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Copied by the Sun. The Talbotypes from ‘The Annals of the Artists of Spain’ by William Stirling Maxwell (1847)

Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid 5/18/2016 - 9/4/2016

Within the framework of the PHotoEspaña Festival, the Museo del Prado, in collaboration with the Centro de Estudios Europa Hispánica (Madrid) and the National Media Museum (Bradford, England), will present the exhibition entitled “Copied by the Sun”. In addition to seven of the examples taken from the illustrated volume of the Annals, for the first time this exhibition will bring together the various materials that Stirling employed in creating the book, as well as information regarding the background events surrounding the project, workshop proofs of the talbotypes and models that were used to create the images (sculptures, drawings, engravings and books). The project will be completed with two volumes co-published by Museo del Prado and Centro de Estudios Europa Hispánica, one featuring studies and a catalogue raisonné of the photographs that make up Stirling’s book, and another volume that recreates an ideal facsimile of the Talbotype Illustrations, one that has been digitally constructed in order to provide an idea of what the book may have been like when it was produced and before the illustrations began to fade.

Annals of the Artists of Spain was the first book in the history of Spanish art that was organised chronologically and the first in the world to include photographs. It was published by the English collector and Hispanist, William Stirling Maxwell. The work was conceived in four volumes. The first three, featuring texts by Stirling Maxwell, were published in 1848, whilst the fourth was a supplement of illustrations made for Stirling’s friends and collaborators, of which only 50 copies were published for friends, family members, collaborators, collectors and libraries. Of these, only 25 remain, all revealing different degrees of deterioration, featuring more or less serious fading at the edges due to chemical or environmental factors. The causes of this are linked to the early date of the photographs, which were produced at a time when the photographic procedures of negative and copy were still being developed and had yet to reach the appropriate degree of stability. This is why the exhibition of these items today is subject to strict conditions of light, temperature and humidity.

With this book Spanish art achieved a certain degree of awareness abroad, given that works by sixteenth and seventeenth century artists were reproduced, in addition to works by Goya. It brought together a total of sixty-eight photographs created by the photographer, Nicolaas Henneman, under Stirling’s supervision.

The purpose of this exhibition, which has enjoyed the collaboration of the National Media Museum in Bradford, where all of the proofs corresponding to the work from Henneman’s workshop are preserved (proofs which document the technical process followed in its creation), is to explain how the book was made.

The photographic process employed for the book was invented by William Henry Fox Talbot (1800-77), which is why the negatives on paper were given the name of “talbotypes”. Nicolaas Henneman (1813-98), Talbot’s assistant, founded an establishment where the first photographs were produced using this technique, whose limitations determined the way the book was made. The sensitivity of the negatives to light was quite low, which is why the shots were taken outside. The exposure time was somewhat prolonged due to the low sensitivity of the paper. Furthermore, this varied according to the light conditions, increasing on cloudy days, although really sunny days were avoided in order to prevent glare. The copies were also made under the light of the sun, with the paper negative being placed in contact with the paper covered in a positive emulsion. The unstable nature of this new technique, based on the manual preparation of the paper with chemical products, meant that deficiencies were observed during the process of obtaining negatives and copies which affected their preservation.

With this book Stirling sought to use this new photographic technique to place a new tool at the service of the history of art. In this sense, he replaced engravings and lithographs with photographs, which enabled him to reproduce the works in a simpler manner. However, the need to take photos under the light of the sun prevented him from portraying the originals that were located inside Spain’s museums and churches. For this reason, on numerous occasions Stirling was forced to turn to engravings and lithographs that reproduced the works of art, reproductions that formed part of his collection and his library, using them as a model. In other cases, Stirling contracted artists in Seville and Paris to produce oil or watercolour copies of the works that interested him and that had never been reproduced before, which were subsequently photographed. On exceptional occasions he was able to reproduce the originals, these always being works of small size – relief works, drawings, books and prints – which were transported to Henneman’s workshop from the collection belonging to his friend, the writer and traveller throughout Spain, Richard Ford (1796-58).

Publications

In order to mark this exhibition, Museo del Prado and Centro de Estudios Europa Hispánica have co-published two volumes: one recreates an ideal facsimile of the Talbotype Illustrations, which have been digitally constructed in order to provide an idea of what the book may have been like when it was produced and before the illustrations began to fade; the other is an exhaustive catalogue raisonné of this volume, which is completed with six preliminary studies that explain why and how it was made, why photography was used as a medium for illustrating the works of art, and an outline of the problems that were inherent in this (at that time) new technique. These studies were produced by Hilary Macartney, José Manuel Matilla, Larry J. Schaaf and Jim Tate, who enjoyed the collaboration of Davis Weston, Brian Liddy, Maureen Young, Colin Hardind and Beatriz Naranjo.

Curators:
Hilary Macartney, University of Glasgow, and José Manuel Matilla, Head of the Department of Prints and Drawings at the Museo Nacional del Prado.

Access

Room D. Jerónimos Building

In collaboration with:
University of Glasgow
National Media Museum de Bradford
Centro de Estudios Europa Hispánica.

Multimedia

Exhibition

The Main Characters

The Main Characters
Thomas Rodger (photographer)
Robert Bowyer Parkes (engraver)
Sir William Stirling Maxwell, circa 1870
From the book: William Stirling Maxwell, Miscellaneous Essays and Addresses. Londres: J.C. Nimmo, 1891
Manière noire / Mezzotint
Madrid, Madrid, Prado Museum Library

There are three principal actors within this book. The author, William Stirling Maxwell (1818-78), was an Scottish expert and lover of Spanish History and Art. William Henry Fox Talbot (1800-77) was the inventor of talbotype –named in his honour-, a photographic process using negative paper that was employed for Stirlings’ illustrations book. Last but not least, Nicolaas Henneman (1813-98), former Talbot’s assistant, that carried out in his studio all the photographs and copies that were used for the edition.

