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Portrait of Mariana of Austria, daughter of Emperor Leopold I
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1695
Anonymous
Portrait of Mariana of Austria, daughter of Emperor Leopold I
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1695
Anonymous

La retratada ha sido identificada por E. Puerto Mendoza (2020) con la archiduquesa María Ana de Austria (1683-1754), hija del emperador Leopoldo I y de Leonor de Neoburgo, lo que la convertía en sobrina de la reina de España Mariana de Neoburgo. Esta soberana probablemente lo exhibió en la galería de retratos familiares que tenía instalada en su cuarto de verano del Alcázar de Madrid. En su edad a

Queen Mariana of Austria
Oil on canvas. 1652 - 1653
Velázquez, Diego Rodríguez de Silva y
Queen Mariana of Austria
Oil on canvas. 1652 - 1653
Velázquez, Diego Rodríguez de Silva y

Mariana of Austria (1634-1696) was the daughter of the Emperor Ferdinand III and María of Hungary. It was intended that she marry her cousin, Prince Baltasar Carlos, but following his death she married Philip IV in 1649. Velázquez executed this portrait after his return from Italy. The elaborate clothing, chair and curtain emphasise the sitter`s rank while the table clock alludes to

Portrait of a Man
Oil on panel. 1521
Dürer, Albrecht
Portrait of a Man
Oil on panel. 1521
Dürer, Albrecht

This portrait is one of Dürer’s great creations. It offers a three-quarters view of an unidentified person who occupies most of the canvas. Dürer places him in front of a dark background that bears some touches of blue. The light enters from the left, bringing out the features of the face and hands and projecting the sitter’s shadow onto the background at the right, where the date and th

Ferdinand VII in Court Dress
Oil on canvas. 1814 - 1815
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Ferdinand VII in Court Dress
Oil on canvas. 1814 - 1815
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

Born in 1784 in El Escorial, Fernando VII was Carlos IV eldest son by Maria Luisa. In 1815, after abolishing the Constitution, he reined as an absolute monarch. He appears wearing the symbols of his royal condition, with a purple, ermine-lined robe, and a scepter with the coat of arms of Castile and Leon in his right hand. The sash of the Order of Carlos III crosses his chest, and he also bears th

Maria Anna of Spain, Queen of Hungary
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1630
Velázquez, Diego Rodríguez de Silva y
Maria Anna of Spain, Queen of Hungary
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1630
Velázquez, Diego Rodríguez de Silva y

Philip IV´s sister, Maria, was born in El Escorial in 1606. As a result of her royal lineage, she was destined to become yet another pawn in the play of matrimonial alliances that the European courts found so useful. As a marriageable infanta, marrying her was first considered a means of improving diplomatic relations with England, but those efforts failed as a result of religious incompatabilites

The Allocution of Marquis del Vasto to his Troops
Oil on canvas. 1540 - 1541
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)
The Allocution of Marquis del Vasto to his Troops
Oil on canvas. 1540 - 1541
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)

Alfonso d´Avalos, first Marchese del Vasto, was born in Ischia on 25 May 1502 to a noble Neapolitan family of Castilian origins. He fought in Pavia (1525) under the orders of his uncle Fernando d´Avalos, Marchese di Pescara, inheriting his titles and estates on his uncle´s death that same year. In 1535 D´Avalos commanded the army that conquered Tunis and in 1538, he was appointed governor of Milan

Cardinal Juan Everardo Nithard
Oil on canvas. 1674
Arco, Alonso del
Cardinal Juan Everardo Nithard
Oil on canvas. 1674
Arco, Alonso del

Born to an Austrian Catholic family, Juan Everardo Nithard (Falkenstein, 1607-Rome, 1681)became a Jesuit. His solid grounding in theology led Emperor Ferdinand III to appoint him confessor to his children, Leopold and Mariana, and when the latter married Philip IV, he accompanied her to Madrid in the same role. Widowed, Mariana became reagent for her son, Charles, until he came of age, and during

Felipe de Borbón y Farnesio, Infante of Spain, Duke of Parma
Oil on canvas. 1739 - 1742
Loo, Louis-Michel Van
Felipe de Borbón y Farnesio, Infante of Spain, Duke of Parma
Oil on canvas. 1739 - 1742
Loo, Louis-Michel Van

Felipe (1720-1765), the son of Philip V and Isabella Farnese, married Louise Elisabeth of France, daughter of Louis XV, in 1739. With the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748) he received the family duchies of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla. This portrait seems to be a preparatory study for Van Loo`s The Family of Philip V, also in the Prado.

