The itinerary <em>TITULORECORRIDO</em> has been successfully created. Now you can add in works from the Collection browser
<em>TITULOOBRA</em> added to <em>TITULORECORRIDO</em> itinerary

Exhibition Museo del Prado - Fundación AXA

Return Journey. Art of the Americas in Spain

Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid 10/5/2021 - 2/13/2022

Calendar Add to the calendar

Return Journey. Art of the Americas in Spain, sponsored by Fundación AXA, recounts a little known phenomenon: the fact that following the conquest of Latin America and until its independence, more works of art arrived in Spain from that continent than from Flanders or Italy and that the movement of works was not one-directional, from Spain to Latin America, as is generally suggested. These thousands of objects, many of them created by indigenous or mestizo artists, often make use of materials, subjects and techniques unknown in Spain, while their creation reflects a range of intentions: reaffirmation of the dominance of the imperial power or the identitary aspirations of the Creole elites, as well as documentary, devotional and aesthetic reasons.

The exhibition, which also benefits from the collaboration of the Committee for Viceregal Art of the Fundación Amigos del Museo del Prado, features more than 100 works from Latin America which have been housed in Spanish cultural and religious institutions for centuries: objects that have become part of both Spain’s everyday experience and its historical and cultural heritage, even though all trace of their origins has sometimes been lost.

A number of the exhibits were formerly in the Spanish royal collections, displayed in the same palaces that housed canvases by Rubens and Velázquez, a reality that has not previously been acknowledged by the Museo del Prado. The present exhibition aims to remedy this and to offer a richer and more complex vision of the circulation and reception of artistic objects in Spain in the Early Modern age.

The exhibition, which can be seen until 13 February in Rooms A and B of the Jerónimos Building, allows visitors to discover the culture of the South American viceroyalties, with a particular focus on the symbolic and iconographic values of these objects and those attributed to them by the societies to which they were sent.

63 national and 3 international lenders have contributed to the organisation of this exhibition through the loan of 95 of the 107 works on display, created in Peru, Colombia, Mexico and elsewhere. Of these exhibits, 26 have been specially restored for the exhibition. Furthermore, the fact that 25 of Spain’s provinces have loaned works indicates the geographical scope of the exhibition.

Curator:
Rafael López Guzmán, senior professor at the Universidad de Granada, with the assistance of Jaime Cuadriello and Pablo F. Amador, members of the Instituto de Investigaciones Estéticas of the UNAM in Mexico City.

Access

Room A and B. Jerónimos Building

Sponsored by:
Fundación AXA

Multimedia

Exhibition

The Exhibition

The Exhibition
Image of the exhibition galleries. Photo © Museo Nacional del Prado

The tornaviaje or return journey that lends its name to this exhibition is the common thread that guides visitors through this survey of the cultural contributions from the New World that found their way into Spain and, by extension, into Europe.

The main purpose of the show is to draw attention to the large number of artworks from the Americas that are housed in Spanish cultural institutions, religious spaces, and collections. These pieces, which arrived in different historical periods, have become part of Spain’s current heritage, even when it is not always possible to identify the reasons for their presence.

The show provides an insight into the culture of the American viceroyalties, taking into account the symbolic and iconographic meanings of the pieces as well as the values attributed to them by the societies that received them.

Spanish America is considered here as a cultural area without legal-political boundaries as far as creation is concerned, though distinctions are drawn with respect to the original interpretation of the works. Instead of fragmenting cultural history, the exhibition sets out to help understand and analyse it by focusing on the details of each piece – sometimes providing abundant textual information – and its role in the process of building art history.

It is also important to understand the reasons behind the arrival of these works. They are related to the contexts in which the pieces were produced and the specific destinations to which they were sent, the identity of the owners who sometimes accompanied them, and, ultimately, the underlying purposes of their patronage and transfer from place of creation to place of destination.

Geography, Conquest, and Society

Geography, Conquest, and Society
Conquest of Mexico: Destruction of Tenochtitlan
Juan González (Act. in New Spain in 1662−1703) Miguel González (Act. in New Spain in 1692−98)
1698
Mixed media on panel, inlaid with mother-of-pearl (enconchado), 97 x 53 cm
Madrid, Museo de América, on long-term loan from the Museo Nacional del Prado

Learning about and occupying America was a slow process involving dramatic episodes of conquest. It gave rise to a hybrid culture that brought the nature and rich resources of the new territories and their native peoples into contact with conquistadors and settlers from Spain, slaves, and a small Asian population. Together they shaped a new model of culture and appreciation that is visible in documents, paintings, and objects executed in different techniques and with diverse artistic and symbolic qualities.

These concepts are illustrated through geography, representations of towns and cities, spaces of interaction such as squares and marketplaces, and people of varying status – some anonymous and others identified – whose portraits tell us of their place in society.

Territory and Conquest

Old maps of the American territories provide an introduction to the reasons behind the conquest – which were none other than to catechise the native peoples and make use of the resources of the land. The works on display illustrate early religiosity and the exploitation of natural wealth. A paradigmatic case is the extraction of silver in major mining centres like Potosí.

The pursuit of these aims triggered clashes that forced the natives to modify their models of coexistence. The stories deriving from these events were turned into accounts that justified the conflicts and came to be depicted and endowed with symbolic meanings, as can be seen in the magnificent Portrait of Moctezuma. Also worthy of note are the differences between the various indigenous cultures, who gradually became part of the new viceregal structure – in some cases through privileges and agreements.