The Illustrations from the Annals and Examples of the Talbotypes

The Illustrations from the Annals and Examples of the Talbotypes
Talbotype no. 28
Diego Velázquez, Retrato ecuestre del príncipe Baltasar Carlos (based on a print by Francisco de Goya)
William Stirling Maxwell, Talbotype Illustrations to the Annals of the Artists of Spain.
London, 1847 [1848], Vol. IV
Madrid, Prado Museum Library

Stirling adorned the three volumes of text that made up the Annals with numerous illustrations. In doing so he made use of the graphic processes that were most habitual at the time: lithograph, engraving on wood (woodcut) and engraving on steel. Most of the images consist of headpieces, colophons and text illustrations. We might highlight, however, the portraits of the artists, given that their biographies articulate, in good part, Stirling’s journey through the realm of Spanish art. For these portraits he commissioned Henry Adlard to create a number of fine steel engravings, which were made from prints that reproduced the original paintings. When these prints did not exist, he commissioned William Barclay to produce watercolour copies of paintings preserved in the Galerie Espagnole at the Louvre.

In order to produce a luxury book, he commissioned gilded iron adornments featuring Spanish heraldic escutcheons on the cover and his monogram on the back cover. Time has meant that the bright blue colour of the cloth has lost its intensity in the majority of the copies that have been preserved.

In his desire to create an illustrated book that was exclusive, Stirling chose a series of rare and exclusive works as models for his reproductions. Such was the case with this print of the Giralda, of which only one copy is known. Essentially, he wanted to show its architectural qualities, which is why Nicolaas Henneman retouched the negative in order to conceal the angels bearing phylacteries that flank the tower. From before the retouching process took place, only the example exhibited here is known to us.

The lack of stability of the new photographic process employed means that none of the volumes that are known to have survived today are in a perfect state of preservation. They all reveal different degrees of deterioration. The photos have begun to fade around the edges, and this deterioration is more or less acute depending on the chemical substances used in making them and the humidity and temperature of the places where the volumes were preserved. Out of the fifty volumes published —twenty-five in large format and twenty-five in small format— only the whereabouts of twenty-five are known.

Photography in the Workshop. Drawn by the Sun

Photography in the Workshop. Drawn by the Sun
Benjamin Cowderoy o Calvert R. Jones
Two Views of the Reading Establishment, 1846
Salted paper print from a calotype negative
Bradford, The Royal Photographic Society Collection at the National Media Museum

The photographic establishment of Reading (London) was founded in 1843 by Nicolaas Henneman with the support of William Henry Fox Talbot. It was in this workshop that the photographs of the first illustrated book were produced by means of this process, The Pencil of Nature, published by Talbot between 1844 and 1846. The negatives on paper were known as talbotypes. Their sensitivity to light was low, which is why the photographs were taken outside. Here we can see Talbot and Henneman arranging the cameras in the light of the sun so that they can photograph a lithograph depicting a portrait of Cornelis van der Geest painted by Anthony van Dyck, as well as a copy of The Three Graces by Antonio Canova. On the right we can see the frames for producing positives from the negatives in the light of the sun. This was the process that would be employed in the Annals.

Photography in the Workshop. The Pencil of Nature

Photography in the Workshop. The Pencil of Nature
William Henry Fox Talbot
Bust of Patroclus
From the book: William Henry Fox Talbot, The Pencil of Nature. London, 1844-46, plates V and XI
Salted paper print

The Pencil of Nature was published in six parts, each containing four photographs each. Their covers combined the tradition of book design with the technical innovation of chromolithography. In this publication Talbot demonstrated that the simplest way of reproducing works of art was to photograph copies or reproductions on paper. Hagar in the Desert is a photograph of the lithographic reproduction of a drawing preserved in the collection of the King of Bavaria. One of the great advantages of talbotypes was that numerous copies could easily be made from one original negative. It was enough to place another piece of sensitised paper over the negative and expose it to the light of the sun in order to obtain a positive of the same size. Here we also present a negative copy and a positive copy.

Talbotypes were especially appropriate for reproducing sculptures, given that the latter’s volumes could be reconstructed by taking various different shots. Talbot proposed that the photos should be taken on cloudy days in order to avoid any strong contrasts of light and shade and, thus, facilitate a gentle modelling of their forms. As far as the prints were concerned, he recognised that photography enabled him to produce larger or smaller copies without resorting to the complex mechanical systems that had been employed up until that time. Stirling’s interest in producing prints was also reflected in his volume entitled Specimens of Portraits (1849), in which he published ten engraved portraits that had been included in books, of which the only known copy is that which is exhibited here.

Photography in the Workshop. In Front of the Camera

Photography in the Workshop. In Front of the Camera
Talbotypes nos. 28, 42, 52, 61
Diego Velázquez, Baltasar Carlos (28)
Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, Santa Isabel de Hungría (52) and los Niños de la Concha (52)
Lucas Valdés, Retrato de Miguel de Mañara (61)

Nicolaas Henneman, the author of the photographs contained in the volume entitled Talbotype Illustrations, employed different procedures in order to hold the objects he wanted to capture in place, depending on their size and material. In order to photograph copies of paintings he used two methods: he hung them from strings attached to a support or he placed them on an easel. In the case of the prints and the drawings, he attached them to a board resting on an easel, often sticking various examples on the same piece of paper in order to take a single shot, thus making the most of the negative.

Photography in the Workshop. From Light to Dark

Photography in the Workshop. From Light to Dark
Talbotype no. 14
Juan Martínez Montañés (Circle of), Santa Catalina de Siena recibiendo el rosario de la Virgen con el Niño
Three positives based on the same negative and featuring different exposure times

As can be seen in the views of the Reading workshop, the originals were photographed outside. The exposure time tended to be somewhat prolonged due to the low sensitivity of the paper. Furthermore, it varied according to the light conditions, increasing on cloudy days, although especially sunny days were generally avoided in order to prevent glare and excessively dark shadows. In this case, the shadow that the frame cast in the upper part of the image obliged Henneman to try out different exposure times in order to conceal its effects, given that the fragility of the original object made of terracotta meant that it could not be removed from its frame.

The developing of the negatives was an essential part of the photographic process. This was carried out by placing the negative over sensitised paper inside a frame, which, subsequently, was exposed to the light of the sun on a series of aligned supports, as we can see in the picture presented at the exhibition staged at the Reading Establishment. The exposure time depended on the light conditions. The density and quality of the negative also influenced the outcome and, of course, the degree of sensitivity of the paper used to copy it, which could also vary given that its was prepared manually. This is why the quality of the positives obtained was quite variable.

