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Italian Masterpieces from Spain’s Royal Court, Museo del Prado

Melbourne, Australia National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne 16.05.2014 - 31.08.2014

The holdings of Italian art in the Museo del Prado, Madrid, are unique and unrivalled. Italian Masterpieces from Spain's Royal Court, Museo del Prado presents a rich selection of paintings and drawings spanning three hundred years of Italian art, from the early sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries. Many of these paintings are at the heart of the Prado’s collection and have never before left Spain.The magnificent art collection of the Spanish Royal Family formed the basis of the Prado. The Royal Family were avid collectors of Italian art from the mid sixteenth century, when Emperor Charles V and his courtiers began a tradition of acquiring Italian paintings. This reflected the fact that Spain’s dominions at this time included the Italian regions of Naples, Sicily and Milan, almost a third of the Italian peninsula.Over the next three centuries, hundreds of artworks destined for Spain were purchased in Italy or commissioned directly from Italian artists. Many Italian artists were also enticed to travel to Spain to work at the Royal Court. By these means the very best contemporary Italian art entered the collections of the Spanish Royal Family, and subsequently the Prado.Thanks in part to its unique origin, the Prado’s collection represents all of the major artistic centres in Italy, with paintings and drawings of the highest quality by the key individuals who defined Italy’s rich artistic heritage.

Curator:
Andrés Úbeda, Andrés Úbeda, Chief Curator of Italian and French Painting until 1700 at the Museo del Prado; Miguel Falomir, Head of Department Italian and French Painting (to 1700) at the Museo Nacional del Prado
Organized by:
Art Exhibitions Australia
NGV. National Gallery of Vitoria
Museo Nacional del Prado

Videos

Exhibition

The genius of the 16th century

The genius of the 16th century
Holy Family with Saint John or Madonna of the Rose
Raphael
Oil on canvas, 103 x 84 cm, c. 1516
Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

The High Renaissance was a time of incredible achievements in science, technology, mathematics, literature, philosophy and art that inextricably transformed Italian society. Artists such as Michelangelo and Raphael were not simply spectators or recorders of these momentous times, but were integral to the reforms that took place.

The period saw fundamental shifts in ideas about humanity and the place of the individual in society. These debates impacted directly on art as they affected how artists depicted the human form and the world around them. As progressive thinkers re-examined classical history, artists’ notions of beauty became grounded in the idealised forms of Greek and Roman Antiquity. Artists also turned their eyes increasingly to the natural world for inspiration.

Drawing in the 16th century

Drawing in the 16th century
Saint Luke painting the Virgin
Giorgio Vasari
Pen and brown ink and brown wash on black chalk grid on beige paper, 264 x 214 mm, 1568-1572
Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

Drawing assumed an increasingly vital role in artistic practice at this time. Artist and chronicler of the lives of Renaissance artists, Giorgio Vasari articulated the importance of disegno. To him, good drawing was not only a necessary skill for an artist but also an essential creative act. Vasari believed this absolutely and his drawing Saint Luke painting the Virgin 1568–72 shows an artist starting to paint a canvas upon which the composition is already sketched. Florentine artists in particular often prepared numerous studies of the same element of a composition in their pursuit of perfection.

Mannerism

Mannerism
Hercules shooting his bow
Luca Cambiaso
Pen and brown ink and brown wash over black chalk on brown paper, 375 x 186 mm, 1544-1550
Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

Countless sixteenth-century artists, including Correggio, Jacopo Tintoretto and the Carracci, carefully copied Raphael’s work and that of other leading Italian artists, such as Michelangelo. They used these studies as a starting point for their own endeavours. Within only a few years of Raphael’s death, however, the idealised forms of the Renaissance were superseded by the elegantly artificial or overly exaggerated constructs of Mannerism, a trend stimulated by Michelangelo.

Mannerist artists reacted against the strict naturalism of the Renaissance, revelling in the capacity to push illusionism beyond the limits of logic and reason. Impossibly elongated and exaggerated forms typified the new style as spatial relationships were deliberately disrupted to disturb and unsettle the eye. Luca Cambiaso’s overly muscled Hercules is a typically bold and imaginative rendering of a god. As the sixteenth century progressed, artists used their unfettered imaginations to induce physical and emotional responses from the viewer. Spectacle and sensation had left realism in their wake.