Philip II on Horseback
Oil on canvas. 1629 - 1640
Rubens, Peter Paul
Philip II on Horseback
Oil on canvas. 1629 - 1640
Rubens, Peter Paul

A posthumous portrait of Felipe II wearing full body armor, a cape and a hat and riding a horse. Victory crowns him with laurels. The background alludes to a battle, probably that of San Quentín in 1557.Inspired by the knightly ideas of the sixteenth century, this portrait is based on representations of Roman emperors that circulated on Flemish and Italian prints, as well as an image of Car

Pietro Maria Rossi, Count of San Secondo
Oil on panel. 1535 - 1538
Parmigianino. Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola
Pietro Maria Rossi, Count of San Secondo
Oil on panel. 1535 - 1538
Parmigianino. Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola

Educated as a young man in France and Florence, in 1527 Pier Maria Rossi (1504-1547), Seventh Count of San Secondo, was in the service of Clement VII but that same year entered the employment of Charles V. Vasari recounts that Parmigianino (to whom this work has been unanimously attributed following its restoration) escaped from Parma to San Secondo in around 1538 in order to avoid problems relati

John Frederick I of Saxony
Oil on canvas. 1548
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)
John Frederick I of Saxony
Oil on canvas. 1548
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)

John Frederick I of Saxony (Torgau, 30 June 1503–Jena, 3 March 1554), Duke of Saxony-Wittenberg from 1532, was the principal defender of Luther, a fact that brought him into conflict with Charles V. In 1546 these differences resulted in an armed conflict that culminated at Mühlberg on 24 April 1547 when the Imperial army defeated the Schmalkaldic League and captured its leaders, John Frederic

Margaret Theresa of Spain
Oil on canvas. 1665 - 1666
Martínez del Mazo, Juan Bautista
Margaret Theresa of Spain
Oil on canvas. 1665 - 1666
Martínez del Mazo, Juan Bautista

Margarita was born on 12 July 1651, the daughter of Philip IV and Mariana of Austria. On 12 December 1666, she married Emperor Leopold of Austria and died seven years later in Vienna. The fact that the princess is wearing mourning dress in this painting helps date it between September 1665 -when her father died- and her wedding in December 1666. Those dates suggest that the portrait was made in or

Mariana de Austria in Prayer
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1655
Velázquez, Diego Rodríguez de Silva y (Workshop Of)
Mariana de Austria in Prayer
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1655
Velázquez, Diego Rodríguez de Silva y (Workshop Of)

This pair of portraits (P01220 and P01222) combines several aspects of Spanish portraiture of the Baroque period. In principle, the figures of Philip IV and his second wife, Mariana of Austria, are a continuation of the donor-tradition that goes back to medieval religious painting. The client would be incorporated, kneeling or prostrate in a reverential position, into the religious scene that he o

Maria Josepha, Archduchess of Austria
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1767
Mengs, Anton Raphael
Maria Josepha, Archduchess of Austria
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1767
Mengs, Anton Raphael

Maria Josefa (1751-1767) was the daughter of the Emperor Francis I and his wife Maria Teresa. She was first betrothed to Ferdinand IV of Naples but she died young and was consequently replaced in this dynastic union by her sister Maria Carolina.

The Beheading of Saint John the Baptist and Herod’s Banquet
Oil on canvas. 1630 - 1633
Strobel The Younger, Bartholomäus
The Beheading of Saint John the Baptist and Herod’s Banquet
Oil on canvas. 1630 - 1633
Strobel The Younger, Bartholomäus

This work depicts the martyrdom of Saint John the Baptist due to the perfidy of Salome, who asked for his head after seducing King Herod with her dancing. Strobel, a painter of Polish origin, tells the story on an enormous stage that represents to moment of the martyrdom on the far right, where we can see the saint´s decapitated body. On the other side of the large column, the figure of Salome sho

Margaret Theresa, Infanta of Spain
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1665
Martínez del Mazo, Juan Bautista
Margaret Theresa, Infanta of Spain
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1665
Martínez del Mazo, Juan Bautista

Margarita of Austria (1651-1673) was the daughter of Philip IV and Mariana of Austria. When Mazo painted her she was betrothed to the Emperor Leopold of Austria, whom she married in 1666. In this portrait Mazo`s treatment of the composition and colour reveal the influence of his father-in-law, Velázquez, to whom this work was formerly attributed. The fact that Velázquez was not respo

The Infanta Maria Anna of Spain, future Queen of Hungary
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1622
Villandrando, Rodrigo de
The Infanta Maria Anna of Spain, future Queen of Hungary
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1622
Villandrando, Rodrigo de

Philip IV´s sister, Maria, was born in El Escorial in 1606. As a result of her royal lineage, she was destined to become yet another pawn in the play of matrimonial alliances that the European courts found so useful. As a marriageable infanta, marrying her was first considered a means of improving diplomatic relations with England, but those efforts failed as a result of religious incompatabilites

Margaret, Duchess of Parma / Mary of Portugal, Wife of Alessandro Farnesse
Oil on panel. After 1565
Mor, Anthonis
Margaret, Duchess of Parma / Mary of Portugal, Wife of Alessandro Farnesse
Oil on panel. After 1565
Mor, Anthonis

On the diptych’s left door, Mor portrays Alexander Farnese’s mother, who was Charles V’s illegitimate daughter by Juana van der Gheyst. Born in Audenarde in 1521, she died in Ortonna in 1586 after marrying twice in the emperor’s interest. Her first husband was Alexander of Medici, and after his death, she married Octavius Farnese, Duke of Parma. Following her second husband’s death, she was appoin

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