Photography in the Workshop. Cutting and Reducing

Photography in the Workshop. Cutting and Reducing
Talbotype no. 49
Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, Querubín con mitra (based on a drawing by Salvador Gutiérrez of a detail of the oil painting, “San Leandro y San Buenaventura”)
Trimmed negative used to reduce the size of the image

One of the images that Stirling chose in order to illustrate the work of Velasquez was La familia del pintor (1665, Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum), which is attributed today to his son-in-law and disciple, Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo. In this respect, he requested a photograph of a print of this painting that had been included in a publication on the works of the Belvedere Gallery in Vienna. The first photograph obtained, which was almost the same size as the print, was too big for publication in the Talbotypes book. So Stirling commissioned a second, smaller copy. Thanks to this smaller size, the examples of this image preserved inside the volumes have suffered a lower degree of fading around the edges due to exposure to the air, which is why nearly all of them have been preserved in a favourable condition.

Talbotypes were not always published in their original size. If a smaller-sized image was required – and given that enlargers did not yet exist – it was necessary to photograph the object again from a greater distance or trim the negative. Here, the excessively long format of the image must not have been to Stirling’s liking, so he trimmed it down, cutting off the legs of this cherubim, a detail of a painting by Murillo that forms part of the high altar at the Convent of the Capuchin Nuns in Seville. In view of the fact that it was impossible to take photos inside due to the technical limitations of the process, in 1845 Stirling commissioned Salvador Gutiérrez to produce a drawing of the cherubim, whose photograph was finally included in the book.

This series of works revolving around the alleged self-portrait of Luis Tristán illustrates the working procedure that was followed in order to produce the Talbotype Illustrations. William Stirling commissioned the draughtsman, William Barclay, to produce a copy of Tristán’s painting preserved in the Henry Southern Collection, which came from the collection belonging to the Duke of Híjar. It was believed that this painting was the one that had previously hung in the Prior’s cell at the Convent of La Sisla in Toledo. Based on the copy, Barclay created only the detail of the artist’s alleged self-portrait in colour, which he later simplified in a single-colour pen drawing. After photographing the whole drawing, Stirling decided to trim the negative in order show only the head and the shoulders.

Originals, Copies and Interpretations. Sculpture

Originals, Copies and Interpretations. Sculpture
Left:
Juan Martínez Montañés (Circle of)
El Niño Jesús y san Juan Bautista niño, circa 1620-50
Multi-coloured terracotta
London, The Ford Collection

Right:
Talbotype no. 13
Juan Martínez Montañés (Circle of)
El Niño Jesús y san Juan Bautista niño

In spite of the importance that Stirling granted to sculpture in his book, the only original works photographed for the publication consisted of two extremely rare relief-works, attributed at that time to the Baroque sculptor from Seville, Juan Martínez Montañés. These works came from the collection belonging to Stirling’s friend, the hispanist Richard Ford. Their small-sized format meant they could be transported to Henneman’s workshop. The main problems entailed by photographing this kind of three-dimensional work consisted of the lighting, which was susceptible to creating highly accentuated shadow and light, and the impossibility of capturing any colour differences. In his description of the picture, Stirling confused the iconography of Santa Catalina with that of Santa Teresa.

Photographing works of art located inside buildings constituted the main difficulty that the early photographers were forced to overcome, given that they needed natural light and it was difficult to move the pieces from their original location. In this respect, Stirling turned to prints that reproduced these works and that he could photograph outside Henneman’s workshop. The talbotypes were taken based on lithographs from España artística y monumental, a work published a few years before the Annals, and which helped to create a romantic idea of Spain. The difficulty when it came to reproducing the light contrasts in this cathedral-like interior can be observed in both the lithograph and in the photographs. 

Originals, Copies and Interpretations. Architecture

Originals, Copies and Interpretations. Architecture
Left:
José Gómez de Navia (draughtsman); Tomás López Enguídanos(engraving)
Vista del Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo del Escorial desde el Alto del Romeral
From the series: Colección de diferentes vistas del [...] Monasterio de San Lorenzo del Escorial
Madrid: Real Calcografía, 1800-7
Etching and burin
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

Right:
Talbotype no. 6
José Gómez de Navia (draughtsman) y Tomás López Enguídanos (engraving), Vista general de San Lorenzo del Escorial

Stirling granted special importance to his description of the Monastery of El Escorial, the emblematic work of Philip II’s reign. He devoted four images to illustrating its architecture, all photographs of prints from two widely-disseminated series. The first two, which were published in as large a format as that permitted by the book, came from an official Spanish project published in the early nineteenth century, which offered a scrupulously objective perspective of the building, without ignoring its atmospheric impact. The second two reproduce a French series dating from the seventeenth century, which was widely copied throughout Europe and helped to disseminate the image of the building internationally. Contrary to the first two, these prints, which are somewhat more crude and feature extremely forced perspectives, were published in the smallest formats included in the book.

Originals, Copies and Interpretations. The Illustrated Book

Originals, Copies and Interpretations. The Illustrated Book
Left:
Juan de Vingles
Juan de Icíar
From the book: Juan de Icíar, Arte subtilissima, por la qual  se enseña a escrevir… Zaragoza: Pedro Bernuz, 1550
Carving
Historical Library of the Complutense University of Madrid

Right:
Talbotype no. 2
Juan de Vingles, Retrato de Juan de Yciar 

In his publication, Stirling granted considerable importance to the portraits of artists. Those of the calligrapher, Juan de Icíar, and the silversmith, Juan de Arfe, are taken from strictly contemporaneous prints of the subjects depicted. In this respect, and because they featured at the beginning of their own books, they can be considered to be true likenesses. Both photographs are highly representative of Stirling’s varied intentions: they reflect his taste for portrait, his interest in artistic disciplines generally considered to be minor and his enthusiasm for illustrated books in his capacity as a bibliophile. They also demonstrate the value of engraving as an essential medium within the realm of culture in general. The drawing that copied the print may have been produced by Stirling himself.

