The Prado has two original works from the Archaic period, one of which is a 6th-century B.C. kouros.
Fifth-century classicism can be studied through Roman copies of Greek sculptures by Phidias, Polyclitus, Myron and Callimachus. These include the Athena Parthnos, a magnificent miniature copy of the great image that Phidias created for the Parthenon in Athens; a copy of Myron’s Athena from the group of Athena and Marsyas; a copy of Polyclitus’s magnificent Diadumenos; and a copy of the four Maenad reliefs by Callimachus.
Fourth-century B.C. classicism is represented by Roman copies of the best artists of the period: the magnificent Head of the Cnidian Venus, the Satyr in Repose by Praxitiles, Scopas’s Hercules, and the Head of Silenus and Head of Hercules by Lysippus.
The Prado has numerous works from the Hellenistic period, all Roman copies apart from the Head of Diadocus, which is possibly Greek. Particularly fine examples among these copies are the Faun with Kid from the Pergamene School, which is the only known copy of the Greek original. Other notable works are the Hipnus, Ariadne, and a sizeable group of Hellenistic Venuses of various types: Crouching Venus, Venus with the Dolphin, The Venus of Madrid, Venus with an Apple, and Venus with a Cockle Shell.