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El Greco and Modern Painting

24.06.2014 - 05.10.2014

The rediscovery of El Greco was very important to the development of painting in the last third of the nineteenth century and throughout much of the twentieth. Following the fascination Velázquez held for the realist painters, El Greco – who was then little known – attracted the most innovative artists, such as Manet and Cézanne. He also interested Spanish painters, among them Zuloaga, who owned The Vision of Saint John (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art). This work was decisive in the emergence of Cubism for its influence on Picasso, who regarded El Greco as the most outstanding old master. El Greco was also pivotal in the spread of Cubism through Delaunay’s Orphism and the works of Derain, Modigliani, Rivera and the Czech avant-garde. The first exhibition of El Greco’s work at the Museo del Prado (1902), the formation of new collections that related his painting to modern artists, the appearance of the first art historical studies, written by Manuel B. Cossío (1908) and August Mayer (1911), and the critical appreciations of Julius Meier-Graefe in his Spanish Journey (1910) and those of Maurice Barrès (1911), helped spread knowledge of the artist’s oeuvre. His works, chiefly the Laocoön(Washington, National Gallery of Art), provided inspiration to Expressionists in Central Europe, such as Beckmann, Macke, Kokoschka, Hofer, Steinhardt and Korteweg. He was also important to Jewish artists active in Paris, such as Soutine and Chagall, and to the Surrealists, as evidenced by the cases of Masson and Domínguez. El Greco played a particularly prominent role in shaping modern painting in the Americas, where the most expressive aspects of his art held great fascination in Mexico – as may be seen in the works of Orozco – and in the United States, where artists like Benton, Pollock and Matta (who came from Surrealism) were exploring abstraction. El Greco continued to be influential on the expressive figurative art of post-war Europe, as may be seen in the works of Giacometti, Bacon and Saura, as well as in Picasso’s late oeuvre.

Access

Room A and B. Jerónimos Building

Opening time

Monday to Saturday from 10am to 8pm. Sunday and holidays from 10am to 7pm.

Supported by:
Fundación BBVA
Co-organizer by:
Acción Cultural Española

Videos

Exhibition

The modernization of painting: From Manet to Cézanne

The modernization of painting: From Manet to Cézanne
Lady in a Fur Wrap
¿El Greco?
Oil on canvas
3 x 50 cm
c. 1577–1579?
Glasgow, Lent by Glasgow Life (Glasgow Museums) on behalf of Glasgow City Council. Stirling Maxwell Collection, gift 1967

During the Romantic period, the opening of King Louis Philippe’s Spanish Gallery at the Louvre (1838) displaying nine works by El Greco (including the reduced version of the Adoration of the Name of Jesus, now in London) or attributed to him (such as Lady in a Fur Wrap) led writers like Théophile Gautier and Charles Baudelaire and painters like Eugène Delacroix to develop an interest in the artist. He later made a highly visible impact on édouard Manet, who saw his works in Madrid and Toledo in 1865, and on Paul Cézanne, who copied Lady in a Fur Wrap in 1882. El Greco also drew the attention of certain Spanish artists, such as Mariano Fortuny and his circle (especially Ricardo de Madrazo), who appreciated his rich, fresh colouring, as did other artists who visited Spain, among them the American William Merritt Chase, who came several times from 1881 onwards.

Following Cézanne’s death, the perceived links between his work and El Greco’s were crucial for the emergence of modern painting, as both artists also decisively influenced Cubism and Expressionism.

Picasso and Cubism

Picasso and Cubism
Evocation. The Burial of Casagemas
Pablo Picasso
Oil on canvas
150.5 x 90.5 cm
1901
Paris, Musee d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris
© Sucesión Pablo Picasso, VEGAP, Madrid, 2014

Pablo Picasso, the most important artist of the twentieth century, was also the one most greatly influenced by El Greco throughout his career. His contact with El Greco’s painting during his formative years in Madrid made him aware of the excellence of the artist’s works, which were still little appreciated. Picasso’s drawings and his paintings of 1898 and 1899 show his early obsession with El Greco, which became very intense during his Blue Period, between 1901 and 1904. His original approach can be seen in Evocation. Later on in 1906, during the Gósol period, he developed an interest in the plasticity of his figures. El Greco’s oeuvre played a prominent role in the emergence and shaping of Cubism and also in its dissemination, as some of the artists influenced by Picasso, such as Derain, Modigliani, Rivera and the Czech Cubists, also drew inspiration from the Cretan artist. After Cubism, Picasso used El Greco’s portraits as a basis for introducing references to Spanishness in his art. In his late period, when addressing the musketeer theme, he returned to El Greco’s A Gentleman with his Hand on his Chest interpreting it very freely and employing a note of humour that is both sarcastic and melancholic.