The large number of photographs taken from Spanish illustrated books dating from the seventeenth century demonstrate Stirling’s interest in engravings from this period. The engravers, the majority of whom were Flemish – and, therefore, resident in the territories ruled by the Spanish Monarchy –, came to Spain in order to fulfil the needs of a publishing industry that lacked Spanish engravers. By including them in the Annals, he made them part of the history of Spanish art, given that he was well aware of the fact that the pictures they produced, in addition to their artistic value, also possessed a documentary interest in terms of illustrating different aspects of culture, society and history. Frontispieces – illustrated title pages full of symbols referring to the contents of the book – constituted the most characteristic type of illustration during the first half of the seventeenth century. 

The books that Stirling asked to be photographed came mainly from his own library and that of his friend, Richard Ford. From the latter, he chose a series of volumes that he considered to be “rare”. From one of these books he took this view of the meeting between the Spanish and French monarchies in order to mark the marriage of the Infanta Maria Theresa of Spain with Louis XIV. Stirling chose it because Velasquez took part in organising the protocol. In order to reproduce the details in the best manner possible, Stirling commissioned a photograph that was larger than usual, which he published in a two-page spread. 

An interest in portraits as an artistic genre can be perceived throughout the pages of the Annals. A good number of the models that are reproduced come from prints included in books in which the author’s portrait is given pride of place. Stirling carefully selected these portraits in order to offer the greatest variety possible. For the portrait of Hernando de Alarcón he chose an engraving that was a copy of an original model by Titian. Here we exhibit two photographic positives taken from two negatives of different sizes. For the second portrait he chose Queen Mary Stuart as a model due to her symbolic character for all Scots (Stirling was Scottish). The difficulties experienced in creating positives are evident in these works, given that the results are extremely irregular in terms of tone and contrast.

Originals, Copies and Interpretations. The Prints and Drawings

Originals, Copies and Interpretations. The Prints and Drawings
Left:
Bartolomé Esteban Murillo
San Juan Bautista Niño con el cordero, h. 1668-70
Black pencil, brown ink and pen, and brown and grey washes
London, The Ford Collection

Right:
Talbotype no. 57
Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, San Juan Bautista Niño con el cordero

Stirling wanted to include images taken of “extremely rare and curious originals” in his Talbotype Illustrations. This explains his choice of a print produced in 1648 by José de Ribera, of which there are virtually no known copies. In this manner he demonstrated his interest in engraving as a means of autonomous expression. The fact is that Ribera, in addition to being a well-known painter, was an important engraver, one who used this technique in order to disseminate and increase his fame. In order to reproduce the quality of the print, Henneman created a large-format negative, although in the book he included a different negative of the habitual size. The greatest difficulty with this kind of photograph consisted in the reproduction of the white tones on the paper, something that was not always accomplished.

Following Talbot’s advice in The Pencil of Nature, Stirling endowed his book with variety by including photographs of original drawings. He was proud of this fact, proclaiming in the foreword of the Annals that “I believe I can confidently state that the drawings by Cano and Murillo are the only original works by these masters that have been copied by the sun”. The drawings came from the collection belonging to his friend, Richard Ford, who also loaned him the only known print made by Murillo. As Stirling points out, they were a classic example of British collecting of works on paper: “they came from the collection belonging to the Conde del Águila in Seville, later passing into the hands of Mr. Julian Williams, the British Consul there, who gave them as a gift to Richard Ford.”

These drawings by Alonso Cano and Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, belonging to Richard Ford, are a good example of Stirling’s interest in the drawings of the Spanish Baroque, something he would develop some years later by creating his own collection. The main difficulty when it came to photographing them resided in the reproduction of the soft pencil and sanguine lines, as well as the delicate brown washes, something that was almost impossible at that time. A good example of this is provided by the work Cristo by Murillo, which also presented the typical photographic problem of how to fix the image. The reproduction soon faded, which meant that a good number of the images included in the book had to be retouched with pencil, as can be seen in the copy belonging to the Museum of Romanticism exhibited in the central display case.

Originals, Copies and Interpretations. The Paintings from El Greco to Velasquez

Originals, Copies and Interpretations. The Paintings from El Greco to Velasquez
Left:
Enrique Blanco
Retrato que se supone de la mujer de Velázquez (according to a painting by Diego Velasquez), circa 1829-32
Pencil lithograph, lithographic aquatint and scraper
From the series: Colección lithographica de cuadros del rey de España..., 3 vols. Madrid: Real Establecimiento Litográfico, 1826-37
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

Right:
Hill & Adamson [David Octavius Hill & Robert Adamson]
Diego Velázquez, Retrato que se supone de la mujer de Velázquez (based on a print by Enrique Blanco), 1847
Calotype, salted paper negative
Edimburgo, Scottish National Portrait Gallery (National Galleries of Scotland)

La dama del armiño was considered by Stirling to be one of the best work in the Galerie Espagnole at the Louvre. For this reason, he commissioned a watercolour copy of this oil painting from the British miniaturist based in Paris, William Barclay. In view of the impossibility of photographing the paintings in their original locations due to lighting problems, Stirling tended to commission watercolours of the paintings he desired, so that he could photograph them afterwards. His interest in this work, which was attributed to El Greco at the time, would lead him to purchase the painting during the sale of the Louis-Philippe Collection in 1853. Since then, it has been preserved at his residence, Pollok House, in Glasgow. Its authorship is the subject of study today.

Stirling’s interest in presenting portraits of artists in the Talbotype Illustrations led him to include this self-portrait by Pedro de Orrente that formed part of the Galerie Espagnole at the Louvre. In this respect, a watercolour version of the picture was photographed that Stirling had commissioned from M. Tessin, a French copyist who had come strongly recommended. This type of copy would be small format and tended to simplify the painting. In the photograph, the nuances of the darker colours tended to be lost, which meant the shots had to be repeated or the negatives would be retouched. In order to photograph the watercolours, these were attached with drawing pins to a board that was covered, in this case with a copy of a satirical magazine dating from Christmas 1846.

Zurbarán’s original painting, which was exhibited in the Galerie Espagnole at the Louvre at the time, was widely admired by French Romantic writers and artists. Its fame meant that the article written by Amédée de Cesena about the painter, which was published in the magazine L’Artiste, was illustrated by a large-format print of the work. The engraving was carried out using the manière noire technique, complemented with etching in order to reproduce the strong chiaroscuro effects of the painting. Most of the talbotypes published in the Talbotype Illustrations have lost their sharpness and are somewhat pale. The same applies to the workshop proofs, of which we display one example here with the image inverted. In 1853 the painting was purchased by the National Gallery of London, not without controversy regarding its quality, which Stirling and Ford defended publicly.