Peoples of the Americas

In each territory the natives coexisted alongside migrants from other parts of the world, giving shape to a hybrid society that tended to be expressed through representations of ethnic groups with their characteristic traits and activities alongside portraits of prominent people in the posts they held. The presence of these works in Spain stemmed from the desire to show what the New World was like or to make new statuses attained there known to Spanish society.

Portraits of high-ranking politicians and clergy as well as of nobles and family groups provide a glimpse of that society. In addition, casta paintings depict the possible racial combinations, while the magnificent picture The Three Mulattos of Esmeraldas reflects the agreement reached by the Audiencia of Quito and the communities living in the coastal area of modern-day Ecuador, where indigenous inhabitants had mixed with Africans fleeing from slavery.

Market and City

American territory was appropriated by designing cities that made it possible to bring the population under control in religious as well as political and economic aspects. Squares and markets were the places where exchanges took place, but also where the various social groups interacted. This subsection shows pictures of cities together with others of people who took their wares to the marketplaces, where the local produce is proudly displayed.

Attempts were also made at gaining a comprehensive understanding of the nature, geography, flora and fauna, and peoples of the Americas. In the case of Peru, these concerns are summed up thoroughly in Picture of the Natural, Civil, and Geographical History of the Kingdom of Peru, a sort of eighteenth-century cabinet of scientific curiosities.

Images and Cults, Away and Back

Images and Cults, Away and Back
Image of The Apparitions of  Our Lady of Guadalupe by Juan Patricio Morlete Ruiz from the Museo Catedral de Santiago de Compostela. Photo © Museo Nacional del Prado.

In the second half of the seventeenth century ‘fine paintings’ (as they are listed in inventories) began to be sent from America to religious communities and stately homes in Spain. They were fond gifts or devotional propaganda, but also objects of artistic worth in their own right.

These canvases ended up in particular in northern Spain and Andalusia, the places of origin of hundreds of emigrants who had made fortunes, or been ennobled, on the other side of the Atlantic. The pictures came mostly from Lima and Mexico. In fact, the workshops of Mexico City exported almost a quarter of their output, supplying a trade route that went from Central America and the Caribbean to the Canary Islands and mainland Spain. The workshops of Quito and Cuzco likewise catered to consumers throughout the provinces of the southern cone.

The variety of formats and genres of these canvases that travelled back and forth attests to the technical development achieved by American painting as well as its diversity and specificity.

A Devotional Atlas between the Old and New Worlds

Sacred images made up a ‘zodiac’ or planetary atlas in each Christian kingdom. The respective Marian shrines were thus regarded as ‘houses’ that punctuated the passage of time and established a common space for the monarchy’s various dominions. It is therefore no coincidence that American cults, represented by verae effigies or faithful copies of devotional images, which connected families on both sides of the ocean, should have enjoyed a special place in Spanish altarpieces and sacristies.

The cults that arrived from Spain were captured by painters of the New World and some of these pictures were even sent back among the possessions of returnees and exhibited in their places of origin, as a form of tribute. The return flow back to the Iberian Peninsula imbued these devotional images with new symbolic meanings and points to a widespread religiosity and a shared visual language that was not, however, lacking in originality and local flavour.

Allegories of the Immaculate Conception

Defence of the mystery of Mary’s Immaculate Conception, a legacy of the former Crown of Aragón, was almost a matter of state for the Habsburg monarchy and a vehicle of expression and communication for the local and corporative identities of the Americas.

The allegorical works on view show that, unsurprisingly, as a result of this royal promotion, defence of the cause was taken up by the families of the viceroys of Peru and New Spain – the Count of Lemos and the Duke of Alburquerque, respectively. Variant iconographies include the series of harquebusier angels, bearers of the attributes of Marian virtues.

Allegories of the Eucharist

The dogma of the transubstantiation of the Eucharist was also defended by the Spanish monarchy, as can be seen in paintings where the king himself, under siege from Protestants and Turks, is shown holding the Eucharistic monstrance. Each territory’s devotions also played a part in this commitment. A significant example is the painting of the co-patrons of Navarre, Saint Fermin and Saint Francis Xavier, on either side of a monstrance that stands in iconographically for the kingdom’s coat of arms.

Native Apelles

American painters were aware of their technical quality and mastery of alternative themes and iconographies. In consequence, they proudly asserted the nobility of their art and its place of production and, of course, their status in society, and although the viceregal authorities always acknowledged painting to be a liberal art, they did not establish an academic system until the eighteenth century.

The list of great American artists begins with the first painters who emigrated to the New World in the second half of the sixteenth century, such as Angelino Medoro. The influence of the Spanish Golden Age – and its connections with Flanders and Italy – is found in native artists, such as Cristóbal de Villalpando, José de Ibarra, Miguel Cabrera, and Juan Patricio Morlete, who were highly regarded by emigrant patrons. They exported their refined paintings, which enjoyed a favourable reception and became sought after outside New Spain.

The Portable Paintbrush

Copper plates fetched high market prices on account of the material itself and the hours of work that went into making them suitable as painting supports. Drawing on a Flemish tradition that was well known in America, artists employed painstaking brushwork with a polished finish to turn them into exquisite objects. In addition, they could be transported more easily and safely than canvases, which needed to be rolled up, and became ideal gifts for collecting.

Large plates were particularly appreciated as precious objects, such as the two on view here, which are linked to nostalgia for the extinct Society of Jesus. The value of these paintings could also be enhanced by fitting them with a wrought silver frame, like that of the Virgin of Guadalupe which hangs in pride of place above the archbishop’s seat in the chapter house of Santiago de Compostela cathedral.