Titian and the Venetian Empire

Titian and the Venetian Empire
Philip II
Titian
Oil on canvas, 193 x 111 cm, 1551
Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

Titian, the great Venetian master, was the first Italian artist whose works were collected by the Habsburg rulers of Spain, who reigned from 1516 to 1700. The King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (1500–58) first sat for Titian in the Italian city of Mantua in 1533, thus initiating one of the more fruitful relationships between royal patrons and a single artist in history.

Charles V’s son, the future King Philip II (1527–98), became Titian’s most important patron after the late 1540s. Following fifteen years of near-exclusive service to the Spanish sovereign, the artist wrote to the King in 1562 to express his desire to continue working for him until his death, which he did.

Philip II also admired other Venetian masters, including Jacopo Bassano, Paolo Veronese and Jacopo Tintoretto and collected their work. Much of the appeal of sixteenth-century Venetian art lies in its sensuality combined with a level of bravado in composition and painting technique.

Toward realism

Toward realism
Diogenes seeking an honest man
Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione
Oil on canvas, 97 x 145 cm, c. 1645-1655
Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

By the 1580s Italian painters began to turn away from the artificial style derived from Michelangelo, codified as Mannerism, as practised by painters such as Giorgio Vasari. They moved towards a more realistic mode led by the Carracci family of Bologna and Caravaggio of Lombardy.

The changes in approach and values inspired a host of other artists, such as the Bolognese painter Guercino and the Tuscan artist Pietro da Cortona, who also invested his work with a profound understanding of the classical past. The examination of classical literature and art had a lasting effect on artists throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and can be seen in the work of Andrea di Lione and Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione.

The legacy of the Carracci

The legacy of the Carracci
The Assumption of the Virgin
Annibale Carracci
Oil on canvas, 130 x 97 cm, c. 1587
Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

Around 1582 the brothers Annibale and Agostino Carracci, along with their older cousin Ludovico, founded an art academy in Bologna in central Italy. Their intention was to reinvigorate painting by means of an intense study of the natural world, and through bold experimentation both in drawing and painting. Their work and teaching profoundly shaped seventeenth-century Italian art.

The students of the Carracci were trained to draw directly from the studio model and the world around them. Excellence in draughtsmanship became fundamental to their practice. Within a short time their academy was attracting a host of students, some of whom would forge outstanding careers. Guido Reni, for instance, was one exceptional pupil who became renowned for his delicacy of touch and refinement of colour. He quickly became the leading painter in Rome in the early seventeenth century. Giovanni Lanfranco was another former pupil of the Carracci who would gain an international reputation, whose work was eagerly sought in Spain.

The rise of the Caravaggisti

The rise of the Caravaggisti
Saint Francis supported by an angel
Orazio Gentileschi. Oil on canvas, 126 x 98 cm, c. 1605-1607
Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

Along with the Carracci, Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio from Milan, was most instrumental in introducing realism to Italian painting. Caravaggio closely recorded models posed in his studio that were usually lit from a single light source. This created the strong chiaroscuro and dramatic shadowing that he rendered with unprecedented illusionism.

His paintings of an exotic and dangerous urban underclass proved irresistible to a whole movement of artists known as the Caravaggisti. At the turn of the sixteenth century Caravaggio was active in Rome, where he gained many followers. Among them was Orazio Gentileschi, who trained in an earlier tradition yet transformed his technique under the influence of Caravaggio. Cecco del Caravaggio also adopted Caravaggesque realism (depicting saints with dirty feet, for example), as well as the use of sharp raking light, deep shadows and the sculptural treatment of figures.

In 1606, Caravaggio killed a man in Rome, whereupon he fled to the Spanish-ruled city of Naples. He soon gained patronage there and attracted a strong following among fellow artists and his work subsequently affected the next generation of Neapolitan artists. These included the Spaniard Jusepe de Ribera who had settled in Naples in 1616. Ribera was drawn to Caravaggio’s rugged naturalism and dramatic use of lighting which he employed to great effect in the many church altarpieces that he was asked to paint. Ribera also received commissions directly from Spain, thus his influence spread to his homeland. He subsequently taught and influenced a host of Italian artists, including Luca Giordano.

