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Cárdenas Maldonado, Gabriel de
Cuéllar, Segovia (Spain), Doc. 1588 - Doc. 1604
Cárdenas Maldonado, Gabriel de
Cuéllar, Segovia (Spain), Doc. 1588 - Doc. 1604

This Spanish painter belonged to a family of local painters, including his father, Julián Maldonado, with whom he must have studied. He was married to María de la Cruz but there is no record of offspring. His work reflects the characteristics of painting from the School of Valladolid, which influenced the area of Segovia during that period. There is no evidence that he worked outside the diocese o

Candid, Pieter
Bruges, H. 1548 - Munich, 1628
Candid, Pieter
Bruges, H. 1548 - Munich, 1628

A Netherlander by birth, Candid moved to Florence with his father, the bronze-caster Elias de Witte, when he was about ten years old. Biographical details are provided by Karel van Mander (1548-1606), whom he met in that city in 1574. According to van Mander, Candid assisted Vasari (1511-1574) with the decoration of the interior of the Sala Regia in the Vatican, as well as with the cupola of Flore

Willaerts, Adam
London, 1577 - Utrecht, 1664
Willaerts, Adam
London, 1577 - Utrecht, 1664

He arrived in Holland around 1602 and was accepted as a citizen of Utrecht in 1608. His first surviving painting dates from that year, A Fleet from the Dutch East India Company heading East arriving on an Island off the West Coast of Africa. In 1611, he was a founding member of the Utrecht Guild of Saint Luke, where he repeatedly held the position of dean (1620–1622, 1624–1631 and 1636–1637). Desp

Sánchez Cotán, Juan
Orgaz, Toledo, 1560 - Granada, 1627
Sánchez Cotán, Juan
Orgaz, Toledo, 1560 - Granada, 1627

The earliest Spanish painter with extant still lifes, most of which were painted before 1603. Baptized in his hometown’s parish church on June 25, 1560, he lived and worked in Toledo. He may have been a disciple of Blas de Prado, who was the first documented Spanish still-life painter, although none of his works in that genre have been identified. Part of Sánchez Cotán’s family lived in Orgaz (Tol

Sánchez Coello, Alonso
Benifairó del Valls, Valencia (Spain), 1531/32 - Madrid (Spain), 1588
Sánchez Coello, Alonso
Benifairó del Valls, Valencia (Spain), 1531/32 - Madrid (Spain), 1588

At the age of ten, Alonso Sánchez Coello moved with his family to Portugal, where he began his first art studies. John III, king of Portugal, was aware of his talent and in 1550 he paid the young artist’s trip to Flanders to complete his training. There, Sánchez Coello worked for Cardinal Granvela and was a disciple of Anthonis Mor van Dashorst. After returning to Lisbon around 1552, he probably b

Rubens, Peter Paul
Siegen, Westphalia (Germany), 1577 - Antwerp (Belgium), 1640
Rubens, Peter Paul
Siegen, Westphalia (Germany), 1577 - Antwerp (Belgium), 1640

No other 17th-century European painter combined artistic talent, social and economic success and a high cultural level like Rubens. Though primarily a painter, he also made numerous designs for prints, tapestries, architecture, sculpture and decorative objects. His abundant work is strikingly versatile in its subject matter, including paintings on mythological, religious and historical subjects as

Roelas, Juan de
Olivares, Sevilla (Spain), 1625
Roelas, Juan de
Olivares, Sevilla (Spain), 1625

His style suggests that he learned to paint in Italy, although there is no documentation of his presence in that country. In 1598 he worked in Valladolid, collaborating on the funeral monument to commemorate the death of Philip II. He continued working in that city until 1604, when he obtained a prebend or favor from the Count-Duke of Olivares. From then on, he was a protege of that nobleman in th

Procaccini, Giulio Cesare
Bologna, 1574 - Milan, 1625
Procaccini, Giulio Cesare
Bologna, 1574 - Milan, 1625

He descends from a family of artists who moved to Milan in 1587. The first documentary record of his work is the payment for a sculptural work in the cathedral of Milan in 1590. His first dated painting is the Pietà in Santa Maria de San Celso in Milan from 1604, around which time he worked alongside Cerano. It is particularly difficult to determine which of the two was a pioneer in achieving such

Passignano
Passignano, 1559 - Florence, 1638
Passignano
Passignano, 1559 - Florence, 1638

He studied in Florence under Girolamo Macchietti (1535-1592) and Giovanni Battista Naldini (c. 1537-1591), but his principal master was Federico Zuccaro (1540/41-1609), whit whom he worked from 1575 to 1579 on the fresco decoration of the cupola of Florence Cathedral, left incomplete at Vasari’s death. Following periods of activity in Rome (1580-1582) and Venice (1582-1588), Passignano returned to