Art Crossings

Art Crossings
Monstrance
Workshop of Quito
1700-27
Hammered, cast, pierced, reliefworked, chased, and partially gilt silver with gemstones and inlaid work, 89 x 36,5 x 7,5 cm
Granada, Muy Antigua, Pontificia, Real e Ilustre Hermandad Sacramental de Nuestra Señora de las Angustias

The galleons that sailed back from the Americas carried in their holds numerous objects bound for a variety of places ranging from noble residences to middle-class homes, and from great cathedrals and Marian shrines to the humblest of rural parish churches.

The Indianos, Spanish emigrants who returned rich from the New World, provide the missing link between the distant lands from which these objects originated and the melting pot of Spanish towns and cities where they are now preserved. Homes and chapels became filled with exotic furniture and sumptuous objects that met two main purposes: to showcase the wonders of the American continent and to attest to their patrons’ accomplishments.

Indiano Effects

The selection of furniture on display here illustrates the hybridisation that took place between the three cultures that converged in the Americas: Western European, Native American, and Asian.

The hybrid origin of these pieces and their nature as objects designed to be utilised is evidenced by certain distinguishing features, which are illustrated in the paintings shown alongside them, where textiles and jewellery denote a specific social status and geographical area. Similarly, pieces like the large Tonalá ware jar and the lacquered furniture clearly show the influence of Oriental models that found their way into America and were subsequently combined with pre-Hispanic manufacturing techniques and classical iconographies.

Silver from the Indies: Piety and Social Statement

The abundant shipments of silver that crossed the Atlantic during the viceregal period were not limited to ingots and coins but also included wrought silver objects whose artistic and cultural values make them much more interesting. Used in secular and ecclesiastical environments, these objects of various types – some of them novel – were adapted to American customs and activities. A good example is the mancerina, designed for drinking chocolate.

These pieces were commissioned by prominent people as a means of drawing attention in their places of origin to the social prestige they had attained overseas and of promoting their favoured devotional practices. An example is the impressive canvas of the Virgin of Guadalupe sent by José de Aguilar to the prioress of the convent of the Corpus Christi in Granada. It was shipped together with a large group of wrought silver items and many crates of chocolate and vanilla, which were sold to fund the construction of the religious house.

Legacy of the New World

Legacy of the New World
Crocodile
Mid-18th century
Taxidermy, 28 x 67 x 265 cm.
Icod de los Vinos (Tenerife), Ermita de Nuestra Señora de las Angustias, Parroquia matriz de San Marcos Evangelista

This section complements the previous perspectives by exploring the material dimension of the artworks on show here. The pieces on display were selected on the basis of their materials and techniques and express a variety of intentions. As well as highlighting the distinguishing features of Spanish-American artworks, the section offers additional interpretations for a more plural art history.

The idea is to show how these distinctive traits reflect the lingering presence of the pre-Hispanic past and its adaptation and development; the influence of the long viceregal period with its own realities and particular geographical and artistic features; and how these artworks were received on this side of the Atlantic. To do so the pieces have been divided into two subsections, guided by the words written in the eighteenth century by Fray Matías de Escobar in Americana Thebaida, where he stated that the local art ‘displayed Spanish forms dressed in American clothing’.

Spanish Forms...

The works on show could be mistaken for Spanish or European pieces on account of their aesthetic appearance, their ‘Spanish forms’; however, a thorough analysis and study of their materiality (the materials and techniques used to craft them) reveals their American origin and prompts subtle reflections. These objects speak of an initial coexistence, an adaptation of a pre-existing culture to one that was imposed. Viewed in conjunction, without losing sight of their respective meanings, both realities offer myriad explanations of the new Hispanic world.

Materials such as the soft pith of the legendary corn stalk began to give shape to new examples of Christian figurative art, essential images in evangelisation efforts. In addition, sumptuous materials and their much-praised creation processes – feather art, for instance – came to be appreciated from new perspectives that tend to receive little attention, such as the importance of their reflections or sparkles, unique properties that, once again, are characteristic of American art.

...American Clothing

In these works the material dimension is not just visible but is an evident and proud reflection of their American identity. Some, such as the enconchados (panel paintings with mother-of-pearl inlay), illustrate how the artists of New Spain assimilated and developed Asian techniques. Others, such as the exotic and highly praised feather art, display their pre-Hispanic roots; their iconographies were reformulated after the conquest and over time they evolved technically, though without losing their essence.

This section also includes pieces where the materiality of the objects is associated with specific places or artists. Recalling today’s ‘appellations of origin’, there are many documentary references to the diversity and specialisation of particular production centres and artists. Others lead us to reconsider the idea that the artist sought to create a unique work. And further possible readings relate to the symbolic significance and effects of the material dimension. 

The Virgin and her Crocodile, the ‘Material Shift’

An image of the Virgin of Sorrows commissioned in 1741 by merchant Marcos de Torres in Mexico City and a stuffed crocodile that formerly hung in her chapel on the island of Tenerife are an illustrative example of the new interpretations we wish to offer visitors of the idea of the return journey, which go beyond the artistic sphere and explore the cultural legacy of the New World. The crocodile recalls the perils of the new lands but also the success of the man who defeated it with the Virgin’s intercession, and over time it came to be regarded as an allegory of America and even a protector of Mary. As the illustration from Maccio’s Emblems points out, ‘the evil one scares the evil one’. And there are additional interpretations of her chapel as a unique New World stronghold.