The Buen Retiro Palace

The Buen Retiro Palace
Perspectival view of a Roman amphitheatre
Viviano Codazzi and Domenico Gargiulo
Oil on canvas, 220.5 x 352.7 cm, c. 1638
Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

The Buen Retiro (Good Retreat) Palace was built in Madrid, not far from where the Museo del Prado is today. It was intended to be a suburban villa where the Royal Family could relax and entertain visitors. Begun somewhat modestly in the early 1630s, over the next ten years the palace was dramatically enlarged under the direction of the Count-Duke of Olivares, the powerful favourite and mentor of King Philip IV.

The Retiro grew to become an intricate network of approximately forty buildings set amidst lavish gardens, and was one of the more extensive architectural projects undertaken in Europe to that time. The palace interiors necessitated a decoration scheme that included the commissioning of more than 800 paintings by artists working mostly in Spain and Italy. This constituted the single most ambitious programme of artistic patronage ever seen in Europe. Spanish diplomats in Italy and the Viceroys of Naples were tasked with sourcing paintings that would fulfil Philip IV’s and Olivares’ desire to acquire paintings by the most renowned contemporary artists. Many Italian pupils of the Carracci, the Caravaggisti and foreign artists working in Italy were engaged to contribute paintings.

Many of the rooms in the Retiro had specific themes. The History of Ancient Rome cycle for instance was commissioned around 1633 and created solely by artists based in Italy; most of them from Naples, and others from Rome. The series was completed by 1641, when seventeen crates of paintings were shipped from Rome to Spain, destined for the Buen Retiro. The number and size of these paintings plus the high status of the artists involved made this the most impressive series of all those undertaken to decorate the palace. There are more than a dozen paintings in this exhibition that once graced the walls of the Retiro Palace.

Still lifes

Still lifes
Vases of flowers
Mario dei Fiori (Mario Nuzzi)
Oil on canvas, 83 x 158 cm, 1640-1642
Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

Some of the most beautiful paintings in this exhibition are landscapes and still-life images of flowers, many of which once hung in the Buen Retiro Palace. They were usually placed above doors and windows, and were integral to the architectural aims of the building. Indeed many of the works commissioned for the Buen Retiro had to conform in shape and size to the architecture of the interiors. This architectural setting instigated a shift in the direction of still-life painting, which was still a relatively new genre in the seventeenth century. Caravaggio was instrumental in popularising still life and his method of lighting and use of darkness influenced Giuseppe Recco and the elusive Master S.B., both of whom were active in Naples and Rome and made numerous paintings that found their way to Spain.

Spain and Italian art in the 18th century

Spain and Italian art in the 18th century
Allegory of Justice and Peace
Corrado Giaquinto
Oil on canvas, 216 x 325 cm, c. 1753-1754
Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

Italy was still a major artistic centre in the eighteenth century and the Spanish court continued to look to it for its leading artists. From 1692 to 1702 the Neapolitan, Luca Giordano, worked in Spain where he painted frescoes in the Buen Retiro Palace and the Escorial monastery. Many Italian artists found a home in Madrid, including Jacopo Amigoni.

But for a later generation of artists the opportunity to shine came with the rebuilding of the Royal Palace in Madrid after fire destroyed the existing palace in 1734. As with many grand buildings designed in the eighteenth century, its architecture required an extensive series of frescoes. Italy boasted the finest specialist decorative painters and Corrado Giaquinto, who trained in Naples but made his name in Rome, was invited to Madrid in 1753 to paint ceilings of the new palace.

Giaquinto possessed a fluid and virtuoso technique and was a master of illusionistic effects. He was also a genius at strikingly beautiful colour combinations which make his paintings seem illuminated from within. Giaquinto augmented the popular Rococo style with a Neapolitan intensity perfectly suited to the flamboyant architecture of the new palace and taste of those at court. He created fully worked and large canvases of the designs he intended for the frescoes and the Prado have generously included three of these impressive works in this exhibition.

