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Margaret of Austria, Queen of Spain
Pantoja de la Cruz, Juan
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Pantoja de la Cruz, Juan

Valladolid (Spain), 1553 - Madrid (Spain), 1608

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Margaret of Austria, Queen of Spain

1607. Oil on canvas Not on display

Margaret of Austria married Philip III in 1599 after Philip II chose her from among the women of the Austria-Styria family. The marriage was planned to coincide with that of infanta Isabel Clara Eugenia and archduke Albert. Margaret was born in 1584 and when she arrived in Spain in April 1599, she had already been married by power of attorney in Ferrara. She was known for her discretion and virtue—traits almost systematically attributed to the Habsburg women, whose service to the Crown and the family consisted of insuring their biological continuity and the maintenance of religious practices that consisted, in Margaret´s case, of directing the patronage of three religious foundations: the Descalzas Reales in Madrid, the Jesuits in Salamanca, and La Encarnación in Madrid, a convent of Augustinian Recollect nuns very close to the Royal Alcázar. She is also said to have participated in the conspiracy against Philip III´s all-powerful favorite, the Duke of Lerma, who was at one point suspected of killing the queen. But like so many queens of Spain, Margaret died in childbirth at the early age of twenty-seven. She was the mother of Philip IV, of Ana, future queen of France; Maria, who later became empress of Austria; and of Carlos Fernando, cardinal and archbishop of Toledo.

Juan Pantoja de la Cruz was the most representative portrait painter at Philip III´s court. He continued the tradition of the Spanish crown´s state images and his depictions of the queen´s beautiful clothing were especially refined. Between 1606 and his death in 1608, Pantoja made various portraits of members of the Habsburg dynasty for the portrait gallery at El Pardo. The queen is depicted as immutable and inscrutable, somehow hidden behind her extraordinary dress and the enormous ruff collar that isolates and highlights her illuminated visage. Her dark body is punctuated by jewels, buttons, a clasp and a large cross attached to a small watch and a rosary. These symbolically significant elements bring life to the emptiness of her regal expression, where even her pose is a uniform repetition of the fixed language of portraiture learned from the previous reign. In works with this pose, Margaret would have held a handkerchief in her left hand (the canvas has been cut down) while, with her right, she would either pet a mastiff, hold a book of hours or, as here, rest her hand on an armchair. The red curtain closes and defines the space with an appearance as unreal and majestic as that of the queen herself.

Esplendores de Espanha de el Greco a Velazquez, Rio Janeiro, Arte Viva, 2000, p.56

Technical data

Related artworks

Margaret of Austria
Oil on canvas, 1606
Inventory number
P001032
Author
Pantoja de la Cruz, Juan
Title
Margaret of Austria, Queen of Spain
Date
1607
Technique
Oil
Support
Canvas
Dimension
Height: 112 cm.; Width: 97 cm.
Provenance
Royal Collection

Bibliography +

Sánchez Cantón, F. J., Sobre la vida y obras de Pantoja, Archivo español de arte y arqueología, 20, 1947, pp. 95.

Sánchez Cantón, Francisco Javier, Los retratos de los Reyes de España, Omega, Barcelona, 1948, pp. lam. 118.

Kusche, Maria, Juan Pantoja de la Cruz, Castalia, Madrid, 1964, pp. nº26.

Puente, Joaquín de la, Exposicion de Arte Español, Asahi Shimbun, Tokio, 1970, pp. nº20.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Museo del Prado: catálogo de las pinturas, Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1972.

Puente, Joaquín de la, Del Greco a Goya, Ministerio de Cultura, Madrid, 1978.

Pita Andrade, José Manuel, Ob el Grieka Ob Goje, Narodni Muzei, Belgrado, 1981, pp. 90.

Espinós, Adela; Orihuela, Mercedes y Royo Villanova, Mercedes, ''El Prado disperso''. Cuadros depositados en Madrid. IX. Museo Romántico, Boletín del Museo del Prado, III, 1982, pp. 201.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Museo del Prado: inventario general de pinturas, Museo del Prado, Espasa Calpe, Madrid, 1990, pp. nº222.

Rincon Garcia, W., Retratos de Madrid,Villa y Corte, Ayuntamiento, Madrid, 1992.

Pintores del reinado de Felipe III, Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1993, pp. 44-45, nº 4.