The Large Processional Cross: Spanish-American Opulence, Cuban Materiality

This large processional cross was sent in 1756 by the Canary-born dean of Havana cathedral, Nicolás Estévez Borges, to the Franciscan friary founded by ancestors of his in his village of birth. Not only is it an evident example of the same ‘sincere devotion and desire for vainglory’ that led to the arrival of many of the works on view, but its material dimension provides several complementary readings. It is notable for its weight (forty-seven kilograms) and origin – it was executed by an Aragonese silversmith who emigrated to the island – as well as for the particular type of filigree combining openwork with decoration based on several intertwined wires, a technique that distinguishes it from other American products.

Artworks

1

View of Seville

Unknown Flemish artist

Oil on canvas, 163 x 274 cm

c. 1660

Seville, Fundación Fondo de Cultura de Sevilla (Focus)

2

World map in Suma de Cosmographia

Pedro de Medina (c. 1493−Seville, 1567)

Parchment, 350 x 280 mm

1550

Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional de España

3

Description Corographica de las provincias del Piru Chile nuevo Reyno i tierra firme [Chorographic description of the provinces of Peru, new kingdom of Chile and Terra Firme]

Lucas de Quirós (Tocuyo, Venezuela, c. 1580−Peru, c. 1631)

1618

Colecciones Reales. Patrimonio Nacional.  Madrid, Real Biblioteca

4

Christ of the True Cross

Workshop of New Spain

American cedarwood, carved, hollowed, and polychromed in oil; loincloth originally water gilded, 230 x 180 x 53 cm

c. 1550

Carmona (Seville), Parroquia de  San Pedro, Archidiócesis de Sevilla

5

Conquest of Mexico: Reception of Cortés at Texcoco: Xicohténcatl makes Peace and the Caciques offer Cortés their Daughters

Juan González (act. in New Spain in 1662−1703) Miguel González (act. in New Spain in 1692−98)

Mixed media on panel, inlaid with mother-of-pearl, 97 x 53 cm

1698

Madrid, Museo de América, on long-term loan from the Museo Nacional del Prado

6

Conquest of Mexico: Visit of Hernán Cortés to Moctezuma

Juan González (act. in New Spain in 1662−1703) Miguel González (act. in New Spain in 1692−98)

Mixed media on panel, inlaid with mother-of-pearl, 97 x 53 cm

1698

Madrid, Museo de América, on long-term loan from  the Museo Nacional del Prado

Conquest of Mexico:  Destruction of Tenochtitlan
7

Conquest of Mexico: Destruction of Tenochtitlan

Juan González (act. in New Spain in 1662−1703)

Miguel González (act. in New Spain in 1692−98)

Mixed media on panel, inlaid with mother-of-pearl (enconchado), 97 x 53 cm

1698

Madrid, Museo de América, on long-term loan from  the Museo Nacional del Prado

8

Conquest and Reduction of the Indians of the Paraca and Pantasma Mountains

Unknown artist of New Spain

Oil on canvas, 139 x 203 cm

1675−1700

Madrid, Museo de América, on long-term loan from the Museo Nacional del Prado

9

Imperial Town of Potosí

Unknown artist

Oil on canvas, 309 x 309 cm

1755

Toledo, Museo del Ejército

10

Arch of the Virgin of Charity

Workshop of Potosí

Gilt silver relief, 145 x 85 x 15 cm

c. 1719

Villarrobledo (Albacete), Hermandad de Nuestra Señora de la Caridad

11

Stand of the Virgin of Charity representing the Hill of Potosí

Workshop of Potosí

Gilt silver relief, 35 x 46 x 42 cm

1716−19

Villarrobledo (Albacete), Hermandad de Nuestra Señora de la Caridad

12

Coat of Arms granted by the Emperor Charles V to the Descendants of the Incas Gonzalo Uchu Hualpa and Felipe Tupa Inga Yupanqui, Sons of Huaina Capac and Grandsons of Tupa Inga Yupanqui

 Parchment, 343 x 432 mm

1545

Seville, Ministerio de Cultura y Deporte, Archivo General de Indias

13

Coat of Arms of the Town of Tzintzuntzan, Michoacán

Workshop of New Spain

Drawing on paper, 315 x 215 mm

1595

Seville, Ministerio de Cultura y Deporte, Archivo General de Indias

14

Portrait of Moctezuma

Attributed to Antonio Rodríguez (Mexico City, 1636−Mexico  City, c. 1691)

Oil on canvas, 185 x 106 cm

1680

Florence, Gallerie degli Uffizi, Tesoro dei Granduchi

Folding screen  (History of the Conquest  of Tenochtitlan and View of Mexico City)
15

Folding screen (History of the Conquest of Tenochtitlan and View of Mexico City)

Workshop of the Correas

Oil and gold leaf on canvas, mounted on a wooden structure, 210 x 615 cm

c. 1692−96

Madrid, private collection

16

Don Gaspar Martín Vicario with his Family

Domingo Ortiz (act. in Mexico in the last decade  of the 18th century)

Oil on canvas, 199.5 x 190.5 cm

1793

Valladolid, Monasterio de la Concepción del Carmen (Carmelitas Descalzas)

17

Portrait of Archbishop José Pérez de Lanciego y Eguiluz

Juan Rodríguez Juárez (Mexico City, 1675−Mexico City, 1728)

Oil on canvas, 203 x 124 cm

c. 1714

Viana (Navarre), Parroquia de Santa María

18

Portrait of José-Jerónimo de San Cayetano Vázquez de Acuña Morga y Menacho Iturgoyen, 3rd Count of Vega del Ren

Attributed to Pedro José Díaz (act. in Lima c. 1770–1810)

