, Pieter

Saint Anthony is tempted by the Devil, transformed into a beautiful naked woman accompanied by a witch. The burning city in the background, the monsters and other elements are derived from Bosch (c. 1450-1516). However, the figures of Saint Anthony, the witch and particularly the female nude reveal Van Aelst’s assimilation of the new Italian Renaissance idiom.

Ecce Homo
Oil on panel. 1520 - 1525
Maestro de la Santa Sangre
Ecce Homo
Oil on panel. 1520 - 1525
Maestro de la Santa Sangre

Trained in Antwerp and influenced by Quintin Massys, as this panel reveals, the anonymous Master of the Holy Blood had an active workshop in Bruges. In contrast to Massys’ painting of this subject in the Museo del Prado, Christ and Herod are presented frontally. They are also on a larger scale, and less importance is placed on the architecture. However, the caricatural depiction of the torturers i

The Temptations of Saint Anthony Abbot
Oil on oak panel. 1510 - 1515
Bosch, Hieronymus (Workshop Of)
The Temptations of Saint Anthony Abbot
Oil on oak panel. 1510 - 1515
Bosch, Hieronymus (Workshop Of)

Saint Anthony, whom the artist has been able to place in the immediate foreground of this panel by using a landscape format, closely resembles the saint depicted in the Saint Anthony triptych in Lisbon; he is wearing the same habit, the distinctive cape bearing the Tau cross and the customary rosary with a little bell. This large-scale figure, occupying most of the available space on the left of t

Antonia de Ipeñarrieta y Galdós and her Son, Luis
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1632
Velázquez, Diego Rodríguez de Silva y
Antonia de Ipeñarrieta y Galdós and her Son, Luis
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1632
Velázquez, Diego Rodríguez de Silva y

Of the people with whom Velázquez must have had contact on a daily basis at the palace, many would have been high functionaries or skilled servants of the court. His own social aspirations included becoming a member of that professional group, which he eventually joined, and he made portraits of some of them, including two now at the Museo del Prado: Diego del Corral (P01195) and his wife,

The Adoration of the Shepherds
Oil on canvas. 1753 - 1762
Giaquinto, Corrado
The Adoration of the Shepherds
Oil on canvas. 1753 - 1762
Giaquinto, Corrado

An accomplished heir to the Neapolitan tradition of Luca Giordano, Giaquinto reveals the extensive influence of Giordano’s figure types in this Adoration of the Shepherds. In the centre of the composition the infant Christ becomes a powerful source of radiated light which bathes the faces of the figures grouped around the manger.

Landscape with Saint Benedict of Nursia
Oil on canvas. 1634 - 1639
Swanevelt, Herman Van
Landscape with Saint Benedict of Nursia
Oil on canvas. 1634 - 1639
Swanevelt, Herman Van

This painting entered the Museum`s holdings as Saint Francis in the Brambles by Jan Both. The scene is correctly classified in the catalogue of 1873. A decade later Valdivieso (1973) identifies it as the landscape listed in the Buen Retiro inventory of 1701 and proposes it be attributed to Herman van Swanevelt, albeit with the possible collaboration of Jan Both in the landscape. Luna (1984), Bargh

Saint Anthony Abbot
Oil on canvas. XVII century
Tristán, Luis
Saint Anthony Abbot
Oil on canvas. XVII century
Tristán, Luis

San Antonio fue un anacoreta nacido en los confines de la Tebaida hacia el año 250 de nuestra era; practicó una vida de total desapego a los bienes terrenales y durante veinte años se retiró a una gruta donde se entregó a la oración y la penitencia. Los rigores de su retiro llegaron a convertir a San Antonio en el ermitaño por excelencia, cuyo ejemplo fue seguido por otros cristianos. Luis Tristán

The Temptations of Saint Anthony
Oil on oak panel. 1510 - 1515
Bosch, Hieronymus
The Temptations of Saint Anthony
Oil on oak panel. 1510 - 1515
Bosch, Hieronymus

This panel originally had an arched top and included a more open landscape with less leafy trees. At an unknown date the work must have suffered damage that affected the pictorial surface, resulting in losses to the figure of Saint Anthony and the background. Possibly as a result of this, the surface was restored and some areas repainted. The most recent analyses undertaken by the Prado’s Technica

Saint Anthony Abbot in a Landscape
Oil on panel. 1612 - 1614
Maíno, Fray Juan Bautista
Saint Anthony Abbot in a Landscape
Oil on panel. 1612 - 1614
Maíno, Fray Juan Bautista

On 14 February 1612 Juan Bautista Maíno signed the contract to execute the paintings for the monastery church of San Pedro Mártir in Toledo. Maíno agreed to a period of eight months to make the paintings, which had to portray the scenes and episodes specified by the prior of the monastery. Despite the agreement reached in the contract, the paintings were not completed until De

A Fair in Santiponce
Oil on canvas. 1855
Rodríguez de Guzmán, Manuel
A Fair in Santiponce
Oil on canvas. 1855
Rodríguez de Guzmán, Manuel

En el centro de la composición, un músico sentado tocando una guitarra de tipología francesa y unas figuras danzando refuerzan el carácter festivo de la representación. Detrás del guitarrista hay una figura masculina con las palmas de las manos abiertas hacia el espectador que podría estar cantando algún palo flamenco. La mujer con vestimenta en tonos rosas danza apoyando el pie derecho sobre la p

Saint Anthony Abbot in Meditation
Oil on panel. Ca. 1510
Lodi, Giovanni Agostino Da
Saint Anthony Abbot in Meditation
Oil on panel. Ca. 1510
Lodi, Giovanni Agostino Da

Saint Anthony (Ca. 251-356) is reading a book, probably the rules of the Order of Saint Anthony, which rests on a boulder. This rock also holds a bell, which hermits used to drive away demons and temptations. A tau-shaped staff also leans against it, symbolizing it´s owner´s future life and dignity as an abbot. Stylistically, this work is close to Bellini. It may have been made by Giovanni Agostin

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