Alongside Velasquez, Murillo plays the most prominent role in the Talbotype Illustrations, given that eighteen of the sixty-six images are of his works. Stirling included numerous paintings that had been previously reproduced by means of chalcographic engravings published by the Compañía para el grabado de los cuadros de los Reales Palacios (1791-1805), by means of lithographs from the Colección lithographica de cuadros del rey de España (1826-37) and by French lithographs published by Goupil (1841-45). Stirling collected these prints reproducing Murillo’s work in three albums, whilst compiling the reproductions of Velasquez’s works in two albums. In 1873 he published a catalogue featuring all of these works. The easy access to these prints, their large format, their quality and their good state of preservation enabled Henneman to create some reliable photographs.

The non-existence of print reproductions of the paintings Murillo produced for the Convent of Capuchinos in Seville, essential works in his oeuvre and preserved at the Museum of Fine Arts in Seville even in Stirling’s day, led Stirling to commission a series of oil painting copies in a smaller size during his stay in the Andalusian city in 1845. José Roldán y Martínez, a Spanish painter well-known in his day for portraits and miniature copies of Murillo’s main works, was commissioned to produce them. The manageable format of the copies meant that they could be photographed in the light of the sun outside Henneman’s workshop. Today we do not know where these copies are located, although they formerly decorated Stirling’s residence.

Stirling included a long text in the volume of studies that formed part of the Annals devoted to describing Las meninas, which he considered to be Velasquez’s masterpiece. All attempts to reproduce the work had always failed spectacularly. In around 1778 Goya had created an etching of the work, which he did not publish in the end. The first reproduction that was published by the Compañía para el grabado de los cuadros de los Reales Palacios turned out to be a sad caricature of the original, in spite of the fact that it was produced by a prestigious French engraver who specialised in reproducing paintings. This was due to the failings of the drawing on which it was based. Due to the lack of any other model, Stirling was forced to photograph this print, which, thanks to the small size of the photograph and a certain lack of sharpness, is actually somewhat more similar to the original in terms of reproducing its atmosphere.

In order to illustrate Velasquez’s work, whose original is located at Museo del Prado, Stirling used a model taken from the Colección lithographica de cuadros del rey de España. In the text that accompanied this lithograph he pointed out that the women portrayed was not Velasquez’s wife, but a sibyl, an interpretation that has been consolidated today. The diffuse profiles of the painting were excessively defined in the lithograph. However, the loss of sharpness of the photograph meant that the photo was more similar to the original painting. In 1847 Stirling commissioned Hill & Adamson to produce a series of five negatives of Velasquez’s work, amongst which this painting was included, perhaps as a precaution in case Henneman’s copies did not achieve the level of quality desired for publication.

The impossibility of enlarging or reducing a negative meant that the format had to be chosen before the shot was taken. In this sense, the large-sized negative produced by Hill & Adamson would not have been created for Stirling’s project, which required smaller-sized images. Perhaps it was meant to form part of a special edition for an album that was never put together. Nevertheless, another copy by Hill & Adamson, of smaller size and similar to that of Henneman, indicates that this was probably produced in case Henneman’s copies did not achieve the level of quality required for publication in the Annals.

The National Media Museum in Bradford preserves fourteen proofs of Las hilanderas created based on the print made by the Compañía para el grabado de los cuadros de los Reales Palacios. The negatives preserved the legend on the prints. However, for their publication in the Talbotype Illustrations, Stirling trimmed them, given that they were barely readable and they interfered with the viewer’s enjoyment of the image. Finally, Stirling decided to discard this version of Las hilanderas, although the existence of another negative created from the same print by Hill & Adamson shows that he made various attempts to include it.

Originals, Copies and Interpretations. Goya

Originals, Copies and Interpretations. Goya
Left:
Francisco de Goya
Tauromaquia 21: Desgracias acaecidas en el tendido de la plaza de Madrid y muerte del alcalde de Torrejón
Etching, aquatint, drypoint, burin and burnisher
From the series: Tauromaquia, 1816
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

Right:
Talbotype no. 65
Francisco de Goya, Muerte del alcalde de Torrejón en la plaza de toros de Madrid

The term “engraving interpretation” goes beyond the limits of merely reproducing the original work, entering into the realm of the engraver’s personal vision. In this sense, the engraver is less interested in merely producing a servile imitation of the work and more focused on expressing its effects and nuances and reflecting the sensations it generates. Stirling decided to illustrate the work of Velazquez through the personal perspective of Goya, and he did not hesitate to grant his prints a prominent role. This choice may serve as a kind of allegory of what Stirling was looking for by employing the technique of photography, being well aware of its limitations, but also regarding it as being useful in terms of offering a new and personal image endowed with its own aura.

Stirling’s interest in engraving as an original form of work, and not merely as a means of reproduction and interpretation, led him to include three prints from Francisco de Goya’s series Tauromaquia in the Talbotype Illustrations. In fact, Stirling had purchased a complete set of the series in around 1845. The series concept was reflected in the manner in which three images were placed on the same page. Unfortunately, all of the examples of these photographs have suffered serious fading. Goya’s work, which had achieved considerable fame in France by this time, merited a long chapter devoted to it in Stirling’s project.

Stirling’s first purchases of Spanish art consisted of small oil paintings, which at that time were considered to be original works by Goya depicting scenes of children at play. Probably acquired during his second stay in Seville in 1842, today they are considered to be copies, given that various similar versions are known of varying quality. Having remained in the hands of the Stirling family since that time, today they are preserved at his residence, Pollok House (Glasgow). The importance of these photographs resides in the fact that these were the very first original works that were photographed. The workshop proofs demonstrate the difficulties of the task, given that steps were taken to avoid the glare of the varnish, the cracking of the pictorial layer and the shadows cast by the frames. Stirling was not satisfied with the results, which is why he decided not to include them in his book. 

Artworks

1

John Moffat

William Henry Fox Talbot, 1864

Carte de visite. Albumen print mounted on cardboard

Bradford, The Royal Photographic Society Collection at the National Media Museum 

2

Nicolaas Henneman (?)