Oil on canvas, 202 x 125.2 x 4.4 cm

c. 1770–80

Chicago, Collection of the Carl & Marilynn Thoma Foundation

19

Portrait of Francisca Bárbara Vázquez de Acuña y Román de Aulestia, 3rd Countess of Vega del Ren

Attributed to Pedro José Díaz (act. in Lima c. 1770−1810)

Oil on canvas, 179.3 x 135.4 x 4.4 cm

c. 1770−80

Chicago, Collection of the Carl & Marilynn Thoma Foundation

20

Portrait of Manuel de Amat y Junyent (1702−1782)

Pedro José Díaz (act. in Lima c. 1770−1810)

Oil on canvas, 201 x 136.5 cm

1773

Barcelona, Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya, MNAC

21

María Luisa de Toledo and an Indigenous Woman

Attributed to  Antonio Rodríguez (Mexico City, 1636−Mexico City, c. 1691)

Oil on canvas, 209 x 128 cm

c. 1670−71

Madrid, Museo de América, on long-term loan from the Museo Nacional del Prado

22

The Three Mulattos of Esmeraldas

Andrés Sánchez Galque (act. in Quito in 1599)

Oil on canvas, 92 x 175 cm

1599

Madrid, Museo de América, on long-term loan from the Museo Nacional del Prado

23

From Spaniard and Indian a Mestiza is Born

José Joaquín Magón (act. in Puebla de los Ángeles in 1742−64)

Oil on panel, 103.2 x 127 cm

c. 1764

Madrid, Museo Nacional de Antropología

24

Yapanga of Quito

Vicente Albán (act. in Quito in 1767−96)

Oil on canvas, 80 x 109 cm

1783

Madrid, Museo de América

25

Principal Indian of Quito

Vicente Albán (act. in Quito in 1767–96)

Oil on canvas, 80 x 109 cm

1783

Madrid, Museo de América

26

Mexican Indians

Attributed to José de Ibarra (Guadalajara, Mexico, 1685− Mexico City, 1756)

Oil on canvas, 163 x 102 cm

c. 1730

Madrid, private collection

27

Otomí Indians

Attributed to José de Ibarra (Guadalajara, Mexico, 1685− Mexico City, 1756)

Oil on canvas, 168 x 108 cm

c. 1730

Madrid, Collection Marqués de la Romana

28

Castas of New Spain

Ignacio María Barreda y Ordóñez (Mexico City, c. 1740-Mexico City, 1800)

Oil on canvas, 78 x  48.5 cm

1777

Madrid, Real Academia Española

29

View of the Plaza Mayor of Mexico with the Royal Palace and the Cathedral with the Sagrario Chapel

Juan Patricio Morlete Ruiz(San Miguel de Allende, 1713/15−Mexico City, 1772)

Oil on canvas, 98.5 x 153 cm

1770

Attard (Malta), Courtesy of Heritage Malta – San Anton Palace

Plaza del Volador in Mexico City
30

Plaza del Volador in Mexico City

Juan Patricio Morlete Ruiz(San Miguel de Allende, 1713/15−Mexico City, 1772)

Oil on canvas, 99 x 152,5 cm

1772

Attard (Malta), Courtesy of Heritage Malta – San Anton Palace

31

Village of Teotenango, in the Matalcingo Valley, in New Spain

Agave fibre, pen drawing in black and coloured inks, 716 x 693 mm

1582

Seville, Ministerio de Cultura y Deporte, Archivo General de Indias

32

Plan of the City of La Plata

Ildefonso Luján

Ink and coloured wash, 785 x 1205 mm

1779

Seville, Ministerio de Cultura y Deporte, Archivo General de Indias

33

Picture of the Natural, Civil, and Geographical History of the Kingdom of Peru. Year 1799. Dedicated to the Supreme Secretary of the Royal Treasury of the Indies

José Ignacio Lecuanda (texts and visual discourse) Louis Thiébaut (painter)

Oil and ink on canvas, 115 x 325 cm

1799

Madrid, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC)

34

Apparitions of Our Lady of Guadalupe

Juan Correa (Mexico City, c. 1646−Mexico  City, 1716)

Oil on canvas, 293 x 251 cm

1667

Valladolid, Museo Nacional de Escultura

36

Virgin of Copacabana

Attributed to  Sebastián Acostopa Inca (act. in Copacabana, Upper Peru, in the first third of the 17th century)

Maguey paste and polychromed canvas over a cedarwood base, 98 x 43 x 33 cm

c. 1617

Seville, Monasterio de la Madre de Dios de la Piedad (Madres Dominicas)

37

Virgin of Copacabana

Unknown Sevillian artist

Oil on canvas, 224.5 x 163 cm

Siglo XVII

Seville, Monasterio de Santa María de Jesús (Clarisas Franciscanas)

38

Our Lady of Santa María de la Redonda

Antonio de Torres (Mexico City, 1667− Mexico City, 1731)

Oil on canvas, 194 x 145 cm

1716

Antequera (Málaga), Museo Conventual de las Descalzas

39

Jesus of Nazareth of the Hospital de Jesús (Divine Indiano)

Antonio de Torres (Mexico City, 1667− Mexico City, 1731)

Oil on canvas, 194 x 145 cm

1716

Antequera (Málaga), Museo Conventual de las Descalzas

40

Triptych of the Virgin of Chiquinquirá

Unknown artist

Wood, paint, and glass, 25 x 57.5 x 7 cm

17th century

Autilla del Pino (Palencia), Parroquia de la Asunción, Diócesis de Palencia

41

Our Lady of Remedies of Naucalpan

Juan Correa (Mexico City, c. 1646−Mexico City, 1716)