Zuloaga and Sorolla

Zuloaga and Sorolla
My Friends
Ignacio Zuloaga
Pencil, charcoal and oil on canvas
237 x 292 cm
1920-1932
Zumaya
Z, espacio cultural Ignacio Zuloaga
© Ignacio Zuloaga, VEGAP, Madrid, 2014

El Greco began to be very highly regarded in Spain in the 1890s. Ignacio Zuloaga became his keenest champion and assembled a large collection of works by or attributed to El Greco, among them The Vision of Saint John (on display in the exhibition), acquired in 1905, which was of key importance in the emergence of Cubism. Zuloaga depicted this work in the background of My Friends, in which he included the likenesses of many of the Spanish writers who promoted El Greco, especially those of the so-called Generation of ‘98. He also painted an expressively symbolic portrait of Maurice Barrès, author of the influential El Greco or the Secret of Toledo (1912), with the book in his hand and the city of Toledo in the background. Works such as The Hermit, painted in the countryside of Castile in 1906, and others from the following years can be seen to resemble El Greco’s models such as Saint Bernardino.

Other Spanish artists, such as Santiago Rusiñol and Joaquín Sorolla, also appreciated El Greco, influencing some of their portraits.

Orphism and its influence

Orphism and its influence
The Adoration of the Virgin and Child
Diego Rivera
Encaustic on canvas
150 x 120 cm
1913
Colección María Rodríguez de Reyero
© 2014, Banco de México Diego Rivera Frida Kahlo Museums Trust, Mexico, D.F. / VEGAP, Madrid

Of the offshoots of Cubism, Orphism was the movement most closely connected to El Greco’s oeuvre. Its creator, Robert Delaunay, drew inspiration from his dynamic sense of colour and scheme of composition in planes. Delaunay lived in Spain for a long time with his wife Sonia and was familiar with the El Greco paintings in the Prado and also in Toledo, where the Saint Sebastian that influenced his series of gypsies could be seen at the Casa Museo del Greco.

Diego Rivera, a friend of Delaunay’s, studied El Greco’s oeuvre in Toledo. His influence, together with that of Picasso, may be seen in the vivid, warm tones of Rivera’s monumental Adoration of the Virgin and Child, a perfect blend of the Cretan master’s legacy and Cubism.

August Macke, who met Robert Delaunay in 1912 and was particularly close to Orphism, was a member of Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider), an Expressionist group that sprang up in Munich and moved towards abstraction with Wassily Kandinsky. Like Franz Marc and Paul Klee, Macke was strongly attracted to El Greco and this attraction continued in subsequent Rhenish painting.

German Expressionism

German Expressionism
Composition (The Agony in the Garden)
Adriaan Korteweg
Oil on canvas
120 x 80 cm
1913
Munich, Städitsche Galerie im Lenbachhaus

El Greco’s painting greatly influenced the development of Expressionism in the German-speaking countries. The artist was passionately promoted in Julius Meier-Graefe’s Spanish Journey (1910) (the author’s portrait was painted soon afterwards by Lovis Corinth), and later studied in monographs by August Mayer (1911) and Hugo Kehrer (1914). His works were collected by Marczell von Nemes (and exhibited between 1910 and 1912 in Budapest, Munich and Dusseldorf); and Bernhard Koehler, who owned a Saint John the Baptist that was a version of the one on view in the previous room. The Laocoön became known in Berlin and Munich through the dealer Paul Cassirer, and thanks to Hugo von Tschudi an important version of the Disrobing of Christ was acquired for the Pinakothek in Munich. Austrian artists such as Schiele and Kokoschka and German artists, among them Macke, Beckmann and Hofer, were influenced by these works, and the Dutch artist Adriaan Korteweg produced very free versions of El Greco’s Laocoön and the Agony in the Garden.

Other Expressionisms and their vision of El Greco and Toledo

Other Expressionisms and their vision of El Greco and Toledo
Emblematic View of Toledo
André Masson
Oil on canvas
131 x 101 cm
1942
Private Collection
© Andre Masson, VEGAP, Madrid, 2014

In addition to influencing Central European painters, El Greco was a reference for other expressive trends in painting. The Laocoön made an impact on Dutch artist Korteweg, but El Greco’s Toledan landscapes, like the one in the background of this painting, also provided a reference point for the interpretations of many artists who travelled there. Among them were Diego Rivera, in his Cubist period; Ignacio Zuloaga, who painted several landscapes of Toledo; and David Bomberg. This conception of the landscape also influenced the views painted by Chaïm Soutine in Céret. He and Marc Chagall, Slavic painters of Jewish origin who developed their work under the sway of Cubism, were greatly attracted to El Greco’s painting.