Self-portrait, c. 1844

Salted paper print

Bradford, National Media Museum

3

Thomas Rodger (photographer). Robert Bowyer Parkes (engraver)

Sir William Stirling Maxwell, c. 1870

From the book: William Stirling Maxwell, Miscellaneous Essays and Addresses. London: J.C. Nimmo, 1891

Mezzotint

Madrid, Prado Museum Library

4

Benjamin Cowderoy or Calvert R. Jones

Two Views of the Reading Establishment, 1846

Salted paper print from a calotype negative

Bradford, The Royal Photographic Society Collection at the National Media Museum 

5

Owen Jones

Cover of The Pencil of Nature, 1844

From the book: William Henry Fox Talbot, The Pencil of Nature. London, 1844-46

Chromolithography

6

William Henry Fox Talbot

Hagar in the Desert (Photographic copy of facsimile of drawing by Pier Francesco Mola)

From the book: William Henry Fox Talbot, The Pencil of Nature. Londres, 1844-46, plate XXIII

Calotype, salted paper negative

Calotype, salted paper negative copy

Calotype, salted paper positive copy

7

William Henry Fox Talbot

Bust of Patroclus

Group of Thirty-Five Heads (after a lithography by Louis Léopold Boilly)

From the book: William Henry Fox Talbot, The Pencil of Nature. London, 1844-46, plates V y XI

Salted paper print

8

Nicolaas Henneman & Thomas Augustine Malone

Felipe IV (engraved by Herman Panneels)

From the book: William Stirling Maxwell, Specimens of Portraits

London: Henneman & Malone, 1849, plate V

Salted paper print

Bradford, The Royal Photographic Society Collection at the National Media Museum 

9

Hermann Panneels

Felipe IV

Engraving

From the book: Juan Antonio de Tapia y Robles, Ilustración del renombre de Grande... Madrid: Francisco Martínez, 1638

Madrid, Prado Museum Library

10

Louis Meunier

Perspective View of the Back of El Escorial

Etching

Biblioteca Nacional de España

11

Talbotype no. 44

Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, Santo Tomás de Villanueva dando limosna (after an oil copy by José Roldán) 

12

Talbotype not included in the “Talbotype Illustrations” volume

Alonso Cano, Virgen de Belén (after an oil copy by José Roldán) 

13

Talbotype no. 8

Louis Meunier, Vista de la fachada del Escorial

14

Talbotypes nos. 28, 42, 52, 61

Diego Velázquez, Baltasar Carlos (28)

Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, Santa Isabel de Hungría (42) and los Niños de la Concha (52)

Lucas Valdés, Retrato de Miguel de Mañara (61)

15

Talbotype no. 14

Juan Martínez Montañés (Circle), Santa Catalina de Siena recibiendo el rosario de la Virgen con el Niño

Seven prints after one negative with different exposure times

16

Two talbotypes not included in the “Talbotype Illustrations” volume

Alonso Cano, Virgen de Belén (after an oil copy by José Roldán) 

17

Talbotype no. 32

Diego Velázquez, Retrato de la infanta Margarita de Austria

Five prints after one negative with different exposure times

18

Sigmund Von Perger (draughtsman). Joseph Kovatsch (engraver)

La familia del pintor (after a painting by Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo formerly attributed to Velázquez)

From the book: Carl Haas (ed.), Kaiserliche Königliche Bilder-

Gallerie im Belvedere zu Wien. Vienna and Prague: Carl Haas, 1821-28, vol. II

Engraving

Madrid, Prado Museum Library

19

Talbotype no. 34

Diego Velázquez, La familia de Velázquez (after a print by J. Kovatsch)

Different negatives depending on the size of the desired image

20

Talbotype no. 49

Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, Querubín con mitra (from a drawing, executed by Salvador Gutiérrez from a detail of the picture “San Leandro y san Buenaventura”)

Trimming a negative to reduce the image size

21

William Barclay

Copy of the “La Última Cena” by Luis Tristán and his supposed Self-portrait, h. 1844-46

Watercolour, pen and brown ink

Lent by Glasgow Life (Glasgow Museums) on behalf of Glasgow City Council 

22

Talbotype no. 11

Luis Tristán, Supposed Self-portrait (after a pen drawing by William Barclay)

Trimming a negative to reduce the image size

23

Juan Martínez Montañés (Circle)

El Niño Jesús y san Juan Bautista niño, c. 1620-50

Santa Catalina de Siena recibiendo el rosario de la Virgen con el Niño, c. 1620-50

Polychromed terracotta

London, The Ford Collection

24

Talbotype no. 13

Juan Martínez Montañés (Circle), El Niño Jesús y san Juan Bautista niño

25

Talbotype no. 14

Juan Martínez Montañés (Circle), Santa Teresa de Jesús [sic] 

26

Michel-Charles Fichot (lithographer)

Sepulcro de don Juan el segundo en la cartuja de Miraflores, by Gil de Siloé

Illustration from: Genaro Pérez Villaamil y Patricio de la Escosura, España artística y monumental..., París, 1844, vol. II

Lithograph: pencil, scraper and tint stone

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

27

Talbotype no. 1

Gil de Siloé, Sepulcro de don Juan el segundo en la cartuja de Miraflores (after a print by Michel Charles Fichot)

28

Talbotype no. 3

Alonso Berruguete, Sepulcro de mármol del cardenal Juan de Tavera, en el hospital de San Juan Bautista de Toledo (after a print by Luis López Piquer)

29

José Gómez de Navia (draughtsman). Tomás López Enguídanos (engraver)

Vista del Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo del Escorial desde el alto del Romeral

From the series: Colección de diferentes vistas del [...] Monasterio de San Lorenzo del Escorial.

