The itinerary <em>TITULORECORRIDO</em> has been successfully created. Now you can add in works from the Collection browser
<em>TITULOOBRA</em> added to <em>TITULORECORRIDO</em> itinerary

Collection <Back
Queen Elisabeth of Valois, third wife of Philip II
Pantoja de la Cruz, Juan
Close Continuar a ficha de la obra

Pantoja de la Cruz, Juan

Valladolid, 1553 - Madrid, 1608

Queen Elisabeth of Valois, third wife of Philip II

Ca. 1605. Oil on canvas, 120.1 x 84 cm.

Philip II’s marriage to Elizabeth of Valois served to consolidate the desired peace between France and Spain, which was sealed in 1599 when both countries signed the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis. It was the king’s third marriage, but the first for his wife, and it reflected the Habsburgs’ policy of matrimonial alliances, in which the female role was entirely based on the dynasty’s biological succession and continuity. On numerous occasions, Habsburg women played important roles as regents or governors, or were charged with delicate diplomatic missions. In 1565, for example, Elizabeth of Valois represented Philip II in Bayonne (France) to negotiate matters relating to that country’s Protestants. The identification of family life with the monarchy on the female side of the royal court makes it difficult to distinguish official from intimate in portraits of the queens and infantas, where established symbols of power appear alongside elements that convey the sitters’ social standing, such as luxurious clothing and jewelry. Such elements provide the proper counterpoint to male portraits of the monarchy by adding sumptuousness and distinction. Elizabeth of Valois (1546-1568) was the daughter of Henry II of France and Catherine of Medicis. In 1559, she married Philip II by power of attorney at the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris. Soon thereafter, she undertook the voyage to her new residence at the Alcázar of Toledo before her definitive move to court in Madrid in 1561. The chronicles speak of a happy marriage and of the monarch’s continuous concern for his very young wife, with whom he had two daughters: the infantas Isabel Clara Eugenia and Catalina Micaela. Nevertheless, her youth, and Philip II’s relation with her and with his son, don Carlos, to whom she was first engaged, also led to the spread of a black legend in the 19th century that gained ground with the publication of Schiller’s play, Don Carlos. One of Elizabeth’s ladies in waiting was Sofonisba Anguissola (ca. 1530-1626), an internationally known painter whose first work at the court was a full-length portrait of the queen. She also made various three-quarter versions of this painting, including one for the portrait gallery kept by her sister-in-law, Juana, at the monastery of Las Descalzas, and another for the portrait gallery at the palace in El Pardo, where it was intended to replace the original that had been lost in the fire of 1604. Anguissola made two more for Elizabeth’s mother, Catherine of Medicis. The queen appears in Spanish clothing, a black velvet skirt with round sleeves, richly decorated with crimson ribbon and bows, and on her head, a cap adorned with feathers and a small jewel. Her hands are busy with a curious fly swatter bearing a marten’s head, an object associated with power since Antiquity and indicative of the sitter’s social status, but rarely seen in surviving Spanish female portraits from that period. Sofonisba reveals her capacity to adapt the Habsburg family’s customary formula for female portraits, presenting the queen’s figure in three-quarters with the habitual trappings, such as a friar’s chair and a curtain. But she introduces variations derived from her own visual resources in her quest for a greater sense of space, a warmer and more luminous palette for defining the clothing and accessories, and a softening of the contours and of the sitter’s less favorable facial features. As he was often required to do, Pantoja de la Cruz here copied an original by Sofonisba Anguissola (1530-1626); it was her first portrait of the young queen. It is an attractive adaptation to Spanish conventions, but using warmer, lighter colours; a marmot-fur stole has also been added to the Queen’s costume. Despite Pantoja de la Cruz’s (ca. 1553-1608), hieratic, abstract style, in this copy it is possible to recognize the features of the original by Sofonisba (Text drawn from Ara Lázaro, J.: El retrato español en el Prado. Del Greco a Goya, Museo Nacional del Prado, 2006, p. 54).

Technical data

Inventory number
P01030
Author
Pantoja de la Cruz, Juan
Title
Queen Elisabeth of Valois, third wife of Philip II
Date
Ca. 1605
Technique
Oil
Support
Canvas
Dimension
High/Height: 120.1 cm.; Width: 84 cm.
Provenance
Royal Collection

Bibliography +

Stirling Maxwell, WilliamSir1818-1878, Don John of Austria Or Passages From the History of the Sixt, I, LongmausGreen, Londres, 1883, pp. 267.

