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Portrait of a Gentleman
Oil on canvas. 1618 - 1623
Maíno, Fray Juan Bautista
Portrait of a Gentleman
Oil on canvas. 1618 - 1623
Maíno, Fray Juan Bautista

Nothing is known of this middle-aged gentleman with his black doublet and cloak, against which the wide, segmented ruff or gola and the delicate white cuff at his right wrist stand out. At his waist are a belt and a sword belt, both very plain, though essential accessories of aristocratic dress in Spain in the Golden Age. The sitter is depicted three-quarter length and lit from the side with a lig

Don Quixote Dubbed a Knight
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1720
Iriarte, Valero
Don Quixote Dubbed a Knight
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1720
Iriarte, Valero

The scene, with a distinctly genre flavour, depicts a passage from Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616). The main figure, wearing armour, kneels awaiting to be dubbed a knight; the amusing folk setting around him is far removed from the ceremonial splendour implied by such an event.

Ferdinand IV, King of Naples
Oil on canvas. 1760
Mengs, Anton Raphael
Ferdinand IV, King of Naples
Oil on canvas. 1760
Mengs, Anton Raphael

Ferdinand IV (1751-1825) was the third son of Charles VII of Naples and his wife, Maria Amalia of Saxony. When his father acceded to the Spanish throne as Charles III in 1759, he became king of Naples. The sitter wears the Orders of the Golden Fleece and San Gennaro. His childish grace contrasts with the courtly pomp of the setting.

The Virgin and Child adored by Saint Louis, King of France
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1665
Coello, Claudio
The Virgin and Child adored by Saint Louis, King of France
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1665
Coello, Claudio

Surrounded by angels, the Holy Family, with Saint Elizabeth and the infant Saint John, receive Saint Louis, King of France. The background combines architecture and curtains. This work is organized like a large stage set, using the infant Saint John and an adjacent lamb to invite the viewer to participate. The dynamic and complex composition with its brilliant and expansive colors recalls models f

The Martyrdom of Saint Menas
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1580
Veronese, Paolo (Paolo Cagliari)
The Martyrdom of Saint Menas
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1580
Veronese, Paolo (Paolo Cagliari)

Saint Mena extends his arms and raises his gaze to Heaven, refusing to worship the graven idol presented to him at the left of the composition. As a result, he was martyred and decapitated. His suffering occurred in the year 296, under the rule of Diocletian. It is indicated here by the sword held by the person who has seized the saint, and by the pliers in the basket, which were used to pull out

The Surrender of Breda
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1635
Velázquez, Diego Rodríguez de Silva y
The Surrender of Breda
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1635
Velázquez, Diego Rodríguez de Silva y

On June 5, 1625 the Dutch governor of Breda, Justinus van Nassau, surrendered the keys of that city to Ambrosio Spínola, the Genoese general commanding the Spanish tercios (a group of soldiers that included pikemen, swordsmen and musketeers) of Flanders. Breda`s extraordinary strategic importance made it one of the most disputed cities in the Spanish monarchy`s prolonged war against the Uni

Armida and Rinaldo
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1697
Giordano, Luca
Armida and Rinaldo
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1697
Giordano, Luca

Ubaldo y Carlo lograron penetrar en el palacio encantado de Armida, donde se encontraba ella con Reinaldo, entregados a sus juegos amatorios. Reinaldo, apoyado sobre la joven, contempla su rostro reflejado en un espejo. Dos figuras asoman en el bosque para urgirle a que abandone su retiro amoroso y regresar al combate.

Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria at the Battle of Nördlingen
Oil on canvas. 1634 - 1635
Rubens, Peter Paul
Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria at the Battle of Nördlingen
Oil on canvas. 1634 - 1635
Rubens, Peter Paul

The Cardinal-Infante is depicted in full body armor, with a black hat, a staff and a red sash. He is portrayed as a general of the Spanish Armies during the Battle of Nördlingen when, in 1634, they took on the Protestant army. Near him, the allegory of fury and the eagle and lightening bolts of Jupiter allude to his dashing force. A battle scene occupies the background. Rubens painted this wo

The Death of Viriatus, Chief of the Lusitanians (preparatory sketch)
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1807
Madrazo y Agudo, José de
The Death of Viriatus, Chief of the Lusitanians (preparatory sketch)
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1807
Madrazo y Agudo, José de

This preparatory sketch for the large-scale canvas painted by Madrazo in Rome (also on display in this room) reveals various differences with respect to the final composition. Madrazo gave more space to the tent in the upper part of the sketch, which he subsequently reduced. There are also differences in the figures and in the landscape with the camp on the far right, which he enlarged.