Madrid: Real Calcografía, 1800-7

Engraving

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

30

Louis Meunier

Principal Front of El Escorial

From the series: Louis Meunier,  Differentes veues de Lescurial..., París, 1665-68

Etching, burin and drypoint

Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional de España

31

Talbotype no. 6

Tomás López Enguídanos (engraver) and José Gómez de Navia (draughtsman), Vista general de San Lorenzo del Escorial 

32

Talbotype no. 8

Louis Meunier, Fachada principal del Escorial

33

Talbotype no. 9

Louis Meunier, Perspective View of the Back of El Escorial

34

William Stirling Maxwell

Hoja con tres retratos recortados y la firma de Juan de Arfe

Woodcut and pencil with brown ink

Lent by Glasgow Life (Glasgow Museums) on behalf of Glasgow City Council 

35

Juan de Vingles

Juan de Icíar

From the book: Juan de Icíar, Arte subtilissima, por la qual  se enseña a escrevir… Zaragoza: Pedro Bernuz, 1550

Woodcut

Biblioteca Histórica de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid

36

Anonymous Spanish

Juan de Arfe y Villafañe

From the book: Juan de Arfe and Villafañe, De varia commensuracion para la esculptura y architectura… Sevilla: Andrea Pescioni and Juan de León, 1585

Woodcut

Madrid, Prado Museum Library

37

Talbotype no. 2

Juan de Vingles, Retrato de Juan de Yciar

38

Talbotype no. 4

Anónimo español, Retrato de Juan d’Arphe

39

Diego de Astor

Title page

From the book: Diego de Colmenares, Historia de la insigne ciudad de Segovia y compendio de las historias de Castilla. Segovia: Diego Díez, 1640

Engraving

Biblioteca Histórica de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid

40

Juan de Noort

Title page

From the book: Antonio de Quintanadueñas, Santos de la Imperial Ciudad de Toledo, y su Arçobispado…Madrid: Pablo de Val, 1651

Engraving

Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional de España

41

Talbotype no. 20

Juan de Noort, Frontispicio del libro “Los santos de Toledo”

42

Talbotype no. 18

Diego de Astor, Frontispicio del libro “Historia de Segovia”

43

Pedro de Villafranca (attributed)

Unión dinástica en el río Bidasoa

Del libro: Leonardo del Castillo, Viage del Rey […] Felipe Quarto el Grande, a la frontera de Francia...

Madrid: Imprenta Real, 1667

Engraving

Madrid, Real Academia Española. Biblioteca, Legado Rodríguez-Moñino–Brey 

44

Talbotype no. 35

Pedro de Villafranca (attributed), Pabellón erigido en la isla de los Faisanes

45

Pedro Perret or Pedro Perete

Hernando de Alarcón (after Tiziano),  c. 1629 retouched c. 1665

From the book: Antonio Suárez Alarcón, Comentarios de los hechos del señor Alarcón, marqués de la Valle Siciliana... Madrid: Diego Díaz de la Carrera, 1665

Engraving

Biblioteca Histórica de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid

46

Juan de Courbes

La reina María Estuardo

From the book: Lope Félix de Vega y Carpio, Corona tragica. Vida y muerte de la Serenissima reyna de Escocia Maria Estuarda

Madrid: Viuda de Luis Sánchez, 1627.

Engraving

Biblioteca Histórica de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid

47

Talbotype no. 19

Pedro Perete, Retrato de Hernando de Alarcón

48

Talbotype no. 17

Juan de Courbes, Retrato de María Estuardo, reina de los escoceses

49

Talbotype no. 37

José de Ribera, Retrato de Juan José de Austria

50

Bartolomé Esteban Murillo

San Juan Bautista Niño con el cordero, c. 1668-70

Black pencil, brown ink and pen, and brown and grey washes

London, The Ford Collection

51

Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (attributed)

San Francisco

Etching

London, The Ford Collection

52

Talbotype no. 57

Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, San Juan Bautista Niño con el cordero 

53

Talbotype no. 58

Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (attributed), San Francisco

54

Bartolomé Esteban Murillo

Cristo en la Cruz, c. 1658-60

Black pencil and sanguine

London, The Ford Collection

55

Talbotype no. 41

Alonso Cano, Santa María Magdalena

56

William Barclay

La dama del armiño (after a copy by El Greco), c. 1844-46

Watercolor over a preliminary black pencil drawing

Lent by Glasgow Life (Glasgow Museums) on behalf of Glasgow City Council

57

Talbotype no. 10

El Greco (?), La dama del armiño (after a watercolour copy by William Barclay)

58

Pedro de Orrente

Selfportrait, c. 1623-30

Oil on canvas

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

59

M. Tessin

Copy of a Self-portrait of Pedro de Orrente, c. 1844-46

Watercolour over preliminary drawing in black chalk

Lent by Glasgow Life (Glasgow Museums) on behalf of Glasgow City Council

60

Talbotype no. 12

Pedro de Orrente, Self-portrait (after a watercolour copy by M. Tessin)

Three untrimmed positives from two different size negatives

61

Théophile-Victor Desclaux

Monje en oración (after a painting by Francisco de Zurbarán)

Mezzotint and etching on china paper

From the magazine: L’Artiste, Journal de la Littérature et des Beaux-Arts, vol. I (1839)

Madrid, Colección Etelvino Gayangós

62

Talbotype no. 38

Francisco de Zurbarán, Monje franciscano en oración (after a print by Théophile-Victor Desclaux) 

63

Ludwig Theodor Zöllner

Sagrada Familia (after a painting by Bartolomé Esteban Murillo), c. 1829-32

Lithograph: pencil, lithographic aquatint and scraper

From the series: Colección lithographica de cuadros del rey de España..., 3 vols.

Madrid: Real Establecimiento Litográfico, 1826-37

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

64

Talbotype no. 51

Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, Sagrada familia del pajarito (after a print by Ludwig Theodor Zöllner)

65

Talbotype no. 48

Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, Santa Ana enseñando a leer a la Virgen (after a print by Hermann Eichens)

66

Talbotype no. 47

Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, Santa Justa y santa Rufina (after an oil copy by José Roldán)

67

Talbotype no. 48

Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, Santo Tomás de Villanueva dando limosna (after an oil copy by José Roldán)

68

Pierre Audouin (engraver). Antonio Martínez (draughtsman)

Don Diego Velázquez retratando á la Ynfanta Dª Margarita Maria de Austria hija de Felipe 4º servida de sus meninas y acompañada de dos enanos y otros personages (after a painting by Diego Velázquez)

Engraving

From the series: Compañía para el grabado de los cuadros de los Reales Palacios.