Lefort, P., Les Musees de Madrid. Le Prado, San Fernando, L'Armeria, Gazette des BeauxArts, Paris, 1896, pp. 129.

Roblot-Delondre, Louise, Portraits D'Infantes. XVI Siecle. Etude Iconographique, G.Van Oest & Cie, Paris-Bruselas, 1913.

L'Archiduchesse-Infante Isabelle Claire Eugénie au Musée du Prado. L'Espagne et le Belgique dans l'histoire. Journées hispano-belges..., Bruselas, 1925, pp. 18 / lám. III.

Sánchez Cantón, Francisco Javier, Los retratos de los Reyes de España, Omega, Barcelona, 1948, pp. 125.

Kusche, Maria, Juan Pantoja de la Cruz, Castalia, Madrid, 1964, pp. 174-175.

Santa Teresa y su tiempo, Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, Dirección Gener, Madrid, 1970.

Muller, Priscilla E., Jewels in Spain : 1500-1800 : [a fully documented account of jewels, jewelers and their patrons in the Peninsula from the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella through that of Charles IV and Maria Luisa of Parma], The Hispanic Society of America, Nueva York, 1972, pp. 102 / lám.166.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Museo del Prado: catálogo de las pinturas, Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1972.

Sopeña Ibañez, Federico, Las Reinas de España y la Musica, Banco de Bilbao, Madrid, 1984, pp. 28.

Breuer, Stephanie, Werke Sánchez Coello, [Uni Druck], Munich, 1984, pp. 87.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Museo del Prado: catálogo de las pinturas, Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1985, pp. 614.

Pericot, L., Prehistoria y Edad Antigua, II, Carroggio, Barcelona, 1985, pp. 89 / lám. 59.

Alonso Sánchez Coello y el retrato en la corte de Felipe II, Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1990, pp. 133, nº6.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Museo del Prado: inventario general de pinturas, Museo del Prado, Espasa Calpe, Madrid, 1990.

Karge, Henrik, Vision Oder Wirklichkeit. Die Spanische Malerei Der Neuzeit, Klinkhardt & Biermann, Munich, 1991, pp. 46.

Checa Cremades, Fernando, Felipe II: mecenas de las artes, Nerea, Madrid, 1992, pp. 163.

Sofonisba Anguissola e le sue sorelle [textos: Mina Gregori], Leonardo Arte, Cremona, 1994, pp. 230, nº23.

La monarquía hispánica: Felipe II, un monarca y su época, Sociedad Estatal para la Conmemoración de los Cent, Madrid, 1998, pp. 496.

Un príncipe del renacimiento: Felipe II, un monarca y su época, Sociedad Estatal para la Conmemoración de los centenarios de Felipe II y Carlos V, Madrid, 1998, pp. 400, nº92.

El linaje del emperador, Sociedad Estatal para la Conmemoración de los Centenarios de Felipe II y Carlos V, Madrid, 2000, pp. 348, nº75.

Esplendores de Espanha de el Greco a Velazquez, Arte Viva, Rio Janeiro, 2000, pp. 54.

Humfrey, Peter (1947-)), Giovanni Battista Moroni. Renaissance Portraitist., Kimbell Art Museum, For Worth, 2000, pp. 50.

Museo Nacional del Prado, El Greco y la pintura española del Renacimiento: guía, Museo del PradoAldeasa, Madrid, 2001, pp. 172.

Kusche, Maria, Retratos y retratadores: Alonso Sanchez Coello y sus competidores, Fundación de Apoyo a la Historia del Arte Hispánico, Madrid, 2003, pp. 204.

Mulcahy, Rosemarie, Philip II of Spain : patron of the arts, Four Courts, Dublín, 2004, pp. 279.

López Fanjul,M. Pérez Preciado,J.J., Los números y marcas de colección en los cuadros del Museo del Prado, Boletín del Museo del Prado, XXIII, 2005, pp. 84-110.

Ara, J., La reina Isabel de Valois, según Sofonisba Anguisciola (h. 1605-1608). En: Ruiz Gómez, L.: El retrato español en el Prado. Del Greco a Goya, Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, 2006, pp. 54, n. 6.

Woodall, Joanna, Anthonis Mor : art and authority, Waanders, Zwolle, 2007, pp. 375.

Carlos, Mª Cruz de, Representar el nacimiento. Imagenes y cultura material de un espacio de sociabilidad femenina en la España altomoderna, Goya : revista de arte : publicación bimestral de..., 2007, pp. 235/ lám.3.