El Greco had an impact on Henry Moore, who was inspired by The Vision of Saint John. The Surrealists with their appreciation of the “inner model” and “convulsive beauty” admired his art. This can be seen in the works of painters such as óscar Domínguez and André Masson.

America

America
The Vision of Saint John
El Greco
Oil on canvas (top truncated)
222.3 x 193 cm (224.8 x 199.4 cm with added strips)
c. 1608-1622
New York, Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Rogers Fund, 1956 (56.48)

Lacking an established painting tradition, twentieth-century American artists regarded El Greco as a stimulating example of a personality shaped, like theirs, by several different cultures. In Mexico he was admired by the muralists, not only Rivera – who had been influenced by him during his Cubist period – but also Orozco. The Chilean Roberto Matta, who came into contact with El Greco’s oeuvre in Spain, was influenced by him in his paintings of the late 1930s and early 1940s, which played a significant role in the emergence of Abstract Expressionism in the United States.

The collections assembled in the United States incorporated important works by El Greco, such as the Purification of the Temple (New York, The Frick Collection; the painter’s last version of the theme is exhibited here), The Resurrection and The Vision of Saint John. Charles Demuth, a Precisionist artist influenced by post-Cubism, produced a homage to the artist. Thomas H. Benton had seen El Greco’s works in Paris and copied several of his paintings using a method he passed on to his pupil Jackson Pollock, who regarded El Greco as the most interesting old master.

Post World War II Figurations

Post World War II Figurations
Gothic
Jackson Pollock
Oil on canvas
215.5 x 142.1 cm, 1944
New York, Museum of Modern Art
Bequest of Lee Krasner
© The Pollock-Krasner Foundation, VEGAP, Madrid, 2014

Following the devastation of the Second World War, painters pursued a disturbingly expressive avenue. David Bomberg, an artist of Jewish origin, used El Greco’s iconography (Christ holding the Cross) as an expressive device in his painting Hear O’Israel. The foreshortenings of some of Francis Bacon’s figures, such as the Reclining Woman, are related to that of the soldier in the foreground of the Prado Resurrection. Alberto Giacometti, who was very interested in the art of the past, copied several of El Greco’s works, among them Lady in a Fur Wrap, and based his figures on the morphology of El Greco’s portraits, which also deeply influenced the images produced by Antonio Saura. Finally, in his late oeuvre Picasso once again borrowed from El Greco in particular from the two paintings he considered most important: the Burial of the Count of Orgaz, a source for his graphic works; and A Gentleman with his Hand on his Chest, the origin of the iconography of a considerable number of his musketeers. These images represent an expressive and joyous celebration of painting at the end of his life, and they announce the art of the Neo-expressionists.

The Artist’s Chronology

The Artist’s Chronology
Woman Seated on an Armchair
Pablo Picasso
Oil on canvas
100 x 73 cm
1910
Paris, Centre Pompidou. Musée national d'art moderne/Centre de création industrielle. Legs de M. Georges Salles en 1967
© Sucesión Pablo Picasso, VEGAP, Madrid, 2014

1830

The Assumption of the Virgin in the church of Santo Domingo el Antiguo is acquired by the Infante Sebastián Gabriel de Borbón, with positive reports from court painters Juan Antonio de Ribera and José de Madrazo, whose collection includes three works by the artist.

1832

Ferdinand VII acquires the Trinity from Santo Domingo el Antiguo for the Prado, with positive reports from court painters Vicente López, the museum’s artistic director, and Juan Antonio de Ribera.

1838

Louis Philippe of Orleans’s Spanish Gallery opens to the public at the Louvre; it features nine important works by or attributed to El Greco, brought from Spain by Baron Taylor. The Museo de la Trinidad is inaugurated in Madrid, with religious works from expropriated convents and monasteries, among them several by El Greco.

1840

Writer and critic Théophile Gautier travels to Spain, where he sees works by El Greco.

1847

Publication of the Annals of the Artists of Spain, the first monograph illustrated with photographs of works by Spanish artists, among them El Greco. The author, William Stirling-Maxwell, acquired several of the artist’s works.

1865

Édouard Manet visits the Prado and Toledo on the advice of Zacharie Astruc, who had travelled to Spain the previous year. The following years Fortuny makes watercolour copies of El Greco paintings in the Prado.

1872

The holdings of the Museo de la Trinidad, which owned fifteen works by El Greco, are incorporated into the Prado. The Burial of the Count of Orgaz is restored by painter Matías Moreno.