Mierevelt, Michiel Jansz. Van
Delft, 1567 - Delft, 1641
Mierevelt, Michiel Jansz. Van
Delft, 1567 - Delft, 1641

Son of the goldsmith Jan Michelsz. van Mierevelt (1528–1612), Michiel was the most prominent representative of official Dutch portrait painting during the first decades of the 17th century. He became a history painter in Utrecht at the workshop of Anthonis van Blockland (1533/34–1583) and remained there for two years until the master’s death. Afterwards, he returned to Delft where he established h

Lilio, Andrea
Ancona, Le Marche, Ca. 1570 - Ascoli Piceno, Le Marche, 1635
Lilio, Andrea
Ancona, Le Marche, Ca. 1570 - Ascoli Piceno, Le Marche, 1635

The sources on Lilio's early life are sparse and sometimes contradictory. As a youth he was already active in Rome, since he is recorded in 1583 as beginning work on the four Evangelists beneath the cupola in the Gesu. His early training seems to have been with Cesare Nebbia (c. 1536-1614) and Giovanni Guerra (1544-1618), though he soon after gravitated to the circle of Barocci's followers then wo

González, Bartolomé
Valladolid (Spain), 1564 - Madrid (Spain), 1627
González, Bartolomé
Valladolid (Spain), 1564 - Madrid (Spain), 1627

This Spanish painter was a disciple of Patricio Cajés in Valladolid, and of Juan Pantoja de la Cruz, whom he succeeded to the post of royal painter along with Rodrigo de Villandrando, Pedro Antonio Vidal, Santiago Morán and Andrés López. After the court moved from his native Valladolid to Madrid, he became the king's painter, filling the post left by Fabricio Castello's death in 1617. His testamen

Castello, Bernardo
Genoa, H. 1557 - Genoa, 1629
Castello, Bernardo
Genoa, H. 1557 - Genoa, 1629

Castello was taught by Andrea Semino (c. 1526-1594) and subsequently by Luca Cambiaso (1527-1585); when the latter artist moved to Madrid in 1583, Castello emerged as one of Genoa’s leading painters. Around this time he painted the Stoning of St. Stephen (Palermo, S. Giorgio dei Genovesi), which was copied from Giulio Romano (c. 1499-1546). But Cambiaso’s influence had been so intrinsic to his dev

Carvajal, Luis de
Toledo (Spain), 1556 - Madrid (Spain), 1607
Carvajal, Luis de
Toledo (Spain), 1556 - Madrid (Spain), 1607

Born in Toledo in 1556, he was the half-brother of sculptor Juan Bautista Monegro and a disciple of painter Juan Villoldo, who had trained with Alonso Berruguete. He completed his training in Italy, where his presence at the Academy of San Lucas in Rome was documented in 1577. He returned to Toledo that same year and began receiving important commissions. In 1578 he painted a likeness of Archbisho

Cardi, Ludovico
Castelvecchio di Cigoli, Tuscany, 1559 - Rome, 1613
Cardi, Ludovico
Castelvecchio di Cigoli, Tuscany, 1559 - Rome, 1613

A student of the Florentine painters Alessandro Allori (1535-1607) and Santi di Tito (1536-1602), and of the architect Bernardo Buontalenti (1536-1608). During the early 1580s Cigoli painted two lunettes in the Chiostro Grande of S. Maria Novella, Florence. In the same decade he also received numerous commissions from the Medici family, such as that to design decorations to celebrate the marriage

Cajés, Eugenio
Madrid, 1574 - Madrid (Spain), 1634
Cajés, Eugenio
Madrid, 1574 - Madrid (Spain), 1634

He was a disciple of his father, Italian painter Patricio Cajés, who had moved to Madrid to work on the monastery of El Escorial. He is thought to have spent time in Rome around 1595, where he would have taken part in the birth of Caravaggio's naturalism, and he must have returned to Spain with a fondness for Tempesta's battle compositions, which Vicente Carducho's generation knew through prints a

Brueghel the Elder, Jan (Jan 'Velvet' Brueghel)
Brussels (Belgium), 1568 - Antwerp (Belgium), 1625
Brueghel the Elder, Jan (Jan 'Velvet' Brueghel)
Brussels (Belgium), 1568 - Antwerp (Belgium), 1625

Born to a family of extraordinary artists, he was the son of Pieter Brueghel the Elder and grandson of Pieter Coecke and Mayken Verhulst Bessermers. Tradition has it that she was his first teacher, as his father died when he was a child. According to writer Karel van Mander his principal teacher was Pieter Goetkind. While he was somewhat influenced by the work of his brilliant father, he always fo

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