Madrid: Imprenta Real, 1791-1800

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

69

Talbotype no. 31

Diego Velázquez, Velázquez pintando a la infanta Margarita María, conocido como Las damas de honor ó La teología de la pintura (after a print by Pierre Audouin) 

70

Enrique Blanco

Retrato que se supone de la mujer de Velázquez (según pintura de Diego Velázquez), c. 1829-32

Lithograph: pencil, lithographic aquatint and scraper

From the series: Colección lithographica de cuadros del rey de España... 3 vols.

Madrid: Real Establecimiento Litográfico, 1826-37

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

71

Hill & Adamson [David Octavius Hill & Robert Adamson]

Diego Velázquez, Retrato que se supone de la mujer de Velázquez (a partir de una estampa de Enrique Blanco), 1847

Calotype, salted paper negative

Edinburgh, Scottish National Portrait Gallery (National Galleries of Scotland)

72

Talbotype no. 24

Diego Velázquez, Juana Pacheco (after a print by Enrique Blanco)

73

Hill & Adamson [David Octavius Hill & Robert Adamson]

Diego Velázquez, La rendición de Breda (after a print by Florentino Decraene), 1847

Calotype, salted paper negative

Glasgow University Library, Special Collections Department

74

Talbotype no. 30

Diego Velázquez, La entrega de las llaves de Breda por el príncipe Justino de Nassau al marqués de Spinola (after a print by Florentino Decraene)

75

Hill & Adamson [David Octavius Hill & Robert Adamson]

Diego Velázquez, La rendición de Breda (after a print by Florentino Decraene), 1847      

Bradford, The Kodak Collection at the National Media Museum

76

Francisco Muntaner (engraver). Agustín Esteve (draughtsman)

Las hilanderas (after a painting by Diego Velázquez), 1796

Engraving

From the series: Compañía para el grabado de los cuadros de los Reales Palacios.

Madrid: Imprenta Real, 1791-1800

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

77

Talbotype not included in the Talbotype Illustrations volume

Diego Velázquez, Las hilanderas (after a print by Francisco Muntaner)

78

Francisco de Goya

El príncipe Baltasar Carlos (after a painting by Diego Velázquez)

Etching and drypoint

From the series: Copies after Velázquez, 1778

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

79

Talbotypes nos. 26-29

Diego Velázquez, Retratos ecuestres del rey Felipe IV (26); la reina Isabel de Borbón (27); el príncipe Baltasar Carlos (28) y el conde-duque de Olivares (29) (after prints by Francisco de Goya)

80

Francisco de Goya

Tauromaquia 19: Otra locura suya en la misma plaza [Martincho en la de Zaragoza]

Tauromaquia 24: El mismo Ceballos montado sobre otro toro quiebra rejones en la plaza de Madrid

Tauromaquia 21: Desgracias acaecidas en el tendido de la plaza de Madrid y muerte del alcalde de Torrejón

Etching, aquatint, drypoint, burin and burnisher

From the series: Tauromaquia, 1816

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado 

81

Talbotypes nos. 63-65

Francisco de Goya, Una proeza de Martincho en la plaza de toros de Zaragoza (63); Mariano Ceballos montando un toro en la plaza de toros de Madrid (64); Muerte del alcalde de Torrejón en la plaza de toros de Madrid (65)

82

Talbotypes not included in the Talbotype Illustrations volume

Francisco de Goya (attributed), Niños jugando a los soldados

Francisco de Goya (attributed), Niños jugando al balancín

83

William Barclay

Copy of the Self-portrait by Vicente Carducho, c. 1844–46

Watercolour over preliminary drawing in black chalk

Lent by Glasgow Life (Glasgow Museums) on behalf of Glasgow City Council

84

Pedro Tortolero (draughtsman). Juan Fernández (engraver)

La Giralda, c. 1747

Engraving

Sevilla, Colección Rafael Manzano 

85

Henry Adlard

Vicente Carducho, Selfportrait (after a watercolor copy by William Barclay)

Steel engraving

William Stirling, Annals of the Artist of Spain. London: John Ollivier, 1848, vol. I.

Madrid, Biblioteca del Museo Nacional del Prado

86

Henry Adlard

Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, Selfportrait (after a watercolor copy by William Barclay)

Steel engraving

William Stirling, Annals of the Artist of Spain. London: John Ollivier, 1848, vol. II.

Madrid, Biblioteca del Museo Nacional del Prado

87

Anonymous

Capricho 49, Duendecitos (after Francisco de Goya)

Woodcut

William Stirling, Annals of the Artist of Spain. London: John Ollivier, 1848, vol. III.

Madrid, Biblioteca del Museo Nacional del Prado

88

William Bone

Cubierta con escudos de armas españoles estampados en oro

William Stirling, Talbotype Illustrations to the Annals of the Artist of Spain. London: 1847 [1848], vol. IV.

Pamplona, Museo de la Universidad de Navarra

89

Talbotype no. 22

La Giralda (after a print by Juan Fernández)

William Stirling, Talbotype Illustrations to the Annals of the Artist of Spain. London: 1847 [1848], vol. IV.

Private collection

90

Talbotype no. 22 retouched

La Giralda (after a print by Juan Fernández)

William Stirling, Talbotype Illustrations to the Annals of the Artist of Spain. London: 1847 [1848], vol. IV

Stirlings of Keir Collection

91

Talbotype no. 12

Pedro Orrente, Selfportrait (after a watercolor copy by M. Tessin)

William Stirling, Talbotype Illustrations to the Annals of the Artist of Spain. London: 1847 [1848], vol. IV.

Edinburgh, National Galleries of Scotland

92

Talbotype no. 24

Diego Velázquez, Su mujer, Juana Pacheco (after a print by Enrique Blanco)

William Stirling, Talbotype Illustrations to the Annals of the Artist of Spain. London: 1847 [1848], vol. IV.

London, The British Library

93

Talbotype no. 56

Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, Cristo en la Cruz

William Stirling, Talbotype Illustrations to the Annals of the Artist of Spain. London: 1847 [1848], vol. IV.

Madrid, Museo del Romanticismo

94

Talbotype no. 28

Diego Velázquez, Retrato ecuestre del príncipe Baltasar Carlos (after a print by Francisco de Goya)

William Stirling, Talbotype Illustrations to the Annals of the Artist of Spain. London: 1847 [1848], vol. IV.

Madrid, Biblioteca del Museo Nacional del Prado

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