1885-86

Paul Cézanne copies Lady in a Fur Wrap after a woodcut.

1893-94

Santiago Rusiñol acquires two El Grecos in Paris, which are solemnly transported to the Cau Ferrat in Sitges.

1902

The first monographic exhibition devoted to El Greco is organized by the Prado. From this point onwards his works are frequently acquired by North American collectors and museums.

1905

Ignacio Zuloaga acquires The Vision of Saint John. Miguel Utrillo publishes the first monograph on El Greco, featuring 50 illustrations.

1907

German artists make copies of the paintings belonging to the altarpiece of Doña María de Aragón in the Prado. Picasso paints his first Cubist picture, Les Demoiselles d’Avignon.

1908

Manuel B. Cossío writes the first monograph with a catalogue raisonné of El Greco’s works. The Autumn Salon in Paris devotes one of its sections to the artist.

1909

Hugo von Tschudi acquires El Greco’s Disrobing of Christ for the Pinakothek Art Museums in Munich. The San Fernando Academy in Madrid stages an El Greco exhibition.

1910

Julius-Meier-Graefe’s Spanische Reise (Journey around Spain) is published. The Marquis de la Vega Inclán opens the El Greco House Museum / Casa Museo del Greco in Toledo. The Marczell von Nemes collection, which owns important works by El Greco, is exhibited in Budapest before travelling to Munich and Dusseldorf.

1911

Books on El Greco are published by Maurice Barrès in Paris and by August L. Mayer in Munich.

1912

Diego Rivera stays in Spain, followed by Robert and Sonia Delaunay, who remain for much longer (from 1914 to 1920).

1920

The room devoted to El Greco opens at the Prado.

1930

Commissioned by Pomona College in Claremont (California), José Clemente Orozco executes the mural Prometheus, influenced by El Greco’s Saint Sebastian. It is visited by Jackson Pollock and Philip Guston

1934

Henry Moore, André Masson and Marc Chagall travel to Spain, where they see works by El Greco.

1937

M. Legendre and A. Hartmann publish their monograph on El Greco featuring heliogravure prints that provide the basis for many pencil copies made by Jackson Pollock, who is then deeply influenced by the artist.

1939

In the United States Roberto Matta paints his Psychological Morphology series and, together with Picasso and Orozco, influences Jackson Pollock, who in 1944 paints Gothic, at the threshold of Action Painting.

1945

Laocoön joins the holdings of the National Gallery in Washington. Eleven years later The Vision of Saint John is acquired by the Metropolitan Museum in New York, which already owned several works by El Greco, among them View of Toledo. In Europe Alberto Giacometti copies works by El Greco and, like Bacon and Saura after him, draws inspiration from the artist.

1967

Picasso begins his series of paintings based on musketeer motifs, which he continues over the following years, some inspired by A Gentleman with his Hand on his Chest. In 1968 he pays an ironic homage to the Burial of the Count of Orgaz in his prints.

Artworks

2

The Annunciation

El Greco Oil on canvas, 91 x 66.5 cm c. 1600 - 1603 Budapest, Szépművészeti Múzeum

3

The Dead Christ with Angels

édouard Manet Oil on canvas, 179.4 x 149.9 cm 1864 New York, Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art. H. O. Havemeyer Collection, Bequest of Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer, 1929

4

Untitled

Mariano Fortuny Watercolour on paper, 177 x 255 mm 1866 - 1867 Private collection

5

Copy after El Greco’s Trinity

Mariano Fortuny Watercolour on paper, 255 x 165 mm 1866 – 1867 Havana, Cuba, Colección Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes

9

Robert Blum

William Merritt Chase Oil on canvas, 53.3 x 43.2 cm 1888 New York, National Academy Museum

11

Bathers

Paul Cézanne Oil on canvas, 60.5 x 82.5 cm c. 1890 Paris, Musée d'Orsay, don de la baronne Eva Gebhard-Gourgaud, 1965

12

The Resurrected Christ

El Greco Polychrome wood, 47 x 24 x 12.5 cm between 1595 and 1598 Fundación Casa Ducal de Medinaceli

13

Lady in a Fur Wrap

¿El Greco? Oil on canvas, 60 x 50 cm ¿c. 1577 - 1579? Glasgow, Lent by Glasgow Life (Glasgow Museums) on behalf of Glasgow City Council. Stirling Maxwell Collection, gift 1967

14

Lady in a Fur Wrap, after El Greco

Paul Cézanne Oil on canvas, 53 x 49 cm 1885 - 1886 London, Private Collection

15

Histoire des peintres de toutes les écoles. école espagnole. Paris, Vve Jules Renouard, libraire-éditeur, 1869

