The date of the fresco
The dating of the work on the Casón’s ceiling has to be deduced from indirect sources, in particular in relation to other decorative schemes by the artist whose dates are more securely known. If we look at the art historical texts that have deal with Giordano’s work produced during his Spanish period, the chronology offered by the art historian Antonio Palomino (1655-1726) continues to be accepted today.
From Palomino’s account we know that following the decoration of Charles II’s office in Aranjuez, Giordano moved onto the Casón, then worked in the Sacristy of Toledo Cathedral. The first of these three projects has been dated to 1696 or the early months of 1697, while the Toledo comission has a precise date of 27 November 1698. It is thus possible to propose a date of 1697 for the work on the Casón.