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Patinir

03.07.2007 - 07.10.2007

Joachim Patinir’s date of birth is unknown, but he was probably born in modern-day south-east Belgium between 1480 and 1485. It is generally thought that from 1515 he worked as a painter in Antwerp and that he died there in 1524. The present exhibition intends to shed light on his biography and career and above all to draw the public’s attention to some of the most evocative and mysterious landscapes ever painted.

With the exception of some works that cannot travel for conservation reasons, the exhibition Joachim Patinir brings together all the works considered to be by the artist and his studio, including some recent attributions.

Described by Dürer at the outset of the Renaissance as “the good painter of landscapes”, Patinir was considered the first modern painter to specialise in this genre. The exhibition opens with a selection of works by forerunners of the artist in which a growing interest in the natural setting is evident. Nonetheless, neither Bosch, Robert Campin, Hans Memling or Dirk Bouts, among other forerunners of the artist, went on to specialise in landscape despite their evident influence on this genre. The exhibition examines the work of some of these predecessors of Patinir in whose painting landscape ceased to act as a mere background to the figures and became a setting in which the actions depicted took place.

Curator:
Dr Alejandro Vergara, Chief Curator of Flemish Painting at the Museo del Prado.
Supported by:

Multimedia

Exhibition

Patinir and his predecessors

Patinir and his predecessors
Saint John the Baptist and the Franciscan Heinrich von Werl
Robert Campin.
1438
Oil on panel. 101 cm x 47 cm.

Joachim Patinir’s date of birth is unknown, but he was probably born in modern-day south-east Belgium between 1480 and 1485. It is generally thought that from 1515 he worked as a painter in Antwerp and that he died there in 1524. The present exhibition intends to shed light on his biography and career and above all to draw the public’s attention to some of the most evocative and mysterious landscapes ever painted. With the exception of some works that cannot travel for conservation reasons, the exhibition Joachim Patinir brings together all the works considered to be by the artist and his studio, including some recent attributions.

Described by Dürer at the outset of the Renaissance as “the good painter of landscapes”, Patinir was considered the first modern painter to specialise in this genre. The exhibition opens with a selection of works by forerunners of the artist in which a growing interest in the natural setting is evident. Nonetheless, neither Bosch, Robert Campin, Hans Memling or Dirk Bouts, among other forerunners of the artist, went on to specialise in landscape despite their evident influence on this genre. The exhibition examines the work of some of these predecessors of Patinir in whose painting landscape ceased to act as a mere background to the figures and became a setting in which the actions depicted took place.

Patinir’s success cannot be understood without the earlier example of these figures, who by endowing the natural setting with a new importance laid the way for the process of artistic investigation on which Patinir embarked. The artist thus became the earliest forerunner of landscape painting as an independent genre. Among the reasons for the spectacular rise of this genre the geographical context was important. Antwerp was the leading art market of Europe and in contrast to other major European cities, the range of works produced there was enormous and was controlled by the artists themselves rather than by the Church. Within this context of economic growth and a competitive market, Patinir gained a pre-eminent role in which the combination of detailed observation from life and imaginative and fantastical interpretation brought him close to the work of other Flemish painters known for their striking styles, such as Bosch and Pieter Bruegel.

The Core of the Exhibition

The Core of the Exhibition
The Temptations of Saint Anthony the Abbot
Quentin Massys; Joachim Patinir
1520 - 1524
Oil on panel. 155 cm x 173 cm.

The principal section of the exhibition is devoted to 21 paintings by Patinir and is the largest groups of his works ever to be brought together. These were produced at a time when it was normal for painters to work in collaboration with their studio and the exhibition has consequently aimed to establish which were painted by Patinir himself and which by his pupils. In addition, two new works are included which seem to indicate the artist’s own hand or that of his studio: the Triptych with the penitent Saint Jerome and Landscape with the Crucifixion, both from private collections.

The display of works combines a chronological and stylistic ordering. Three rooms devoted to Patinir reveal not only the originality of his style but also pay attention to stylistic and attributional issues. The paintings are grouped according to the similarities evident in the different versions of a particular subject, such as the religious subjects with Saint Jerome or the Rest on the Flight into Egypt. Patinir’s progressive mastery of landscape as an increasingly important element culminates in his large, late paintings. Three of them form the core of the exhibition: Landscape with Saint Christopher from the Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Charon Crossing the Styx and The Temptations of Saint Anthony, both from the Museo del Prado.

Patinir’s Influence

Patinir’s Influence
Saint Christopher
Follower of van Eyck
Oil on panel. c. 1440-1450. 29.5 x 21.1 cm.
Philadelphia Museum of Art.

The exhibition closes with a room of works that reveal the enormous impact of Patinir’s work on that of his contemporaries. These artists include Quinten Massys (1466-1530), Bernard van Orley (ca.1488-1541), and Joos van Cleve (died in 1540/1541), as well as artists of the next generation such as Herri Met de Bles (ca.1510-after 1550), and Jan van Amstel (ca.1500-ca.1542).

The entire exhibition project, including the preliminary research, restoration of works to be featured and the publication of the two volumes that accompany the exhibition, has been sponsored by Acciona. This company has recently joined the Museum’s corporate membership scheme as a Benefactor with a contribution of 2.5 million Euros that will be used to develop the curatorial and restoration programme at the Museum over the next four years.