Édouard, Sylvène, Le corps d' une reine : histoire singulière d' Élisabeth de..., Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2009.

El Prado en el Hermitage, Museo Estatal del Hermitage: Mus, 2011, pp. 90-91.

Sebastián Lozano, Jorge, Sofonisba Anguissola. Una mirada femenina en la corte. En: Maestros en la sombra, Fundación Amigos Museo del Prado, Madrid, 2013, pp. 185-206 [191-192].

Herrero Garcia, Miguel., Estudios sobre indumentaria española en la época de los Austrias, Centro de Estudios Europa Hispánica, 2014, pp. 300 f.80.

Pérez Preciado, José Juan, 'Círculo de P.P. Rubens. Retrato de Isabel de Valois (Col. particular)' En:, La moda española en el Siglo de Oro., Junta de Comunidades de Castilla-La Mancha. Fundación Cultura y Deporte, 2015, pp. 194-195.

Arbeteta, Leticia, 'La joyería en España y Europa en la época de Cervantes' En:, La moda española en el Siglo de Oro., Junta de Comunidades de Castilla-La Mancha. Fundación Cultura y Deporte, 2015, pp. 133-155 [134].

Other inventories +

Inv. Testamentaría Carlos III, Buen Retiro, 1794. Núm. 771.
Otra [pintura], Copia de Pantoja con el retrato de una Señora, de vara y tercia de alto y vara de ancho...200

Inv. Real Museo, 1857. Núm. 2708.
Escuela Española. / 2708. / 1926. / Retrato de Señora bestida de negro con / gola. / Alto 4 pies, 3 pulg; ancho 3 pies.

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1872-1907. Núm. 924.
924.-Retrato de doña Isabel de Valois, ó de la Paz, tercera mujer de Felipe II. / Alto 1,19. Ancho 0,84.-Lienzo. / Representa de diez y seis á diez y ocho años de edad: fisionomía agraciada y de grande animación, no propiamente hermosa; cútis blanco, cabello y ojos negros. Está en pié, un tanto movida hácia su derecha, con la mano de este lado sobre el respaldo de un sillón de brocado, teniendo asida una marta con cabeza y garras de oro, cuya piel cubre su brazo en forma de manguito, y de cuyo hocico parte una lujosa cadena, que tiene la reina sujeta por el extremo con la mano izquierda...

Exhibitions +

Cervantes soldado y poeta
Toledo
29.11.2016 - 30.04.2017

El Prado en el Hermitage
San Petersburgo
25.02.2011 - 29.05.2011

Pantoja de la Cruz, Fourth Centenary
Madrid
03.06.2008 - 07.09.2008

The Renaissance Portrait
Madrid
03.06.2008 - 07.09.2008

El retrato español en el Prado. Del Greco a Goya
Madrid
12.06.2007 - 02.09.2007

El retrato español en el Prado. Del Greco a Goya
Bilbao
05.03.2007 - 20.05.2007

El retrato español en el Prado. Del Greco a Goya
Alicante
12.12.2006 - 18.02.2007

El retrato español en el Prado. Del Greco a Goya
Toledo
19.09.2006 - 26.11.2006

El retrato español en el Prado. Del Greco a Goya
Salamanca
22.06.2006 - 21.08.2006

El retrato español en el Prado. Del Greco a Goya
Santiago de Compostela
09.03.2006 - 14.05.2006

El linaje del Emperador
Cáceres
24.10.2000 - 08.01.2001

De El Greco a Velázquez. La cultura española durante la Unión Ibérica, 1580-1640
Río de Janeiro
12.07.2000 - 24.09.2000

Felipe II. La monarquía hispánica
San Lorenzo de El Escorial
30.05.1998 - 31.10.1998

Sofonisba Anguissola e la sue sorelle
Washington D.C.
07.04.1995 - 25.06.1995

Sofonisba Anguissola e la sue sorelle
Viena
15.01.1995 - 26.03.1995

Sofonisba Anguissola e la sue sorelle
Cremona
17.09.1994 - 11.12.1994

Location +

(Temporary Exhibition)

Update date: 25-11-2016 | Registry created on 28-04-2015

Other works by Pantoja de la Cruz, Juan

Print on demand

Print artworks available in our catalogue in high quality and your preferred size and finish.

Image archive

Request artworks available in our catalogue in digital format.

Up