Oil on canvas, 163 x 106 cm

c. 1700

Estella (Navarre), Parroquia  de San Pedro de la Rúa

42

Pilgrim Virgin of Quito

Workshop of Quito

Oil on canvas, 146 x 107 cm

18th century

Salamanca, private collection

43

Holy Family with the Infant Saint John the Baptist and Saint Dominic

Angelino Medoro (Rome, 1567−Seville, 1633)

Oil on canvas, 140 x 100 cm

c. 1622

Seville, Museo de Bellas Artes

44

Saint Rose of Lima

Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (Seville, 1617−Seville, 1682)

Oil on canvas, 145 x 95 cm

c. 1670

Madrid, Museo Lázaro Galdiano

45

Virgin of Atocha

Manuel de Arellano (Mexico City, 1662−Mexico  City, 1722)

Oil on canvas, 61 x 49 cm

c. 1700−15

Seville, Convento de San José del Carmen or Las Teresas (Carmelitas Descalzas)

46

Virgin of Valvanera

Juan González (act. in New Spain in 1662−1703)

Mixed media on panel, inlaid with mother-of-pearl (enconchado), 62 x 41.2 cm

c. 1690−1700

Madrid, Museo de América

Patronage of the Virgin Immaculate over the Children of the Viceroy Count of Lemos
47

Patronage of the Virgin Immaculate over the Children of the Viceroy Count of Lemos

Workshop of  Francisco de Escobar (act. in Lima c. 1649−1676)

Oil on canvas, 223 x 160 cm

c. 1672

Monforte de Lemos (Lugo), Monasterio de Santa Clara

48

Allegory of the Virgin Immaculate and the Four Parts of the World

José de Alcíbar (Texcoco, c. 1730−Mexico City, 1803)

Oil on canvas, 200 x 155 cm

c. 1771−80

Cádiz, Cabildo de la Catedral de Cádiz

Marian Harquebusier Angel
49

Marian Harquebusier Angel

Peruvian workshop

Oil on canvas, 161 x 103 cm

c. 1760

Ezcaray (La Rioja), Ermita de Nuestra Señora de Allende, Diócesis de Calahorra y La Calzada-Logroño

50

Virgin Immaculate with Don Pedro Ramírez de Arellano

Juan Correa (Mexico City, c. 1646−Mexico City, 1716)

Oil on canvas, 220 x 160 cm

1701

Casalarreina (La Rioja), Monasterio de Nuestra Señora de la Piedad (Madres Dominicas)

51

Archangel Saint Gabriel, Herald (with Flag displaying the Cross of Saint Andrew or Burgundy)

Peruvian workshop

Oil on canvas, 161 x 103 cm

c. 1760

Ezcaray (La Rioja), Ermita de Nuestra Señora de Allende, Diócesis de Calahorra y La Calzada-Logroño

52

Saint Francis and the Family of the Duke of Alburquerque

Attributed to José Juárez (Mexico City, 1617−Mexico City, c. 1661/62)

Oil on copper, 33 x 45 cm

c. 1653−54

Salamanca, private collection

53

Saint Fermin and Saint Francis Xavier, Copatrons of Navarre

Juan Correa (Mexico City, c. 1646−Mexico City, 1716)

Oil on canvas, 166 x 101 cm

c. 1684

Madrid, Real Congregación  de San Fermín de los Navarros

54

Saint Leocadia

Cristóbal de Villalpando (Mexico City, c. 1649−Mexico City, 1714)

Oil on canvas, 106 x 264 cm

c. 1700−8

Catedral de Jaén

55

The Adoration of the Shepherds

Attributed to Sebastián López de Arteaga (Seville, 1610−Mexico City, 1652)

Oil on canvas, 148.5 x 178 cm

c. 1652

Ágreda (Soria), Monasterio de Concepcionistas Franciscanas Sor María de Jesús de Ágreda

56

The Betrothal of the Virgin

Cristóbal de Villalpando (Mexico City, c. 1649−Mexico City, 1714)

Oil on canvas, 170 x 211 cm

c. 1700–8

Catedral de Jaén

57

Rest on the Flight into Egypt

Attributed to José de Ibarra (Guadalajara, Mexico, 1685− Mexico City, 1756)

Oil on canvas, 140 x 120 cm

c. 1735

Seville, Hermandad de la Sagrada Mortaja, located at the Iglesia del Antiguo Convento de Nuestra Señora de la Paz

58

The Holy Trinity

Attributed to José de Alcíbar (Texcoco, c. 1730−Mexico  City, 1803)

Oil on canvas

c. 1753

Olite (Navarre), Monasterio de Santa Engracia (Orden de Santa Clara)

59

The Betrothal of the Virgin

Attributed to José de Ibarra (Guadalajara, Mexico, 1685− Mexico City, 1756)

Oil on canvas, 140 x 120 cm

c. 1735

Seville, Hermandad de la Sagrada Mortaja, located at the Iglesia del Antiguo Covento de Nuestra Señora de la Paz

60

Saint Joseph with the Christ Child

Juan Patricio Morlete Ruiz(San Miguel de Allende, 1713/15−Mexico City, 1772)

c. 1760−72

Badajoz, Iglesia de Santa María la Real, Arzobispado de Mérida-Badajoz

The Apparitions of  Our Lady of Guadalupe
61

The Apparitions of Our Lady of Guadalupe

Juan Patricio Morlete Ruiz(San Miguel de Allende, 1713/15−Mexico City, 1772)