A change in taste

A change in taste
The Immaculate Conception
Giambattista Tiepolo
Oil on canvas, 281 x 155 cm, 1767-1769
Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

The greatest of all Italian decorative painters, Giambattista Tiepolo arrived in Spain from Venice in 1762 to eventually replace the ailing Corrado Giaquinto. While in Spain he created some majestic paintings for courtly and church patrons, however, he did not attain the same level of success as earlier Italian visitors such as Luca Giordano or Giaquinto. A subtle but distinct shift in taste occurred at the Spanish court in the second half of the eighteenth century which saw a decline in interest in Italian art and culture. Indeed, Tiepolo was the last great Italian artist to work in Spain.

Even while Tiepolo was in Spain, taste there subtly moved away from the Rococo towards a more austere and academic classicism, a trend that was met and fostered by the influential German neoclassical artist Anton Raphael Mengs. He was enticed to Madrid during the 1760s and would dominate the arts of Spain in the late eighteenth century.

Later, a combination of drastic political and social changes in Spain and Europe contributed to the decline of the Spanish desire for contemporary Italian art. The Napoleonic era also brought an end to Spanish rule on the Italian Peninsula. Taste shifted more towards French art and that of Spanish artists, such as Francisco Bayeu y Subías, Luis Paret y Alcázar and Francisco de Goya.

Nevertheless, for three hundred years the arts of Italy and Spain were inextricably linked and during this time Italian painting was fundamental to Spain’s historical and cultural heritage.

Artworks

1

The judgement of Paris (Il giudizio di Paride)

Francesco Albani Oil on canvas, 113 x 171 cm c. 1650 – 1660 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

2

The toilet of Venus (La toilette di Venere)

Francesco Albani Oil on canvas, 114 x 171 cm c. 1635 – 1640 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

3

Portrait group: the singer Farinelli and friends (Ritratto di gruppo: il cantante Farinelli e gli amici)

Jacopo Amigoni Oil on canvas, 127.8 x 245.1 cm c. 1750 – 1752 National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne

4

Seated prophet or evangelist (Profeta o evangelista seduto)

Baccio Bandinelli Redchalk, 36.9 x 27.5 cm c. 1536 – 1540 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

5

The Israelites drinking the Miraculous Water (GliIsraeliti bevendo l'acqua miracolosa)

Jacopo Bassano Oil on canvas, 146 x 230 cm c. 1566 – 1568 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

6

Academic drawing (Studio)

Pompeo Batoni Chalk and pencil on green tempera, 53.5 x 39.5 cm 1765 – 1768 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

7

Francis Basset

Pompeo Batoni Oil on canvas, 221 x 157cm 1778 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

8

Flowerpiece (Fiori)

Andrea Belvedere Oil on canvas, 151 x 100 cm c. 1694 – 1700 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

9

Flowerpiece (Fiori)

Andrea Belvedere Oil on canvas, 151 x 100 cm c. 1694 – 1700 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

10

The Turkish Embassy to the Court of Naples in 1741 (L'ambasciata turca alla Corte di Napoli nel 1741)

Giuseppe Bonito Oil on canvas, 207 x 170 cm 1741 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

11

The Martyrdom of Saint Laurence (Il martirio di san Lorenzo)

Valentin de Boulogne Oil on canvas, 195 x 261 cm mid 1600s Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

12

Guardian angel with Saints Ursula and Thomas (Angelo custode con sant'Orsola e san Tommaso)

Cecco del Caravaggio (Francesco Buoneri) Oil on canvas, 208 x 106 cm c. 1615 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

13

Hercules shooting his bow (Ercole tirando il suo arco)

Luca Cambiaso Pen and brown ink and brown wash over black chalk on brown paper, 37.5 x 18.6 cm 1544 – 1550 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

14

Saint Peter healing the lame (San Pietro guarisce lo storpio)

Lodovico Cigoli (Lodovico Cardi) Pen and brown ink and brown wash over black chalk on beige paper, 46.5 x 28.5 cm c. 1604 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

15

The Assumption of the Virgin (L'Assunzione della Vergine)

Annibale Carracci Oil on canvas, 130 x 97 cm c. 1587 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

16

Studies for a section of architectural decoration [Galleria Farnese?] (Studi per una sezione decorative architettonica, [Galleria Farnese?])

