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Study for the dead Christ
Black chalk, Touches of white chalk on ivory laid paper. 1768
Mengs, Anton Raphael
Study for the dead Christ
Black chalk, Touches of white chalk on ivory laid paper. 1768
Mengs, Anton Raphael

Neoclassical painter Anton Raphael Mengs spent some eleven years in Spain -from 1761 to 1769, and again from 1774 to 1777- working primarily on the decoration of Madrid’s Royal Palace for King Charles III. For the king’s bedroom, Mengs made a series of easel paintings on the Passion of Christ -most importantly, Descent from the Cross, Patrimonio Nacional, on permanent loan to the Museu Nacional d’

Conjugal row
Grey-brown wash on ivory paper, laid paper. 1812 - 1823
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Conjugal row
Grey-brown wash on ivory paper, laid paper. 1812 - 1823
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

Created in the tumultuous years of the war, Sketchbook F offers a set of drawings marked by cruelty. Among the most heartrending of these is this unequal struggle between a man and a woman, by means of which Goya demonstrates his capacity to depict the essence of gender violence. The somber atmosphere of the bedroom and the lights cast on the bodies dressed in their nightgowns show the movement of

What is the use of a cup?
Black chalk, Red chalk on ivory paper, laid paper. Ca. 1813
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
What is the use of a cup?
Black chalk, Red chalk on ivory paper, laid paper. Ca. 1813
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

Preparatory drawing for Disasters of War, 59, What is the use of a cup?.In this series of prints executed between 1810 and 1814 Goya offers a critical and personal vision of the consequences of the Spanish Peninsular War (1808-14) that is remote from the propagandistic images produced by his contemporaries. Through his etchings the artist condemned the irrationality of war and the brutality of bot

Saint Ildephonsus and Recceswinth in the Tomb of Saint Leocadia / Two Standing Figures of Saints
Pencil, Pencil on ivory laid paper. XVII century
Cajés, Eugenio (Attributed To)
Saint Ildephonsus and Recceswinth in the Tomb of Saint Leocadia / Two Standing Figures of Saints
Pencil, Pencil on ivory laid paper. XVII century
Cajés, Eugenio (Attributed To)

The scene takes place in an architectural setting with an open sarcophagus (onto which the saint is half-kneeling) and an altar on the right. On the left, Saint Ildephonsus, wearing pontifical vestments, holds out his hands to receive the scissors that Recceswinth offers while standing behind the tomb. The attribution to Cajés is perfectly plausible in view of the character, the technique a

Duels. On guard!
Grey-brown wash on ivory paper, dark yellow laid paper. 1815 - 1820
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Duels. On guard!
Grey-brown wash on ivory paper, dark yellow laid paper. 1815 - 1820
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

Because of its technique and theme, this Sketchbook F seems to have been produced around the same time as Album C, roughly between 1812 and 1820. The drawings were executed using a brush an iron gall ink, the same ink as used for standard writing at that time. In this case, Goya reused an old notebook due to the shortage of paper at that time. Despite its thematic variety, the Sketchbook F present

Charles III, King of Spain
Taille douce: etching and engraving on ivory laid paper. 1788
Ximeno y Planes, Rafael; Selma, Fernando
Charles III, King of Spain
Taille douce: etching and engraving on ivory laid paper. 1788
Ximeno y Planes, Rafael; Selma, Fernando

This portrait is closely based on Charles III in hunting Dress by Francisco de Goya. The monarch, wearing a dress coat, has the same pose as in the painting, leaning forward slightly and with sloping shoulders. The modelling of the face is also the same. The print was published in 1788 in the revised edition of the Bibliotheca hispana vetus (1672) by Nicolás Antonio.

They already have a seat
Etching, Aquatint on ivory laid paper. 1797 - 1799
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
They already have a seat
Etching, Aquatint on ivory laid paper. 1797 - 1799
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

Prueba de estado de la estampa G02114 (1aedición). En esta escena Goya alude a conceptos como moza de silla, identificado con la práctica de la prostitución, o a expresiones tales como sentar la cabeza, en el sentido de volverse una persona juiciosa, entendiéndose esto como un acto de ironía por parte de Goya. El tipo de sillas y la contraposición entre las mujeres y los petimetres permite suponer

Mummy’s Boy
Burnished aquatint, Etching on ivory laid paper. 1797 - 1799
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Mummy’s Boy
Burnished aquatint, Etching on ivory laid paper. 1797 - 1799
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

Printer’s proof prior to the first edition Capricho 4, Mummy´s Boy (El de la rollona), before the replacement of the letter “y” with “ll” in “rollona”. Etching and burnished aquatint The word rollona used in the title refers to a strong, plump woman and was only used in the expression “el niño de la rollona”, which appears in various proverbs and sayings in the 17th and 18th centuries and r

Que sacrificio!
Drypoint, Burnished aquatint, Etching on ivory laid paper. 1797 - 1799
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Que sacrificio!
Drypoint, Burnished aquatint, Etching on ivory laid paper. 1797 - 1799
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