Blanc, Charles, Bürger, W., Mantz, Paul, Viardot, L. y Lefort, P. 36 x 27 x 3 cm Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado. Biblioteca. Mad/259

16

Annals of the artists of Spain. Londres, John Ollivier, 1848 (printed by T. Brettell)

Stirling Maxwell, Sir William 23,5 x 14,8 x 1,5 cm Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado. Biblioteca

17

Madame Cézanne in a Red Dress

Paul Cézanne Oil on canvas, 116.5 x 89.5 cm 1888 - 1890 New York, Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Mr. and Mrs. Henry Ittleson Jr. Purchase Fund, 1962 (29.100.51)

18

Fray Hortensio Félix Paravicino

El Greco Oil on canvas, 112.1 x 86.1 cm c. 1609 - 1613 Boston, Museum of Fine Arts. Isaac Sweetser Fund

19

Manuel Bartolomé Cossío

Joaquín Sorolla Oil on canvas, 99 x 60 cm 1908 New York, On loan from the Hispanic Society of America

20

El Greco. Madrid, Victoriano Suárez

Cossío, Manuel Bartolomé 21 x 13.5 x 5.5 cm 1908 Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado. Biblioteca

21

Benigno de la Vega Inclán y Flaquer, Marquis of Vega Inclán

Joaquín Sorolla Oil on canvas, 114.5 x 110 cm 1913 New York, On loan from the Hispanic Society of America

22

Maurice Barrès with Toledo in the Background

Ignacio Zuloaga Oil on canvas, 203 x 240 cm 1913 Paris, Musée d’Orsay., don de Carlos de Bestegui, 1936

23

Le Greco. París, H.Floury

Barrès, Maurice, Lafond, Paul 26 x 21 x 2.5 cm 1911 Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado. Biblioteca

24

My Friends

Ignacio Zuloaga Pencil, charcoal and oil on canvas, 237 x 292 cm 1920 - 1932 Zumaya. Z, espacio cultural Ignacio Zuloaga

26

The Hermit

Ignacio Zuloaga Oil on canvas, 190 x 115 cm 1907 Paris, Musée d'Orsay, legs Paul Cosson, 1926

27

Meekness

Santiago Rusiñol Oil on canvas, 199.4 x 88.6 cm 1897 Sitges, Museo del Cau Ferrat. Consorcio del Patrimonio de Sitges

28

Portrait of Santiago Rusiñol as the ‘Gentleman with his Hand on his Chest’

Ramón Pichot Charcoal pencil and sprayed ink on paper, 51 x 32.5 cm 1897 Sitges, Museo del Cau Ferrat. Consorcio del Patrimonio de Sitges

29

A Greco-like character

Pablo Picasso Conté pencil and wash on watermarked paper, 218 x 155 mm c. 1899 Barcelona, Museu Picasso. Donación Pablo Picasso, 1970

30

I, El Greco

Pablo Picasso Sepia and black ink on paper, 315 x 218 mm c. 1899 Barcelona, Museu Picasso. Donación Pablo Picasso, 1970

31

Two heads in the style of El Greco

Pablo Picasso Graphite on paper, 220 x 164 mm c. 1899 Barcelona, Museu Picasso. Donación Pablo Picasso, 1970

32

Head of a Man in the style of El Greco and other sketches

Pablo Picasso Conté pencil on paper, 240 x 160 mm c. 1899 Barcelona, Museu Picasso. Donación Pablo Picasso, 1970

33

El Greco-like characters and other sketches

Pablo Picasso Ink on en on paper, 315 x 215 mm 1899 Cortesía Fundación Almine y Bernard Ruiz-Picasso para el Arte

34

Portrait of an Unknown Man

Pablo Picasso Oil on canvas, 47.5 x 35.2 cm 1899 Barcelona, Museu Picasso. Donación Pablo Picasso, 1970

35

Portrait of an Unknown Man in the Style of El Greco

Pablo Picasso Oil on canvas, 34.7 x 31.2 cm 1899 Barcelona, Museu Picasso. Donación Pablo Picasso, 1970

36

Saint Peter and Saint Paul

El Greco Oil on canvas, 116 x 91.8 cm c. 1597-1603 Barcelona, MNAC. Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya

37

The Frugal Meal

Pablo Picasso Etching and scraper on zinc, on laid paper, 613 x 440 mm (sheet) 1904 Madrid, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza

38

Evocation. The Burial of Casagemas

Pablo Picasso Oil on canvas, 150.5 x 90.5 cm 1901 Paris, Musee d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris

39

Domenikos Theotokopulos "El Greco". Barcelona, [s.n., s.a.] (Imp. Thomas)

Utrillo, Miguel 16 x 12 x 0,5 cm 1905 Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado. Biblioteca

40

Catálogo ilustrado de la exposición de las obras de Domenico Theotocopuli llamado El Greco. Madrid, J. Lacoste (Imp. de J. Lastre y Cia.)