Annibale Carracci Pen and brown ink and brown wash on beige paper, 48.9 x 38.1 cm c. 1597 – 1601 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

17

The Ecstasy of Saint Francis (L'estasi di San Francesco)

Ludovico Carracci Oil on canvas, 200 x 147 cm c. 1601 – 1603 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

18

Mars and Apollo (Marte ed Apollo)

Giovanni Battista Castello (Il Bergamasco) Pen and brown ink and brown wash, 25.5 x 17.3 cm 1566 – 1569 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

19

Diogenes seeking an honest man (Diogeneri cerca di un uomo onesto)

Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione Oil on canvas, 97 x 145 cm c. 1645 – 1655 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

20

The Virgin and Child adored by a kneeling angel (La Vergine ed il Bambino adorato da un angelo in ginocchio)

Cavaliere d'Arpino (Giuseppe Cesari) Red chalk, 22.6 x 18 cm c. 1606 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

21

Landscape with the embarkment of Saint Paula Romana in Ostia (Paesaggio con l'Imbarco ad Ostia di Santa Paola Romana)

Claude Lorrain Oil on canvas, 211 x 145 cm 1639 – 1640 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

22

Perspectival view of a Roman amphitheatre (Vista prospettica di un anfiteatro romano)

Viviano Codazzi and Domenico Gargiulo Oil on canvas, 220.5 x 352.7 cm c. 1638 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

23

The education of Achilles (L'educazione di Achille)

Sebastiano Conca Oil on canvas, 59 x 74 cm 1727 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

24

Noli me tangere

Antonio Correggio Oil on canvas on wood panel, 130 x 103 cm c. 1525 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

25

The Metamorphosis of Florilla and Melissa in flowers and bees (Allegory of the House of Barberini ) (La metamorfosi in fiori e api di Florila e Melissa) Allegoria della Casa dei Barberini)

Pietro da Cortona Pen and brown ink, watercolour, brush and sepia ink and white lead over pencil, 20.1 x 14.7 cm c. 1630 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

26

Pieta (Pietà)

Daniele Crespi Oil on canvas, 154 x 128 cm 1626 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

27

Male nude (Nudomaschile)

Donato Creti Oil on paper, 28.3 x 41.9 cm 1714 – 1722 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

28

Vases and onions (Vasi e cipolle)

Mario dei Fiori (Mario Nuzzi) Oil on canvas, 83 x 154 cm c. 1640 – 1642 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

29

Overturned silver vase on a cloth (Vaso d'argento capovolto su un panno)

Mario dei Fiori (Mario Nuzzi) Oil on canvas, 84 x 152 cm 1640 – 1642 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

30

Vases of flowers (Vasi di fiori)

Mario dei Fiori (Mario Nuzzi) Oil on canvas, 83 x 158 cm 1640 – 1642 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

31

Vases of flowers (Vasi di fiori)

Mario dei Fiori (Mario Nuzzi) Oil on canvas, 83 x 155 cm 1640 – 1642 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

32

Solomon and the Queen of Sheba (Salomone e la regina di Saba)

Francesco Francanzano Pen and brown ink, brush and brown ink and brown and red wash on laid paper, 26.7 x 43.4 cm c. 1640 – 1650 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

33

Lot and his daughters (Lot e le sue figlie)

Francesco Furini Oil on canvas, 123 x 120 cm c. 1634 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

34

Theatre set (Scena teatro)

Francesco Galli da Bibiena Pen and ink and grey wash on beige paper, 36.8 x 26.8 cm Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

35

Hercules and Omphale (Ercole e Onfale)

Gaetano Gandolfi Red chalk and chalk on brown paper, 26.3 x 18.2 cm 1780 – 1790 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

36

The martyrdom of Saint Eusebius (Martirio di san Eusebio)

Gaetano Gandolfi Redchalk on beige paper, 70.8 x 39.4 cm c. 1784 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

37

Time revealed by Truth (Il Tempo svela la nuda Verità)

