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Ferdinand VII in Court Dress
Oil on canvas. 1814 - 1815
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Ferdinand VII in Court Dress
Oil on canvas. 1814 - 1815
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

Born in 1784 in El Escorial, Fernando VII was Carlos IV eldest son by Maria Luisa. In 1815, after abolishing the Constitution, he reined as an absolute monarch. He appears wearing the symbols of his royal condition, with a purple, ermine-lined robe, and a scepter with the coat of arms of Castile and Leon in his right hand. The sash of the Order of Carlos III crosses his chest, and he also bears th

The 3rd of May 1808 in Madrid, or “The Executions”
Oil on canvas. 1814
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
The 3rd of May 1808 in Madrid, or “The Executions”
Oil on canvas. 1814
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

A depiction of the execution of patriots from Madrid by a firing squad from Napoleon´s army in reprisal for their uprising against the French occupation on the second of May, 1808. The French soldiers are at the right of the composition, with their backs to the viewer. They aim their rifles at the Madrilenes who are to die. The scene´s drama and tension are emphasized by the use of light, which st

Self-Portrait
Oil on canvas. 1815
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Self-Portrait
Oil on canvas. 1815
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

Goya deliberately presents himself here as vulnerable and fragile, revealing the most serene and welcoming facet of his personality. A dark background painted with rapid, energetic crossing brushstrokes adds presence to his reddish-brown frock coat, which contrasts with his very white, open-necked shirt, both of which are painted with finer brushstrokes than the background. This technique, in the

The Marchioness of Santa Cruz
Oil on unlined canvas. 1805
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
The Marchioness of Santa Cruz
Oil on unlined canvas. 1805
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

Joaquina Téllez-Girón y Pimentel (1784-1851) was the daughter of the Duke and Duchess of Osuna and Marchioness of Santa Cruz by her marriage to José Gabriel de Silva y Walstein in 1801. A friend of poets and literati, she was one of the most admired women of her time. Goya presents her wearing white crêpe and reposing on a canapé upholstered in red velvet. She is

Ferdinand VII at an Encampment
Oil on canvas. After 1815
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Ferdinand VII at an Encampment
Oil on canvas. After 1815
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

Several portraits of Ferdinand VII are attributed to Goya, though only a few have sufficient quality to be considered fully his own work. Furthermore, there is no accurate documentation of the portraits of a monarch who chose Vicente López to be the official portraitist over Goya. It is, however, clearly documented that Goya, as first court painter, did an equestrian portrait that was one o

Saint John the Baptist in the Desert
Oil on canvas. 1810 - 1812
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Saint John the Baptist in the Desert
Oil on canvas. 1810 - 1812
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

Goya depicts Saint John as an adolescent, holding his traditional attributes: a cross whose banner reads “Lamb of God.” The artist places him on a boulder, looking up and thinking about Christ´s future Passion. This is an original conception of a religious subject that was quite frequent in Spain beginning with the Baroque painters. The color scheme, which is exceptionally vivid, as well as

The Naked Maja
Oil on canvas. 1795 - 1800
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
The Naked Maja
Oil on canvas. 1795 - 1800
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

An image of Venus in the nude, lying on a green velvet divan with pillows and a spread. Legend would have it that this was the Duchess of Alba, but the sitter has also been identified as Pepita Tudó, who became Godoy´s mistress in 1797. It is listed for the first time in 1800 as hanging over a door in Manuel Godoy´s palace, but without its companion, The Clothed Maja (P00741). In 1808 it is

General José de Urrutia
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1798
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
General José de Urrutia
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1798
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

Don José de Urrutria y de las Casas (1739-1809), was the only soldier of his day to reach the rank of Field Marshal without being a titled nobleman. He is shown wearing the Cross of Saint George which he received from Catharine of Russia for his actions at the siege of Ochakiv, (Ukraine) in 1789. In 1798 he was removed from all public office due to differences with Manuel Godoy. This portra

The Victorious Hannibal seeing Italy from the Alps for the first Time
Oil on canvas. 1771
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
The Victorious Hannibal seeing Italy from the Alps for the first Time
Oil on canvas. 1771
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

The Victorious Hannibal is the first documented work by Goya. He painted it in Rome in 1771 in order to submit it that year to the competition held by the prestigious Academy of Fine Arts in Parma where it received an honourable mention. In general Goya adhered to the Academy’s precise guidelines for the depiction of the subject, which is related to the history of Spain. He worked out the composit

Wild merchants
Pencil, Iron gall ink, Black chalk lines on laid paper. 1796 - 1797
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Wild merchants
Pencil, Iron gall ink, Black chalk lines on laid paper. 1796 - 1797
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