Oil on copper with reliefwork and chased silver frame, 56.5 x 40.5 cm

c. 1770

Santiago de Compostela, Museo Catedral

62

Saint John Nepomucene

Workshop of New Spain

Oil on copper, 109 x 85 cm

c. 1780

La Revilla (Cantabria), Parroquia de San Pedro, on deposit at the Museo Diocesano Regina Coelli in Santillana del Mar (Cantabria)

63

Saint Francis Xavier

Workshop of New Spain

Oil on copper, 109 x 85 cm

c. 1780

La Revilla (Cantabria), Parroquia de San Pedro, on deposit at the Museo Diocesano Regina Coelli in Santillana del Mar (Cantabria)

64

Batea tray

Workshop of New Spain (Peribán, Michoacán)

Oil paint on wood, 60 cm (diameter)

c. 1662−63

Ágreda (Soria), Monasterio de Concepcionistas Franciscanas Sor María de Jesús de Ágreda

65

Portrait of the Marquise of Villafuerte, Doña Constanza de Luxán

Attributed to Cristóbal Lozano (Lima, 1705−Lima, 1776)

Oil on canvas, 183.5 x 122 cm

c. 1700

Orduña (Vizcaya), Iglesia de la Sagrada Familia, Diócesis de Vitoria

66

Chest

Workshop of New Granada

Barniz de Pasto lacquer, 24 x 37.3 x 17 cm

Second half of 17th century

Oviedo, private collection

67

Money box

Workshop of New Spain

Polychromed calabash gourd with silver hardware, 15.5 x 66 (perimeter) cm

18th century

La Laguna (Tenerife), Casa Museo Cayetano Gómez Felipe

68

Chest

Workshop of New Spain

Lacquered and polychromed wood, 105 x 47 x 62 cm

1620−30

Breña Alta (La Palma), Ermita de Nuestra Señora de la Concepción, Diócesis de San Cristóbal de la Laguna

69

Portrait of María-Rosa de Ribera Mendoza y Maldonado, Condesa de la Vega del Ren

Pedro José Díaz (act. in Lima c. 1770−1810)

Oil on canvas, 205.4 x 134.4 x 4.6 cm

Chicago, Collection of the Carl & Marilynn Thoma Foundation

c. 1780

70

Jar

Workshop of New Spain (Tonalá, Jalisco)

Fired and polychromed clay, 96 x 60 x 70 cm

17th century

Écija (Seville), Hermandad de Nuestra Señora del Valle, on deposit at the Parroquia Mayor de Santa Cruz de Écija

71

Writing desk

Workshop of New Spain (Villa Alta, Oaxaca)

Boxwood, pine, and cedar; iron and bitumen, inlay decoration, 50.5 x 84 x 41.5 cm

c. 1700

Madrid, Museo Arqueológico

Monstrance
72

Monstrance

Workshop of Quito

Hammered, cast, pierced, reliefworked, chased, and partially gilt silver with gemstones and inlaid work,

89 x 36,5 x 7,5 cm

1700−27

Granada, Muy Antigua, Pontificia, Real e Ilustre Hermandad Sacramental de Nuestra Señora de las Angustias

73

Pectoral cross with chain of the Virgin of Charity

Peruvian workshop

Gold (916, 22 kt) and 56 cluster-set emeralds, Cross: 9 x 6 cm. Chain: 100 cm

1701−30

Villarrobledo (Albacete), Hermandad de Nuestra Señora de la Caridad

74

Pyx

Pedro Valenzuela (act. in Guatemala in last quarter of the 18th century)

Gilt, hammered, cast, strapwork, relief-worked, and chased silver, 30.8 x 17.5 cm

1775

Arahal (Seville), Parroquia Mayor de Santa María Magdalena

75

Tabernacle in the form of a pelican

Peruvian workshop

Hammered, relief-worked, and chased silver with inlaid gemstones, 87 x 84 x 70.5 cm

c. 1766

Ochandiano (Vizcaya), Iglesia de Santa Marina, on deposit at the Museo Diocesano de Arte Sacro de Bilbao

76

Half-moon

Workshop of New Spain

Gilt, hammered, relief-worked, and chased silver, 60 x 91 x 9 cm

1749

Salteras (Seville), Hermandad de Nuestra Señora de la Oliva

77

Virgin of Guadalupe with Scenes of the Apparition

Attributed to Juan Correa (Mexico City, c. 1646−Mexico City, 1716)

Oil on canvas, 316 x 228 cm

1686−89

Granada, Comunidad de Madres Agustinas Recoletas, on deposit at the Parroquia de Santa María Magdalena, Granada

78

Jug

Workshop of New Spain

Turned, cast, relief-worked, chased, punched, and gilt silver, 17 x 12.5 x 4.5 cm

c. 1620

Madrid, private collection

79

Table brazier

Workshop of New Spain

Cast, pierced, relief-worked, and chased silver, 15.5 x 10 cm

1550−60

Madrid, Instituto de Valencia  de Don Juan

80

Incense burner in the shape of a deer

Peruvian workshop

Silver filigree and cast, chased,  and pierced silver, 17 x 15 x 11 cm

c. 1790−1800

Madrid, private collection

81

Chest

Workshop of Upper Peru

Relief-worked, chased, and partially gilt silver, 22 x 30 x 16.5 cm

1751−58

Ezcaray (La Rioja), Parroquia de Santa María la Mayor, Diócesis de Calahorra y La Calzada-Logroño

82

Drinking cup with bezoar stone and saucer

Workshop of New Spain

Hammered, cast, and punch-impressed silver, 19 x 13 (diameter) cm

Mid-17th century

Ágreda (Soria), Monasterio de Concepcionistas Franciscanas Sor María  de Jesús de Ágreda