Capricho 14, What a Sacrifice! is part of The Caprichos. The subject matter was common in that period as dreams were used to represent the world from the perspective of the artist’s imagination without reference to any concrete reality. The print and the preparatory drawing (D04195) are identical except for some background details. We know the subject thanks to handwritten comments by Valent&iacu

Devout profession
Drypoint, Etching, Aquatint on ivory laid paper. 1797 - 1799
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Devout profession
Drypoint, Etching, Aquatint on ivory laid paper. 1797 - 1799
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

Caprichos, 70, Devout profession. The harsh criticism set out by the artist in these images, which he ironically titled Devout profession, to openly reveal the scene’s meaning, is directed against ignorant and hypocritical clergymen, metaphorically represented here by witchcraft.

All will fall
Burnished aquatint, Etching on ivory laid paper. 1797 - 1799
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
All will fall
Burnished aquatint, Etching on ivory laid paper. 1797 - 1799
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

Capricho 19. The satirical tone that Goya employs in the Caprichos in which he criticises prostitution is applied to both the girls and their clients, the latter depicted as plucked chickens. The artist’s comment on this drawing refers to the young men and women’s inevitable end: “And to think those about to fall won’t take warning from those already fallen. But there is no remedy: all will fall.”

There it goes
Drypoint, Etching, Aquatint on ivory laid paper. 1797 - 1799
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
There it goes
Drypoint, Etching, Aquatint on ivory laid paper. 1797 - 1799
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

Capricho 66, There it goes is part of The Carpichos. The subject matter was common in representations of that period. The preparatory drawing’s composition shows a witch riding on a mischievous devil, as does the corresponding print (G02154). Valentín Carderera’s handwritten commentary at the the Museo del Prado in Madrid reads: There goes a witch, riding on a mischievous devil. This poor d

The filiation
Etching, Aquatint on ivory laid paper. 1797 - 1799
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
The filiation
Etching, Aquatint on ivory laid paper. 1797 - 1799
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

Capricho 57, The filiation. In the composition, a standing man reads to a seated woman. Both wear masks. Another man scrutinizes them with a monocle while the monkey on his shoulders looks directly out at the viewer, and various other figures appear in the background. The layout of the print does not entirely correspond to that of the preparatory drawing. The reading man has been replaced by a wo

Two of a Kind
Drypoint, Etching, Aquatint on ivory laid paper. 1797 - 1799
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Two of a Kind
Drypoint, Etching, Aquatint on ivory laid paper. 1797 - 1799
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

Capricho 5, Two of a Kind is part of The Caprichos. The subject matter was common in depictions of that period. At first glance, the preparatory drawing might seem to be a simple genre scene—a lady being courted by a gentleman while two older women converse behind them—but the upper-class appearance of both the woman’s clothing (a mantilla and black shawl, a silk lace garment covering her head and

Even thus he cannot make her out
Drypoint, Etching, Aquatint on ivory laid paper. 1797 - 1799
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Even thus he cannot make her out
Drypoint, Etching, Aquatint on ivory laid paper. 1797 - 1799
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

Capricho 7, Even thus he cannot make her out is part of The Caprichos. The subject matter—social criticism—was a useful tool for both the artist and other members of the Enlightenment, and its intentions are clarified by Valentín Carderera’s handwritten notes at both the Museo del Prado and the Biblioteca Nacional. The former reads: How can he make her out? To know what she is, eyeglasses a

Look how solemn they are!
Drypoint, Etching, Aquatint on ivory laid paper. 1797 - 1799
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Look how solemn they are!
Drypoint, Etching, Aquatint on ivory laid paper. 1797 - 1799
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

Capricho 63, Look how solemn they are! is part of The Caprichos. The subject matter was common in representations of that period. The composition has three figures, one of whom is being ridden by the one closest to the viewer, and the same occurs in the corresponding print. These are the lazy drones who live off of others. The handwritten commentary at the Biblioteca Nacional observes: Only monstr

They already have a seat
Burnished aquatint, Etching on ivory laid paper. 1797 - 1799
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
They already have a seat
Burnished aquatint, Etching on ivory laid paper. 1797 - 1799
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

En esta escena Goya alude a conceptos como “moza de silla”, identificado con la práctica de la prostitución, o a expresiones tales como “sentar la cabeza”, en el sentido de volverse una persona juiciosa, entendiéndose esto como un acto de ironía por parte de Goya. El tipo de sillas y la contraposición entre las mujeres y los petimetres permite suponer una escena paródica del madrileño Paseo o Saló

Pretty teacher!
Drypoint, Burnished aquatint, Etching on ivory laid paper. 1797 - 1799
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Pretty teacher!
Drypoint, Burnished aquatint, Etching on ivory laid paper. 1797 - 1799
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

Capricho 68, Pretty teacher!

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