Viniegra, Salvador 16.5 x 11.5 x 0.5 cm 1902 Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado. Biblioteca

41

Postcard with the inferior fragment of the Burial of Count Orgaz

c. 1900 Private collection,Viuda de Muñoz y sobrino

42

Saint Martin and the Beggar

El Greco Oil on canvas with wooden strip added at bottom, 193.5 x 103 cm 1597 - 1599 Washington, D.C., National Gallery of Art. Widener Collection, 1942.9.25

43

Nude Boy on a Horse

Pablo Picasso Oil on canvas, 55 x 38 cm 1906 Private collection

44

Horse with a Youth in Blue

Pablo Picasso Watercolour and gouache on paper mounted on panel, 50 x 32 cm 1905 - 1906 London, Tate. Bequeathed by C. Frank Stoop 1933

45

Woman Seated on an Armchair

Pablo Picasso Oil on canvas, 100 x 73 cm 1910 Paris, Centre Pompidou. Musée national d'art moderne/Centre de création industrielle. Legs de M. Georges Salles en 1967

46

Woman on an Armchair

Pablo Picasso Oil on canvas, 64 x 75 cm 1910 Prague, Národní Galerie v Praze. Acquired from the Vincenc Kramář Collection in 1957

47

Reclining Nude with Figures

Pablo Picasso Oil on panel, 36 x 62 cm 1908 Paris, Musée Picasso. Dation en 1979

48

Portrait of Jaime Sabartés with a Ruff and a Hat

Pablo Picasso Oil on canvas, 46 x 38 cm 1939 Barcelona, Museu Picasso. Donación Jaume Sabartés, 1962

50

Paul Alexandre in front of a stained Window

Amedeo Modigliani Oil on canvas, 81 x 45.6 cm 1913 Ruan, Musée des Beaux-Arts. Don Blaise et Philippe Alexandre, 1988

51

Portrait of Iturrino

André Derain Oil on canvas, 92 x 65 cm 1914 Paris, Centre Pompidou. Musée national d'art moderne/Centre de création industrielle. Donation Mme Geneviève Gallibert en 1970

52

Salome (II)

Emil Filla Oil on canvas, 136.5 x 80 cm 1911 - 1912 Prague, Národní Galerie v Praze. Acquired in 1963

53

Prometheus in Chains

Antonín Procházka Oil on canvas, 112 x 64 cm 1911 Brno, Moravská Galerie

54

The Adoration of the Virgin and Child

Diego Rivera Encaustic on canvas, 150 x 120 cm 1913 Colección María Rodríguez de Reyero

56

Saint John the Baptist

El Greco Oil on canvas, 111.1 x 66 cm c. 1597 - 1603 San Francisco, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco. Museum purchase, Funds from various donors

57

Gypsy

Robert Delaunay Wax crayon on canvas, 100 x 73 cm 1915 Madrid, Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía

58

he Three Graces

Robert Delaunay Watercolour on paper, 642 x 498 mm 1912 Ulm, Ulmer Museum. Loan of the country Baden-Württenberg

59

Women in front of Hat Shop

August Macke Oil on canvas, 110 x 76.5 cm 1913 Hagen, Osthaus Museum

60

An Unknown Gentleman

El Greco Oil on canvas, 79.7 x 64.7 cm c. 1600 - 1607 Amiens, Musée de Picardie

61

Self-portrait (with raised Brush)

Oskar Kokoschka Oil on canvas, 108.5 x 70.5 cm 1913 - 1914 Dusseldorf, Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen

62

Anton von Webern

Oskar Kokoschka Oil on canvas, 63.3 x 48.2 cm. 1914 Private Collection

63

Julius Meier-Graefe

Lovis Corinth Oil on canvas, 90.4 x 70.4 cm 1912 Paris, Musée d'Orsay, don d'E. J. Goeritz, 1936

64

Spanische Reise. Berlín, S. Fischer Verlag

Meier-Graefe, Julius 23 x 15.5 x 3 cm 1910 Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado. Biblioteca. 25/9175

65

El Greco. Múnich, Delphin

Mayer, August L 23 x 15 x 1 cm 1911 Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado. Biblioteca. Lop/432