Artworks

1

St. Christopher

Jan van Eyck's follower

Oil on panel, 29 x 21 cm

c. 1465

Philadelphia, Philadelphia Museum of Art, John G. Johnson Collection

5

Triptych with the Virgin and Chile in a landscape

Master of the Grog Madona

Oil on panel, 116 x 146 cm

Last quarter of the XVth century

Burgos, Museo Diocesano-Catedralicio

7

Scene in a Forest, exterior of the doors of the Nativity Triptych

Gerard David

Oil on panel, 90 x 60 cm

c. 1505-1515

The Hague, Mauritshuis on loan from Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

10

Hercules at the Crossroads

Albrecht Dürer

Engraving, 32.3 x 22.4 cm

c. 1498

Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional

11

Saint Eustace

Albrecht Dürer

Engraving, 34.8 x 24.1 cm

Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional

12

St. Jerome in the Desert

Albrecht Dürer

Engraving, 36 x 26 cm

c. 1496

Madrid, Fundación Casa de Alba

13

Book of the Seven Deadly Sins

Anonymous artist

Illuminated manuscript

Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional

14

Saint Christopher

Lieven Van Lathem

Illuminated manuscript

1469

Los Angeles, The J. Paul Getty Museum

15

Horas Vostre Demeure

Master of the Dresden prayerbook

Illuminated manuscript

c. 1475-1480

Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional

16

The Hours of William Lord Hastings

Master of Mary Burgundy

Illuminated manuscript

End of the 1470s

Madrid, Fundación Lazaro Galdiano

17

Landscape with St. Jerome

Joachim Patinir

Oil on panel, 13 x 17 cm

c. 1505-1510

Karlsruhe, Staatliche Kunsthalle

18

Landscape with the Martyrdom of St Catherine

Joachim Patinir

Oil on panel, 27.1 x 44.1 cm

c. 1515

Viena, Kunsthistorisches Museum

19

Triptych with the Penitence of St Jerome, the Baptism of Christ and the Temptations of St. Anthony

Joachim Patinir

Oil on panel, 127 x 81 (central panel); 127 x 44 cm (lateral panels)

c. 1515-1516

New York, The Metropolitan Museum, Fletcher Fund 1936

20

Landscape with the Preaching of St John the Baptist

Joachim Patinir

Oil on panel, 36 x 45 cm

c. 1515-1518

Brussels, Musée Royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique

21

Landscape with the Flight into Egypt

Joachim Patinir

Oil on panel, 18.3 x 22.4 cm

c. 1516-1517

Antwerp, Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten

23

Landscape with St Jerome

Patinir and his workshop

Oil on panel, 25 x35 cm

c. 1517-1524

Zurich, Kunsthaus

24

Landscape with Mary Magdalene

Patinir and his workshop

Oil on panel, 26.2 x 36 cm

c. 1517-1524

Zurich, Kunsthaus

25

Triptych with St Jerome, St John, St Anthony and Mary Magdalene

Patinir and his workshop

Oil on panel, 90 x 89 cm (central panel); 90 x 38 (lateral panels)

c. 1517-1524

Paris, private collection

27

Landscape with the Assumption of the Virgin

Patinir and his workshop

Oil on panel, 62.2 x 59.1 cm

Philadelphia, Philadelphia Museum of Art, John G. Johnson Collection

28

Landscape with the Flight into Egypt

Patinir and his workshop

Oil on panel, 31.5 x 57.5 cm

c. 1518-1524

Madrid, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza

29

Landscape with the Rest in the Flight into Egypt (fragment)

Patinir and his workshop

Oil on panel, 27 x 23 cm

c. 1518-1524

Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen

30

Landscape with the Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah

Joachim Patinir

Oil on panel, 23 x 29.5 cm

c. 1520-1521

Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen

31

Landscape with the Crucifixion

Attributed to Joachim Patinir

Oil on panel, 17 x 21 cm

c. 1520-1524

Madrid, private collection

32

Landscape with St Jerome

Attributed to Joachim Patinir

Oil on panel, 17 cm (diameter)

c. 1520-1524

Antwerp, Museum Mayer van den Bergh

34

Landscape with St Christopher

Joachim Patinir

Oil on panel, 127 x 172 cm

c. 1520-1524

Patrimonio Nacional, Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo de El Escorial

36

Landscape with the Baptism of Christ

Joachim Patinir

Oil on panel, 60.1 x 76.8 cm

c. 1521-1524

Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum

37

Landscape with the Meeting of Sts Anthony and Paul in the Wilderness

Joachim Patinir

Oil on panel, 28,8 x 37.3 cm

c. 1521-1524

Germany, private collection

38

St Jerome in a Rocky Landscape

Patinir and his workshop

Oil on panel, 36 x 34 cm

c. 1522-1524

Londres, The National Gallery, bequeathed by Mrs. Henry Oppenheimer

39

The Virgin and Chile with Saints Elizabeth and John the Baptist

Quentin Metsys

Oil on panel, 61 x 48 cm

Williamstown, The Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute

41

Rest on the Flight into Egypt

Joos Van Cleve

Oil on panel, 54 x 67.5 cm

c. 1520-1525

Brussels, Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique

43

Triptych with St Jerome, Rest on the Flight into Egypt and St Anthony of Padua

Simon Bening

Parchment, 29 x 64 cm

c. 1530

Patrimonio Nacional, Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo de El Escorial

44

Landscape with the Scenes of the Life of St John

Master of the half-length figures

Oil on panel, 31.x 73 cm

Uppsala, Uppsala University Art Collections

45

Preaching of St John the Baptist

Herri Met de Bles

Oil on panel, 86 x 120 cm

Brussels, Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique

46

The Entry of Christ into Jerusalem

Jan Van Amstel

Oil on panel, 83 x 102 cm

c. 1540

Stuttgart, Staatsgalerie

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