Charles III
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1765
Mengs, Anton Raphael
Charles III
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1765
Mengs, Anton Raphael

This image of King Charles III was paired with a portrait of his wife, Maria Amalia of Saxony (P2201), although the image of the queen was not painted in her presence. Instead, it was invented on the basis of other likenesses, as she died before the artist was able to paint her.Mengs’s effigie of Charles III became the monarch’s official image and was therefore the object of various replicas. One

Philip IV in Armour, with a Lion at his Feet
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1653
Velázquez, Diego Rodríguez de Silva y (Workshop Of)
Philip IV in Armour, with a Lion at his Feet
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1653
Velázquez, Diego Rodríguez de Silva y (Workshop Of)

In its present state the painting reveals two different phases of creation. The apparent age of the sitter and the notable similarities with his appearance in Velázquez`s portrait of the elderly Philip IV in the Museo del Prado (P01185) have meant that this painting is generally dated to the 1650s. However, technical studies have revealed important changes, primarily affecting the head and

The Resurrection
Oil on canvas. 1597 - 1600
el Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulos)
The Resurrection
Oil on canvas. 1597 - 1600
el Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulos)

At the top, a nude Christ bears a white banner in his left hand, symbolizing triumph over death. His purple robe signifies sacrifice and martyrdom, while his rhomboidal halo echoes the Byzantine tradition. The soldiers that guard the sepulcher appear surprised and confused by the event, except for one who is asleep. The use of scorcio gives these figures a high degree of dynamism. The borders of t

The Battle of Clavijo
Oil on canvas. 1755 - 1756
Giaquinto, Corrado
The Battle of Clavijo
Oil on canvas. 1755 - 1756
Giaquinto, Corrado

Mounted on a white steed and flanked by an angel bearing a flag, Saint James gallops over a multitude of fallen Moors and horses. The battle scene occupies a rocky landscape in the middle ground. This canvas is a sketch for the elliptical dome at the entrance to the Royal Palace’s chapel and was painted by Giaquinto between 1756 and 1757. The canvas and its corresponding fresco are clearly derived

The Bivouac
Oil on panel. 1640 - 1650
Teniers The Younger, David
The Bivouac
Oil on panel. 1640 - 1650
Teniers The Younger, David

Of the artists who painted war scenes in the 17th century, none was as interested as David Teniers II in capturing images from behind the lines. With his customary tactile rigor, he depicts a plethora of military objects lying in the foreground with no apparent order and a handful of figures hanging cuirasses or helping their colleagues to remove their footgear. At the same time, he draws on one o

The Surrender of Jülich
Oil on canvas. 1634 - 1635
Leonardo, Jusepe
The Surrender of Jülich
Oil on canvas. 1634 - 1635
Leonardo, Jusepe

The capitulation of the Rhenish city of Jülich was one of the most outstanding events at the beginning of the Thirty Years War (1618-1648). Occupied by Maurice of Nassau’s French troops since 1610, Jülich surrendered to an army led by the Marquis of Los Balbases, General Ambrosio de Spínola, who would later triumph at Breda. This event took place after the truce established in 160

Samson and the Philistines
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1625
Procaccini, Giulio Cesare
Samson and the Philistines
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1625
Procaccini, Giulio Cesare

Samson freed himself from his chains and killed a thousand Philistines, enemies of the Israelites, using only the jawbone of an ass (Judges 15:15). Giulio Cesare was the son of the painter Ercole Procaccini and was first trained as a sculptor in Milan. This painting dates from his last period. The frame, which is modern, reproduces a Lombard seventeenth-century model.

Charles III
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1774
Mengs, Anton Raphael
Charles III
Oil on canvas. Ca. 1774
Mengs, Anton Raphael

A solemn prototype of the effigy of Charles III, who stands in armour in front of a purple hanging and a column, traditional symbols of royal power. Replica of P02200, on the occasion of the foundation of the Royal Order of Carlos III.

The Allocution of Marquis del Vasto to his Troops
Oil on canvas. 1540 - 1541
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)
The Allocution of Marquis del Vasto to his Troops
Oil on canvas. 1540 - 1541
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)

Alfonso d´Avalos, first Marchese del Vasto, was born in Ischia on 25 May 1502 to a noble Neapolitan family of Castilian origins. He fought in Pavia (1525) under the orders of his uncle Fernando d´Avalos, Marchese di Pescara, inheriting his titles and estates on his uncle´s death that same year. In 1535 D´Avalos commanded the army that conquered Tunis and in 1538, he was appointed governor of Milan

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