83

Mancerina plate for serving chocolate

Peruvian workshop  (Arequipa)

Hammered, cast, and relief-worked silver, 8 x 17.5 x 23 cm

Second half of 18th century

Madrid, Museo Nacional  de Antropología

84

Dessert dish and presentation plate

Guatemalan workshop (attributed to Miguel Guerra, act. 1773−1802)

Hammered, cast, reliefworked, chased, and punched silver, Platter: 3.5 x 21 cm (diameter)

1773−79

Madrid, private collection

85

Our Lady of Sorrows (Virgin of Nuestra Señora de las Angustias)

Workshop of New Spain

Carved wood (wooden structure coated in polychromed fabric), 98 x 49 x 46 cm

1741

Icod de los Vinos (Tenerife), Ermita de Nuestra Señora de las Angustias, Parroquia matriz de San Marcos Evangelista

Crocodile
86

Crocodile

Taxidermy, 28 x 67 x 265 cm

Mid-18th century

Icod de los Vinos (Tenerife), Ermita de Nuestra Señora de las Angustias, Parroquia matriz de San Marcos Evangelista

87

Processional Cross

Jerónimo de Espellosa (Barbastro, Huesca, 1613− Havana, 1680)

Silver openwork and filigree, 250 x 139 x 103 cm

1663−65

Icod de los Vinos (Tenerife), Parroquia matriz de San Marcos Evangelista

Altar Cross
88

Altar Cross

Workshop of New Spain

Cast, embossed, chased, openwork, and gilded silver, and rock crystal, 48 x 24 x 14.5 cm

c. 1560

Palencia, Catedral de San Antolín

89

Holy Christ of Zacatecas

Workshop of New Spain

Coral tree wood, amate paper, corn pith; carved, moulded, modelled, and polychromed, 240 x 188 cm

1576

Diócesis de Córdoba, on loan to the Parroquia de Santiago Apóstol of Montilla (Córdoba), Cofradía de la Veracruz

90

String of pearls with lanternshaped pendant containing a miniature Christ on the Cross with the Virgin and Saint John and, on the reverse, a Virgin with Child

Workshop of New Spain

Carved rock crystal, gold, seed pearls, carved boxwood, and pearls; pearls: 14 cm long; pendant,

Before 1574

Santa Cruz de la Palma, Real Santuario de Nuestra Señora de Las Nieves

91

Lizard

Andean workshop

Gold, cabuchon emeralds and seed pearls, 4 x 2 cm

1600

Santa Cruz de la Palma, Real  Santuario de Nuestra Señora  de Las Nieves

92

Mermaid

Andean workshop

Gold, cabuchon emeralds, and rubies, 9 x 3 cm

1600

Santa Cruz de la Palma, Real Santuario de Nuestra Señora de Las Nieves

98

Jesus of Nazareth of the Fall (Divine Indiano)

Workshop of New Spain (Mexico City)

Carved and polychromed wood, Campeche wax, and relics, 78 x  x 47 x 54 cm

1674

Chiclana de la Frontera (Cádiz), Convento de Jesús Nazareno (MM. Agustinas Recoletas)

99

Mitre

Attributed to the workshops  of Pátzcuaro (Mexico)

Quetzal feathers on maguey paper, red silk, gold-rapped thread, red silk damask, plain-weave undyed linen,

c. 1540−45

Cabildo de la Santa Iglesia Catedral Primada de Toledo

100

Saint Jerome

Workshop of New Spain (Michoacán)

Mixed media (feathers, amate paper, and gilt) on copper sheet, 30 x 21 cm

c. 1690−1700

Seville, Convento de San José del Carmen or Las Teresas (Carmelitas Descalzas)

101

Casket for storing the original books written by Sor María de Jesús de Ágreda (with Saint John, an apocalyptic Virgin, Saint Teresa, and the Blessed John Duns Scotus)

Workshop of New Spain

Wood, tortoiseshell with silver inlay; inside, oil painting on panel, 52.5 x 37.8 x 32 cm

Before 1729

Ágreda (Soria), Monasterio  de Concepcionistas Franciscanas  Sor María de Jesús de Ágreda

102

Trunk of the Marquis and Marquise of Mancera

Inlaid wood, 57.8 x 106 x 45.2 cm

c. 1671−72

Madrid, Collection Gerstenmaier

103

Huatulco Cross

Unknown artist  of New Spain

Cast, turned, chased, and gilt silver, mounted on wood from the original Huatulco Cross, full height:

25.2 cm

1700−15

Cumbres Mayores (Huelva), Parroquia de San Miguel Arcángel

104

105

Case of the Tabernacle for the Altar of Repose

Workshop of New Spain (Puebla de los Ángeles)

Cedarwood with metal hardware, patterns, and relics, 43.8 x 39.5 x 21 cm

c. 1760

Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Iglesia de San Lorenzo, Diócesis de Canarias

106

Calvary

Guatemalan workshop

Carved and polychromed wood with silver mounts, 62 x 43 x 24.5 cm

1726−75

Valladolid, Museo Nacional de Escultura

107

Virgin of Guadalupe

Guatemalan workshop

Carved and polychromed wood, 156 x 71 x 43 cm

c. 1766

Adeje (Tenerife), Parroquia de Santa Úrsula, Diócesis de San Cristóbal de La Laguna

Resources for the visit

Brochure

Map Guide

Buy tickets

Print on demand

Print artworks available in our catalogue in high quality and your preferred size and finish.

Image archive

Request artworks available in our catalogue in digital format.

Up