Giovanni Battista Gaulli (Baciccia) Pen and brown ink, brush and brown ink, 25.7 x 20.6 cm 1665 – 1669 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

38

Temperance, Hope, Wisdom and Chastity (Temperanza, Speranza, Sapienza e Verginità)

Giovanni Battista Gaulli (Baciccia) Pen and brown ink, brown and grey wash and white lead over black chalk on brown paper, 23.1 x 21.8 cm c. 1669 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

39

Saint Francis supported by an angel (San Francesco sorretto da un angelo)

Orazio Gentileschi Oil on canvas, 126 x 98 cm c. 1605 – 1607 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

40

Allegory of Justice and Peace (Allegoria della Giustizia e della Pace)

Corrado Giaquinto Oil on canvas, 216 x 325 cm c. 1753 – 1754 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

41

Spain pays homage to Religion and to the Church (Spagna rende omaggio alla Religione e alla Chiesa)

Corrado Giaquinto Oil on canvas, 160 x 150 cm 1759 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

42

The birth of the Sun and the Triumph of Bacchus (La nascita del Sole e il Trionfo di Bacco)

Corrado Giaquinto Oil on canvas, 168 x 141.5 cm 1761 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

43

The presentation of the Virgin at the Temple (La presentazione della Vergine al Tempio)

Luca Giordano Black chalk, pen and brown ink and brown wash, 24.7 x 28.3 cm c. 1694 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

44

Christ carrying the cross (Cristo porta croce)

Luca Giordano Oil on canvas, 77 x 71 cm c. 1697 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

45

The taking of a stronghold (La presa di una Fortezza)

Luca Giordano Oil on canvas, 235 x 343 cm c. 1697 – 1700 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

46

God commanding Abraham to sacrifice Isaac (Diochie dead Abramo il sacrificio di Isacco)

Luca Giordano Wash and pencil on paper, 14.7 x 29.2 cm Late 17th century Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

47

Susanna and the Elders (Susanna e i vecchioni)

Guercino (Giovanni Francesco Barbieri) Oil on canvas, 176.0 x 208.0 cm 1617 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

48

Saint Agnes (Santa Ines)

Guercino (Giovanni Francesco Barbieri) Redchalk on beige paper, 24.5 x 17.9 cm 1650 – 1660 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

49

Selfless love (Cupido disprezzando ricchezze)

Guercino (Giovanni Francesco Barbieri) Oil on canvas, 99.0 x 75.0 cm c. 1654 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

50

Study of a prophet with a woman and a child (Studio di un profeta con una donna e un bambino)

Guercino (Giovanni Francesco Barbieri) Pen and brown ink on beige paper, 23.4 x 19.8 cm c. 1627 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

51

Queen Maria Amalia of Saxony visits Trajan’s Arch of Triumph in Benevento (Visita della regina Maria Amalia di Sassonia presso l'Arco di Traiano a Benevento)

Antonio Joli Oil on canvas, 77.5 x 131 cm c. 1759 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

52

An auger sacrificing for a Roman emperor (Una trivella sacrificando per un imperatore romano)

Giovanni Lanfranco Oil on canvas, 181 x 362 cm c. 1635 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

53

Study for Saint John the Evangelist (Studio per San Giovanni Eavangelista)

Giovanni Lanfranco Black chalk and red chalk grid on beige paper, 38.9 x 18.6 cm c. 1642 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

54

A chimera (La chimera)

Jacopo Ligozzi (attributed to) Pen and brown ink and brush and brown ink over black chalk, gold paint and white lead, 32.3 x 42.4 cm 1590 – 1610 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

55

Elephants in a circus (Gli Elefanti in un circo)

Andrea di Lione Oil on canvas, 229 x 231 cm c. 1640 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

56

Jacob's journey (Il viaggio di Giacomo)

Andrea di Lione Oil on canvas, 99 x 123 cm c. 1635 – 1665 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

57

Penitent Saint Jerome (San Girolamo penitente)

Lorenzo Lotto Oil on canvas, 99 x 90 cm c. 1546 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

58

Christ served by angels (Cristo servitor dagli angeli)

Alessandro Magnasco and Antonio Francesco Peruzzini Oil on canvas, 193 x 142 cm c. 1705 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