Arbeteta Mira, Letizia, La Joyería española de Felipe II a Alfonso XIII, Nerea, Ministerio de Cultura, Madrid, 1998.

Esplendores de Espanha de el Greco a Velazquez, Arte Viva, Rio Janeiro, 2000, pp. 56.

Schroth, Sarah, Re-presenting Philip III and His Favorite: Changes in Court Portraiture 1598-1621, Boletín del Museo del Prado, XVIII, 2000, pp. 46.

Arbeteta, Leticia, 'La joyería en España y Europa en la época de Cervantes' En:, La moda española en el Siglo de Oro., Junta de Comunidades de Castilla-La Mancha. Fundación Cultura y Deporte, 2015, pp. 133-155 [145].

Other inventories +

Inv. Real Museo, 1857. Núm. 222.
Pantoja. / 222. Retrato de doña Margarita de Austria esposa de Felipe 3º. / Lleva sobretodo negro ceñido, de mangas abiertas desde el codo, jubon de color rosa recamado de plata; la mano derecha apoyada al respaldo de un sillon. Cortinage rojo. / Alto 4 pies; ancho 3 pies, 5 pulg, 6 lin.

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1872-1907. Núm. 926.
926.-Retrato de doña Margarita de Austria, mujer de Felipe III. / Alto 1,12. Ancho 0,97.-Lienzo. / Tez blanca, ojos pardos, cara larga y estrecha, nariz prolongada, boca pequeña de labios gruesos y encendidos y mandíbula austriaca muy caracterizada; cabello castaño claro, rizoso; edad 23 años. Está en pié y un tanto vuelta hacia su derecha, con la mano de este lado sobre le respaldo de una silla de terciopelo granate, claveteada de oro, y a la izquierda naturalmente caida. Su traje es negro, de terciopelo muy ajustadoal talle, con botones de oro y azabache, prendido de dos en dos en el peto...

Exhibitions +

Fiesta Barroca. Rioja
Alfaro
08.04.2011 - 12.10.2011

Pantoja de la Cruz, Fourth Centenary
Madrid
03.06.2008 - 07.09.2008

De El Greco a Velázquez. La cultura española durante la Unión Ibérica, 1580-1640
Río de Janeiro
12.07.2000 - 24.09.2000

La joyería española en los museos estatales. De felipe II a Alfonso XIII
Madrid
15.04.1998 - 15.07.1998

Pintores del reinado de Felipe III
Toledo
25.02.1994 - 27.03.1994

Pintores del reinado de Felipe III
Sevilla
21.01.1994 - 20.02.1994

Pintores del reinado de Felipe III
Murcia
17.12.1993 - 16.01.1994

Pintores del reinado de Felipe III
Valencia
12.11.1993 - 12.12.1993

Pintores del reinado de Felipe III
Zaragoza
08.10.1993 - 07.11.1993

Pintores del reinado de Felipe III
Pamplona
03.09.1993 - 03.10.1993

Pintores del reinado de Felipe III
Santander
29.07.1993 - 29.08.1993

Pintores del reinado de Felipe III
Vitoria
25.06.1993 - 25.07.1993

Pintores del reinado de Felipe III
León
21.05.1993 - 20.06.1993

Pintores del reinado de Felipe III
Vigo
15.04.1993 - 06.05.1993

Retratos de Madrid, Villa y Corte
Madrid
12.03.1992 - 26.04.1992

Location +

(Deposit)

Displayed objects +

Jewels: Margarita de Austria presenta en este retrato una cruz pectoral de piedras engastadas como adorno principal. Además de esta cruz, la reina luce botones, cintura en V, sortijas, manillas, pulseras y pequeña banda doble que, partiendo del pie de la cruz, sujeta un elaborado reloj, todo aquello elaborado con diamantes tintados de negro.

Clothing / Dress: Vestimenta espléndidamente guarnecida con la tradicional botonadura y ceñidor a la española. En negro casi completo, resalta el cuello de lechuguilla, y deja ver las manguillas hechas con hilos de plata y puños de encaje. El cuello a la española denominado "lechuguilla" o "gorguera". Estos cuellos crecieron desmesuradamente hasta el punto en que fueron necesarias arandelas para sostener esta especie de ruedas plisadas, rematadas muchas veces por encajes de gran valor.

Update date: 27-07-2019 | Registry created on 28-04-2015

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