66

The Flag Bearers

Karl Hofer Oil on canvas, 68 x 45 cm 1913 Chemnitz, Kunstsammlungen

67

Franz Hauer

Egon Schiele Dry point on paper, 13 x 11 cm (plate) 1914 Vienna, Albertina

68

Cain Fleeing

Jakob Steinhardt Oil on canvas, 95 x 75 cm 1912 Frankfurt am Main, Jüdisches Museum

69

The Agony in the Garden

El Greco Oil on canvas, 169 x 112 cm c. 1600 Andújar (Jaén), parroquia de Santa María

70

Composition (The Agony in the Garden)

Adriaan Korteweg Oil on canvas, 120 x 80 cm 1913 Munich, Städitsche Galerie im Lenbachhaus

71

The Adoration of the Name of Jesus (Allegory of the Holy League)

El Greco Oil on canvas, 140 x 109,5 cm c. 1577-80 Patrimonio Nacional. Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo del Escorial

72

Study for Resurrection I

Max Beckmann Oil on canvas, 89 x 67.5 cm 1907 Private Collection

73

The Disrobing of Christ

El Greco Oil on canvas, 165 x 98.8 cm c. 1580 - 1586 Munich, Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen - Alte Pinakothek

75

Laocoön

El Greco Oil on canvas, 137.5 x 172.5 cm c. 1610 - 1614 Washington, D.C., National Gallery of Art. Samuel H. Kress Collection. 1946.18.1.

76

Laocoön

Adriaan Korteweg Oil on canvas, 95 x 125 cm 1914 Munich, Städitsche Galerie im Lenbachhaus

77

Man in prayer (The Old Man)

Chaïm Soutine Oil on canvas, 135 x 67.5 cm 1921 Avignon, Fondation Calvet

78

The Houses

Chaïm Soutine Oil on canvas, 58 x 92 cm 1919 Paris, Musée de l’Orangerie – Collection Jean Walter et Paul Guillaume

79

View of Toledo

Diego Rivera Oil on canvas, 121 x 91 cm 1912 Puebla, Colección Museo Amparo

80

Toledo from the Virgen del Valle

Ignacio Zuloaga Oil on canvas, 91 x 120 cm c. 1911 - 1920 Madrid, Museo de la Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando

81

View of Toledo with the River Tagus

David Bomberg Oil on canvas, 58.4 x 76.2 cm 1929 Oldham, Gallery Oldham. Presented by the Contemporary Art Society, 1944

82

Die Kunst des Greco. Munich, Hugo Schmidt

Kehrer, Hugo 26 x 20 x 2.5 cm 1914 Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado. Biblioteca. 77/377

83

Rabbi of Vitebsk

Marc Chagall Oil on canvas, 104 x 84 cm c. 1914 - 1923 Venice, Fondazione Musei Civici di Venezia, Galleria Internazionale d'Arte Moderna di Ca'Pesaro

84

The Annunciation

El Greco Oil on canvas, 117 x 98 cm c. 1576 Madrid, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza

85

Vision (Self-portrait with Muse)

Marc Chagall Oil on canvas, 152.8 x 134 cm 1917 - 1918 Museum of Avant-Garde of Europe (MAGMA of Europe)

86

Emblematic View of Toledo

André Masson Oil on canvas, 131 x 101 cm 1942 Private Collection

87

The Couple

óscar Domínguez Oil on canvas, 64 x 45 cm 1937 Lisbon, Museu Coleção Berardo

88

Homage to El Greco

Henry Moore Pencil, pen and ink, pastel (washed), charcoal (washed), wash on paper, 241 x 161 mm c. 1921 The Henry Moore Foundation, gift of the artist 1977

89

Domenico Theotocopouli dit el Greco. París, Hyperion

Legendre, Maurice y Hartmann, Alfred (n-m) 25 x 17 x 5.5 cm 1937 Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado. Biblioteca

90

The Vision of Saint John

El Greco Oil on canvas (top truncated), 222.3 x 193 cm (224.8 x 199.4 cm with added strips) c. 1608 - 1622 New York, Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Rogers Fund, 1956. (56.48)

91

The Resurrection of Christ

El Greco Oil on canvas, 113.6 x 52.7 cm c. 1600 Saint Louis, Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum at Washington University in St Louis. University purchase, Parsons Fund, 1952

92

Christ driving the Traders from the Temple

El Greco Oil on canvas, 106 x 104 cm c. 1610 - 1614 Madrid, Real Parroquia de San Ginés

93

A Sky after El Greco

Charles Demuth Tempera on paper, 508 x 406.4 mm 1919 Tempe, Collection of the Arizona State University Art Museum; Gift of Olivier B. James