59

The Virgin and Child in Glory (La Vergine ed il Bambino in Gloria)

Carlo Maratti Oil on canvas, 221 x 150 cm c. 1680 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

60

Kitchen still life (Natura morta di cucina)

Master S.B. Oil on canvas, 78 x 151 cm 17th century Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

61

Genius of painting (Il genio della pittura)

Livio Mehus Oil on canvas, 70 x 80 cm c. 1650 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

62

Study for the dead Christ (Studio per Cristo morto)

Anton Raphael Mengs Pencil, chalk and pencil grid on laid beige paper, 36.9 x 49.5 cm Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

63

Study of a man’s right shoulder, breast and upper arm (Studio della spalla destra, del petto e del braccio di un uomo)

Michelangelo (Buonarroti) Black chalk on yellow paper, 15.0 x 11.5 cm c. 1536 – 1541 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

64

Carnival in Rome (Il Carnevale a Roma)

Jan Miel Oil on canvas, 68 x 50 cm 1653 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

65

Kitchen still life with a hare and two partridges (Natura morta di Cucina con una lepre e due pernici)

Mariano Nani Oil on canvas, 69 x 48 cm Late 18th century Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

66

Vanitas (Vanità)

Pietro Negri Oil on canvas, 110 x 90 cm 1662 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

67

The raising of Lazarus (La resurrezione di Lazzaro)

Pietro Novelli Oil on canvas, 239 x 178 cm 1635 – 1640 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

68

Moses and the Israelites following the pillar of fire (Mosè guidato dalla colonna di fuoco)

Pietro Novelli Pen and brown ink and brown and grey wash over black chalk on brown paper, 45.4 x 30.4 cm Early 17th century Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

69

Head of a figure (Testadi una figura)

Bartolomeo Passarotti Pen and brown ink on blue paper, 33.7 x 26 cm 1560 – 1570 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

70

The hunt of Atalanta and Meleager (La caccia di Atalanta e Meleager)

Nicolas Poussin Oil on canvas, 160 x 360 cm 1634 – 1639 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

71

Holy Family with Saint John or Madonna of the Rose (Sacra Famiglia con San Giovannino (Madonna della Rosa)

Raphael Oil on canvas, 103 x 84 cm c. 1517 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

72

Still life with fish and a turtle (Natura morta di cucina con pesci ed una tartaruga)

Giuseppe Recco Oil on canvas, 75 x 91 cm c. 1680 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

73

Landscape with Rest on the Flight to Egypt with Saint John (Paesaggio con riposo nella fuga in Egitto con san Giovannino)

Guido Reni Pen and brown ink on beige paper, 35.2 x 53.8 cm Late 16th century Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

74

Cupid (Cupido)

Guido Reni Oil on canvas, 101 x 88 cm 1637 – 1638 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

75

The Apostle Saint James the Greater (L'Apostolo Santiago il Vecchio)

Guido Reni Oil on canvas, 135 x 89 cm 1618 – 1623 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

76

Saint Sebastian (San Sebastiano)

Guido Reni Oil on canvas, 170.5 x 133 cm 1615 – 1620 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

77

Allegory of touch (Alegorica del tocco)

Jusepe de Ribera Oil on canvas, 125 x 98 cm 1632 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

78

Martyrdom of Saint Lawrence (Martirio di San Lorenzo)

Jusepe de Ribera Oil on canvas,206.2 x 154.5 cm 1620 – 1624 National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne. Purchased with funds donated by Allan and Maria Myers and Andrew Sisson, 2006 (2006.390)

79

Women gladiators fighting (Donne gladiatori combattenti)

Jusepe de Ribera Oil on canvas, 235 x 212 cm 1636 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

80

A harbour scene (Il porto)

Salvator Rosa Oil on canvas, 170 x 260 cm c. 1638 – 1639 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

81

Study for a draped female figure (Studio di una figura femminile drappeggiata)

Andrea del Sarto Black chalk, 28.1 x 20 cm c. 1523 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

82

The incredulity of Saint Thomas (L'incredulità di san Tommaso)

Matthias Stom Oil on canvas, 125 x 99 cm 1641 – 1649 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

