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The Triumph of Bacchus
Oil on canvas. After 1635
Finoglia, Paolo Domenico
The Triumph of Bacchus
Oil on canvas. After 1635
Finoglia, Paolo Domenico

Paolo Domenico Finoglia was deeply involved in the creation of paintings for the History of Rome cycle at the Buen Retiro Palace. His participation includes this superb Triumph of Bacchus, a Gladiator [+]

Masinissa Mourning Over the Death of Sophonisba (?)
Oil on canvas. XVII century
Finoglia, Paolo Domenico
Masinissa Mourning Over the Death of Sophonisba (?)
Oil on canvas. XVII century
Finoglia, Paolo Domenico

Within the large series of paintings dedicated to the history of Rome, this work and Meleager’s Hunt (P2320) belong to a small group of scenes from mythology and the history of Antiquity. This is undo [+]

Heraclitus, the Crying Philosopher
Oil on canvas. 1636 - 1638
Rubens, Peter Paul (Workshop Of)
Heraclitus, the Crying Philosopher
Oil on canvas. 1636 - 1638
Rubens, Peter Paul (Workshop Of)

The Greek philosopher, Heraclitus of Ephesus (540-470 B.C.), wears a black tunic and leans on a stone, weeping. He embodies the idea of a tragic sense of life, thinking about the future form a lonely [+]

Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria at the Battle of Nördlingen
Oil on canvas. 1634 - 1635
Rubens, Peter Paul
Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria at the Battle of Nördlingen
Oil on canvas. 1634 - 1635
Rubens, Peter Paul

The Cardinal-Infante is depicted in full body armor, with a black hat, a staff and a red sash. He is portrayed as a general of the Spanish Armies during the Battle of Nördlingen when, in 1634, th [+]

The Death of Viriatus, Chief of the Lusitanians (preparatory sketch)
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1807
Madrazo y Agudo, José de
The Death of Viriatus, Chief of the Lusitanians (preparatory sketch)
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1807
Madrazo y Agudo, José de

This preparatory sketch for the large-scale canvas painted by Madrazo in Rome (also on display in this room) reveals various differences with respect to the final composition. Madrazo gave more space [+]

Funeral Rites for a Roman Emperor
Oil on canvas. 1634 - 1635
Domenichino (Domenico Zampieri)
Funeral Rites for a Roman Emperor
Oil on canvas. 1634 - 1635
Domenichino (Domenico Zampieri)

This is the best-documented painting in the entire History of Rome cycle. It is also one of the works that raises the most questions about aspects as important as its authorship and its subject matter [+]

Lupercalia
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1635
Camassei, Andrea
Lupercalia
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1635
Camassei, Andrea

Lupercalia was a festival involving sacrifices to the two deities associated, respectively, with fecundity and childbirth: Pan and Lucina. As part of the celebrations, the men whipped their wives to m [+]

Wamba renouncing the Crown
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1819
Ribera y Fernández, Juan Antonio
Wamba renouncing the Crown
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1819
Ribera y Fernández, Juan Antonio

An elderly Wamba rejects the crown that the Visigoth nobles offer him with a wave of his hand, but one of them threatens to kill him if he does not accept it. This work was painted for the Casino de l [+]

Two Wrestlers
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1637
Fracanzano, Cesare
Two Wrestlers
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1637
Fracanzano, Cesare

This work belongs to a group from the History of Rome series for the Buen Retiro Palace. Dedicated to depictions of Roman public pastimes, the group includes athletes, gladiators, chariots, animal fig [+]

The Virgin Dolorosa with her Hands apart
Oil. 1555
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)
The Virgin Dolorosa with her Hands apart
Oil. 1555
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)

We know from a letter of 30 June 1553 from the Spanish Ambassador in Venice that Titian was waiting for instructions from the emperor to paint a panel of Our Lady the same as the Ecce Homo which Your [+]

Constantine’s Triumphal Entry in Rome
Oil on canvas. 1636 - 1638
Gargiulo, Domenico, Called Micco Spadaro; Codazzi, Viviano
Constantine’s Triumphal Entry in Rome
Oil on canvas. 1636 - 1638
Gargiulo, Domenico, Called Micco Spadaro; Codazzi, Viviano

This work and Vespasian’s Triumphal Entry in Rome (P237) are among the earliest examples of the collaboration between Domenico Gargiulo (also known as Micco Spadaro) and Viviano Codazzi, in which the [+]

Cincinnatus abandons the Plough to dictate Laws to Rome
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1806
Ribera y Fernández, Juan Antonio
Cincinnatus abandons the Plough to dictate Laws to Rome
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1806
Ribera y Fernández, Juan Antonio

The hero of Republican Rome, Lucius Quinctius Cinncinatus had abandoned public life and retired to farm work. This painting depicts the moment when various representatives of the Senate offer to name [+]

The Brazen Serpent
Oil on canvas. 1743 - 1744
Giaquinto, Corrado
The Brazen Serpent
Oil on canvas. 1743 - 1744
Giaquinto, Corrado

Moses Striking Water from the Rock and The Bronze Serpent are related to frescos on the same subjects in the apse of the basilica of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme in Rome. Those decorations commissioned [+]

Democritus, the Laughing Philosopher
Oil on canvas. 1636 - 1638
Rubens, Peter Paul (Workshop Of)
Democritus, the Laughing Philosopher
Oil on canvas. 1636 - 1638
Rubens, Peter Paul (Workshop Of)

Democritus of Abdera (460-370 B.C.) is the pictorial pendant of Heraclitus (P01680) as well as his philosophical counterpoint. Wearing bright colors, he laughs sarcastically while contemplating a glob [+]

Figure of a Woman
Oil on canvas. 1636
Ribera, Jusepe de, lo Spagnoletto
Figure of a Woman
Oil on canvas. 1636
Ribera, Jusepe de, lo Spagnoletto

This work is a fragment of a painting that showed the visit of the god of wine to mortals, as is Detail of the Head of Bacchus (P-1123) and another painting in Bogotá. The work, based on an Hel [+]

Women Gladiators
Oil on canvas. XVII century
Vaccaro, Andrea (Attributed To)
Women Gladiators
Oil on canvas. XVII century
Vaccaro, Andrea (Attributed To)

This work belongs to a group from the History of Rome series for the Buen Retiro Palace. Dedicated to depictions of Roman public pastimes, the group includes athletes, gladiators, chariots, animal fig [+]

Sacrifice to Bacchus
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1634
Stanzione, Massimo
Sacrifice to Bacchus
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1634
Stanzione, Massimo

While it is first listed in 1666 at the Alcázar, where it hung alongside Ribera’s Fable of Bacchus or Teoxenia (of which only three fragments have survived: two at the Museo del Prado and one i [+]

The Foundation of Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome. The Patrician's Dream
Oil on canvas. 1664 - 1665
Murillo, Bartolomé Esteban
The Foundation of Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome. The Patrician's Dream
Oil on canvas. 1664 - 1665
Murillo, Bartolomé Esteban

This painting and its companion, The Patrician Reveals his Dream to the Pope (P995), are among Murillo’s most renowned works. The two arched works were intended to hang beneath a small dome in the rec [+]

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