The first written reference to this painting is in the inventory of the possessions of the Marquis de la Ensenada (1754), in which it is described as Judith, half-length.

In the second inventory of the Marquis’ possessions of 1768 the painting is identified as Rembrandt, A noble matron and her maid. The painting was acquired by Charles III that year on the suggestion of Anton Rafael Mengs, together with a further twenty-nine paintings from the collection of the Marquis. In the inventory of the King’s possessions it is described as Ensenada – A painting that depicts Judith to whom some maids serve a cup and on a round table there is an open book, figure of more than half-length original by Rembrandt of seven quartas wide and a vara and a half high. This description is also used in the inventory of Charles IV of 1794.

Between 1843 and 1996 the catalogues of the Prado described the painting as Artemisa.

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