83

Saint Veronica (Santa Veronica)

Bernardo Strozzi Oil on canvas, 168 x 118 cm 1620 – 1625 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

84

The Immaculate Conception (L’Immacolata Concezione)

Giambattista Tiepolo Oil on canvas, 281 x 155 cm 1767 – 1769 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

85

Saint John the Evangelist (San Giovanni Evangelista)

Giambattista Tiepolo Pen and brown ink and brown wash over pencil, 20.7 x 29.8 cm c. 1769 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

86

The Venetian charlatan (Il ciarlatano veneziano)

Giandomenico Tiepolo Oil on canvas, 34 x 58.1 cm c. 1765 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

87

The New World (Il nuovo mondo)

Giandomenico Tiepolo Oil on canvas, 34 x 58.3 cm c. 1765 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

88

The Crown of Thorns (La corona di spine)

Giandomenico Tiepolo Oil on canvas. 124 x 144 cm 1771 – 1772 Trinity Museum, Madrid

89

Centaur with cherubs (Centaur con putti)

Giandomenico Tiepolo Pen and brown ink, brush and brown ink and grey wash over pencil, 19.4 x 26.8 cm 1759 – 1791 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

90

Young man smoking (Giovanotto fumando)

Lorenzo Tiepolo White and red chalk on green paper, 23.7 x 18 cm 1770s? Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

91

The abduction of Helen (Il rapimento di Elena)

Jacopo Tintoretto Oil on canvas, 186 x 307 cm c. 1578 – 1579 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

92

The Virgin and Child between Saint Anthony of Padua and Saint Roch (La Virgine ed Il Bambino tra Sant’Antonio di Padova e San Rocco)

Titian Oil on canvas, 92 x 133 cm c. 1508 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

93

Nobleman with a clock (Cavaliere con un orologio)

Titian Oil on canvas, 122 x 101 cm c. 1550 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

94

Salome with the head of John the Baptist (Salomè con la testa di Giovanni Battista)

Titian Oil on canvas, 87 x 80 cm c. 1550 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

95

Philip II (Filippo II)

Titian Oil on canvas, 193 x 111 cm 1551 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

96

Religion succoured by Spain (La Religione soccorsa dalla Spagna)

Titian Oil on canvas, 168 x 168 cm c. 1572 – 1575 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

97

The flight into Egypt (La fuga in Egitto)

Alessandro Turchi Oil on canvas, 284 x 200 cm c. 1633 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

98

The ascension of Saint Gennaro (L'ascensione di san Gennaro)

Andrea Vaccaro Oil on canvas, 207 x 154 cm 1635 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

99

The Villa Martinelli and the Palace of the Duke of Aquale in Posillipo (Naples) (La Baia di Napoli)

Gaspare Vanvitelli Oil on canvas, 32 x 37 cm Early 18th century Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

100

The grotto at Posillipo (Naples) (La grotta di Posillipo, Napoli)

Gaspare Vanvitelli Oil on canvas, 32 x 37 cm Early 18th century Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

101

Saint Luke painting the Virgin (San Luca che dipinge la Vergine)

Giorgio Vasari Pen and brown ink and brown wash on black chalk grid on beige paper, 26.4 x 21.4 cm 1568 – 1572 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

102

Roman landscape at sunset (Paesaggio romano atramonto)

Claude Joseph Vernet Oil on canvas, 155 x 57 cm 1781 – 1782 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

103

Penitent Mary Magdalene (Maria Maddalena penitente)

Paolo Veronese Oil on canvas, 115.4 x 91.5 cm 1583 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

104

The Evangelist Saint Luke seated in a landscape and other studies (San Luca evangelista ed altri studi)

Paolo Veronese Pen and brown ink, brown wash and white lead over pencil on beige paper, 31 x 21.7 cm c. 1580 – 1581 Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

105

A dignitary kneeling before a Pope, receiving a chain of office and other rewards (Dignitari inginocchiati davanti al Papa, che riceve una collana e altre premio)

Federico Zuccaro Pen and brown ink, brush and brown ink and brown wash, over black chalk grid on yellow paper, 23.2 x 19.8 cm 1570s Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

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