This preparatory drawing for the etching Capricho 11, Lads Making Ready (G02099 / G00644) is part of The Dreams, a series of twenty-six pen-and-ink drawings that serve as the basis for the Caprichos. Headed by Dream 1. The Author Dreaming, which became number 43 in the definitive and expanded Caprichos. The subject matter was common in that period in compositions employed by Enlightenment critics

The Old Women are filled with laughter because they know he hasn’t a penny
Brush, Pencil, Indian ink wash, Iron gall ink on laid paper. 1796 - 1797
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
The Old Women are filled with laughter because they know he hasn’t a penny
Brush, Pencil, Indian ink wash, Iron gall ink on laid paper. 1796 - 1797
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

This preparatory drawing for the etching Capricho 5, Two of a Kind (G02093) is part of The Dreams, a series of twenty-six pen-and-ink drawings that serve as the basis for the Caprichos in the first stage of its creation. The subject matter was common in depictions of that period. At first glance, the preparatory drawing might seem to be a simple genre scene—a lady being courted by a gentleman whil

Universal Language. The Author dreaming
Black chalk, Pencil, Iron gall ink on laid paper. 1797
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Universal Language. The Author dreaming
Black chalk, Pencil, Iron gall ink on laid paper. 1797
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

International Language is the preparatory drawing for the well-known Capricho 43, The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters, and it bears the marks of having been transferred to the copper plate. The final composition presented here differs from the original idea, whose composition was more confused yet attractive, as its technique reflected the fire of creative passion in the rays of light emerging f

Sueño De Brujas
Pencil, Iron gall ink, Black chalk lines on laid paper. 1796 - 1797
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Sueño De Brujas
Pencil, Iron gall ink, Black chalk lines on laid paper. 1796 - 1797
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

This preparatory drawing for Caprichos, 70, Devout profession is in two parts. The image on the front of the paper is called Dream of a beginner witch while the rear one, which appears with the title, Dream of witches, has been traced from the previous one with some variants that reflect ideas from Witches in flight, a drawing in Album B or the Madrid Album. Flying was a skill that had always been

At the height of their flight, the haughty witches are cast down
Pencil, Iron gall ink, Black chalk lines on laid paper. 1796 - 1797
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
At the height of their flight, the haughty witches are cast down
Pencil, Iron gall ink, Black chalk lines on laid paper. 1796 - 1797
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

A preparatory drawing for the etching, Capricho 62, Who could believe it! (G02150). Together, the twenty-six pen-and-ink drawings that constitute the basis for The Caprichos are known as The Dreams. The first, Dream 1, The Author Dreaming, became number 43 in the Caprichos. This was a common subject during that period. The composition of Dream 10 is practically the same as that of the etching, Cap

There are amours here too
Brush, Pencil, Grey-brown ink, Wash on laid paper, continuous red paper. 1814 - 1823
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
There are amours here too
Brush, Pencil, Grey-brown ink, Wash on laid paper, continuous red paper. 1814 - 1823
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

Goya’s Album C exemplifies the complexity of his work. Made during the Peninsular War and the posterior repression under the reign of Ferdinand VII, it addresses subjects linked to many facets of that period. Other authors believe this album extends through the years of the Liberal Triennium (1820-23), as they see a relation between some of its drawings and the joy associated with the restoration

He takes his clothes off for evermore
Brush, Bistre, Grey-brown ink, Black chalk lines, Wash on laid paper. 1814 - 1823
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
He takes his clothes off for evermore
Brush, Bistre, Grey-brown ink, Black chalk lines, Wash on laid paper. 1814 - 1823
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

Goya’s Album C exemplifies the complexity of his work. Made during the Peninsular War and the posterior repression under the reign of Ferdinand VII, it addresses subjects linked to many facets of that period. Other authors believe this album extends through the years of the Liberal Triennium (1820-23), as they see a relation between some of its drawings and the joy associated with the restoration

Severity is not always good
Indian ink, Wash on dark yellow laid paper. 1816 - 1820
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Severity is not always good
Indian ink, Wash on dark yellow laid paper. 1816 - 1820
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

A boy trying to do his homework buries his face in his hands to protect himself from the threat of an old woman´s whip. The brutality of the punishment is decisively underlined by the authoritative presence of the old woman, with her legs and hands open, her dominant figure contras with the smallness of the child. The almost animal characters of the woman´s face correspond to the irrationality of

Dream of Lies and Fickleness
Black chalk, Pencil, Bistre, Iron gall ink, Wash on laid paper. 1796 - 1797
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Dream of Lies and Fickleness
Black chalk, Pencil, Bistre, Iron gall ink, Wash on laid paper. 1796 - 1797
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

This is a preparatory drawing for an unpublished plate from Los Caprichos. The only remaining print of that plate is a single proof printed on the back of another etching at the Biblioteca Nacional (1797-1799, No. 45637; H 119.I.2). It is part of Dreams, a group of drawings that form the basis for Los Caprichos and were a customary subject for representations during that period. Dream of Lies and

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