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Heraclitus, the Crying Philosopher
Oil on canvas. 1636 - 1638
Rubens, Peter Paul (Workshop Of)
Heraclitus, the Crying Philosopher
Oil on canvas. 1636 - 1638
Rubens, Peter Paul (Workshop Of)

The Greek philosopher, Heraclitus of Ephesus (540-470 B.C.), wears a black tunic and leans on a stone, weeping. He embodies the idea of a tragic sense of life, thinking about the future form a lonely [+]

Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria at the Battle of Nördlingen
Oil on canvas. 1634 - 1635
Rubens, Peter Paul
Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria at the Battle of Nördlingen
Oil on canvas. 1634 - 1635
Rubens, Peter Paul

The Cardinal-Infante is depicted in full body armor, with a black hat, a staff and a red sash. He is portrayed as a general of the Spanish Armies during the Battle of Nördlingen when, in 1634, th [+]

The Death of Viriatus, Chief of the Lusitanians (preparatory sketch)
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1807
Madrazo y Agudo, José de
The Death of Viriatus, Chief of the Lusitanians (preparatory sketch)
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1807
Madrazo y Agudo, José de

This preparatory sketch for the large-scale canvas painted by Madrazo in Rome (also on display in this room) reveals various differences with respect to the final composition. Madrazo gave more space [+]

Lupercalia
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1635
Camassei, Andrea
Lupercalia
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1635
Camassei, Andrea

Lupercalia was a festival involving sacrifices to the two deities associated, respectively, with fecundity and childbirth: Pan and Lucina. As part of the celebrations, the men whipped their wives to m [+]

Wamba renouncing the Crown
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1819
Ribera y Fernández, Juan Antonio
Wamba renouncing the Crown
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1819
Ribera y Fernández, Juan Antonio

An elderly Wamba rejects the crown that the Visigoth nobles offer him with a wave of his hand, but one of them threatens to kill him if he does not accept it. This work was painted for the Casino de l [+]

Two Wrestlers
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1637
Fracanzano, Cesare
Two Wrestlers
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1637
Fracanzano, Cesare

This work belongs to a group from the History of Rome series for the Buen Retiro Palace. Dedicated to depictions of Roman public pastimes, the group includes athletes, gladiators, chariots, animal fig [+]

Constantine’s Triumphal Entry in Rome
Oil on canvas. 1636 - 1638
Gargiulo, Domenico, Called Micco Spadaro; Codazzi, Viviano
Constantine’s Triumphal Entry in Rome
Oil on canvas. 1636 - 1638
Gargiulo, Domenico, Called Micco Spadaro; Codazzi, Viviano

This work and Vespasian’s Triumphal Entry in Rome (P237) are among the earliest examples of the collaboration between Domenico Gargiulo (also known as Micco Spadaro) and Viviano Codazzi, in which the [+]

Cincinnatus abandons the Plough to dictate Laws to Rome
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1806
Ribera y Fernández, Juan Antonio
Cincinnatus abandons the Plough to dictate Laws to Rome
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1806
Ribera y Fernández, Juan Antonio

The hero of Republican Rome, Lucius Quinctius Cinncinatus had abandoned public life and retired to farm work. This painting depicts the moment when various representatives of the Senate offer to name [+]

The Brazen Serpent
Oil on canvas. 1743 - 1744
Giaquinto, Corrado
The Brazen Serpent
Oil on canvas. 1743 - 1744
Giaquinto, Corrado

Moses Striking Water from the Rock and The Bronze Serpent are related to frescos on the same subjects in the apse of the basilica of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme in Rome. Those decorations commissioned [+]

Democritus, the Laughing Philosopher
Oil on canvas. 1636 - 1638
Rubens, Peter Paul (Workshop Of)
Democritus, the Laughing Philosopher
Oil on canvas. 1636 - 1638
Rubens, Peter Paul (Workshop Of)

Democritus of Abdera (460-370 B.C.) is the pictorial pendant of Heraclitus (P01680) as well as his philosophical counterpoint. Wearing bright colors, he laughs sarcastically while contemplating a glob [+]

Sacrifice to Bacchus
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1634
Stanzione, Massimo
Sacrifice to Bacchus
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1634
Stanzione, Massimo

While it is first listed in 1666 at the Alcázar, where it hung alongside Ribera’s Fable of Bacchus or Teoxenia (of which only three fragments have survived: two at the Museo del Prado and one i [+]

The Foundation of Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome. The Patrician's Dream
Oil on canvas. 1664 - 1665
Murillo, Bartolomé Esteban
The Foundation of Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome. The Patrician's Dream
Oil on canvas. 1664 - 1665
Murillo, Bartolomé Esteban

This painting and its companion, The Patrician Reveals his Dream to the Pope (P995), are among Murillo’s most renowned works. The two arched works were intended to hang beneath a small dome in the rec [+]

Theodoric, King of the Visigoths
Oil on canvas. 1635
Castello, Félix
Theodoric, King of the Visigoths
Oil on canvas. 1635
Castello, Félix

This canvas was part of an unfinished series of Visigoth monarchs painted for the Buen Retiro Palace, which also included works by Vicente Carducho, Jusepe Leonardo, Antonio Pereda and Andrés L [+]

Cleopatra
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1640
Reni, Guido
Cleopatra
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1640
Reni, Guido

Cleopatra VII (r. 51-30 BCE) was the sovereign of Egypt and the last representative of its final royal family, the Ptolemaic dynasty. Feeling that all was lost after her armies and those of her Roman [+]

The Circus Maximus in Rome
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1638
Gargiulo, Domenico, Called Micco Spadaro; Codazzi, Viviano
The Circus Maximus in Rome
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1638
Gargiulo, Domenico, Called Micco Spadaro; Codazzi, Viviano

This is one of four depictions of spectacles from ancient Rome that Domenico Gargiulo and Viviano Codazzi painted for the large History of Rome series at the Buen Retiro Palace. Of those four, in whic [+]

Visit of Queen Maria Amalia of Saxony to the Arch of Trajan in Benevento
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1759
Joli, Antonio
Visit of Queen Maria Amalia of Saxony to the Arch of Trajan in Benevento
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1759
Joli, Antonio

This architectural landscape showing the ancient Roman city of Benevento, near Naples, was painted around 1759 by Antonio Joli of Modena. A painter of theatre sets and vedute, Joli worked for theatres [+]

Diogenes searching for a Man
Oil on canvas. 1645 - 1655
Castiglione, Giovanni Benedetto
Diogenes searching for a Man
Oil on canvas. 1645 - 1655
Castiglione, Giovanni Benedetto

An inquiring and original artist, as well as an extraordinary draughtsman, Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione travelled throughout much of Italy (besides his native Genoa, he worked in Rome, Mantua, Venic [+]

Landscape with Saint Paul the Hermit
Oil on canvas. 1637 - 1638
Poussin, Nicolas
Landscape with Saint Paul the Hermit
Oil on canvas. 1637 - 1638
Poussin, Nicolas

Nicolas Poussin has a curious relation to the Buen Retiro Palace. Úbea considers him the determinant artist among all those who took part in its decorative project. That could explain why he wa [+]

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