94

Chilmark

Thomas Hart Benton Oil on canvas, 76.2 x 61 cm c. 1923 Private Collection

95

Study after El Greco’s Resurrection

Thomas Hart Benton Pencil, ink and pen on paper, 635 x 508 mm c. 1925 Kansas, UMB Bank. The Thomas P. Benton Trust and the Jessie Benton Trust

96

Untitled

Jackson Pollock Coloured pencil and graphite on paper, 457 x 305 mm c. 1937 - 1939 New York, Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Purchase, Anonymous Gift, 1990

97

Untitled

Jackson Pollock Coloured pencils on paper, 457 x 305 mm c. 1937 - 1939 New York, Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Purchase, Anonymous Gift, 1990

98

Untitled

Jackson Pollock Colored pencils on paper, 457 x 305 mm c. 1937 - 1939 New York, Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Purchase, Anonymous Gift, 1990

99

Untitled

Jackson Pollock Graphite on paper, 457 x 305 mm c. 1937 - 1939 New York, Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Purchase, Anonymous Gift, 1990

100

Domenico Theotocopouli dit el Greco. París, Hyperion

Legrende, Maurice y Hartmann, Alfred 25 x 17 x 5,5 cm 1937 Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado. Biblioteca

101

Untitled (Figure Kneeling before an Arch with Skulls)

Jackson Pollock Oil on canvas, 68.58 x 53.66 cm c. 1934 - 1938 New York, Courtesy Washburn Gallery and The Pollock-Krasner Foundation, Inc.

102

The Flame

Jackson Pollock Oil on canvas mounted on fiberboard, 51.1 x 76.2 cm c. 1934 - 1938 New York, The Museum of Modern Art. Enid A. Haupt Fund, 1980

103

Naked Man with Knife

Jackson Pollock Oil on canvas, 127 x 91.4 cm c. 1938 - 1940 Tate, Presented by Frank Lloyd 1981

104

Prometheus

José Clemente Orozco Oil on canvas, 73.5 x 93 cm 1944 Mexico, D. F. Colección Museo de Arte Carrillo Gil Conaculta/Inba México

105

San Sebastián Catedral de Palencia, lám. 10. El Greco, El Arte en España

Cossío, Manuel Bartolomé 15.5 x 11 x 0.5 cm Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado. Biblioteca. 77/595

106

Psychological Morphology

Roberto Matta Oil on canvas, 89 x 115.3 cm 1939 Private Collection

109

Hear O’ Israel

David Bomberg Oil on wood. 90.2 x 69.9 cm 1955 New York, The Jewish Museum. Purchase: Oscar and Regina Gruss Charitable Foundation Fund, 1995-33

110

Reclining Woman

Francis Bacon Oil on canvas, 198.8 x 141.6 cm 1961 Tate. Purchased 1961

111

Gothic

Jackson Pollock Oil on canvas, 215.5 x 142.1 cm 1944 New York, Museum of Modern Art. Bequest of Lee Krasner

112

Head of a Man III (Diego)

Alberto Giacometti Oil on canvas, 65 x 55,4 cm 1964 Zurich. Kunsthaus. Alberto Giacometti-Stiftung Zúrich

113

El Greco’s Lady in a Fur Wrap after Cézanne (verso)

Alberto Giacometti n. d. Pen on paper, 210 x 156 mm Paris, Fondation Alberto et Annette Giacometti

114

Imaginary Portrait of Philip II 4.67

Antonio Saura Oil on canvas, 130 x 96.7 cm 1967 Cuenca, Museo de Arte Abstracto Español. Fundación Juan March

115

Ancestor 3

Antonio Saura Acrylic painting, gouache and Indian ink on a postcard laid on parchment, laid on black cardboard, 15,3 x 9,8 cm (postcard), 31 x 21,6 cm (sheet), 42,5 x 31,5 cm (cardboard) 1977 Geneva, Fundación Archivos Antonio Saura

116

Portrait-caricature of a crying character from The Burial of the Count of Orgaz (Suite 347)

Pablo Picasso Etching. 208 x 148 mm (print); 347 x 281 mm (sheet) 25 June 1968 Colección Fundación Bancaja

117

The Burial of the Count Orgaz, after Picasso (Suite 347)

Pablo Picasso Etching, sugar lift aquatint and scraper, 281 x 389 mm (print); 455 x 543 mm (sheet) 30 June 1968 Colección Fundación Bancaja

118

Man, 8 November

Pablo Picasso Oil on plywood, 96.5 x 57.5 cm 1970 Private Collection. Cortesía Fundación Almine y Bernard Ruiz-Picasso para el Arte

119

Musketeer with Sword and Cupid

Pablo Picasso Oil on canvas, 130 x 89 cm 1969 Oviedo, Museo de Bellas Artes de Asturias. Colección Pedro Masaveu

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