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The Hermitage in the Prado

Madrid 11/8/2011 - 4/8/2012

The Hermitage in the Prado, an exhibition of 120 works that together reveal the enormous variety and splendour of the collections housed in the Russian museum. Ranging from the 5th century BC to the 20th century, these collections encompass remarkable archaeological items, examples of the decorative arts and the museum's outstanding holdings of paintings, sculptures and drawings, together making the Hermitage one of the world's leading art institutions. The exhibition, organised by the Museo del Prado, Acción Cultural Española (AC/E) and the State Hermitage Museum and sponsored by Fundación BBVA, is the first time that such a large and comprehensive selection of works has been loaned from the Hermitage and as such represents a unique opportunity for visitors.

Comprising almost ninety works from the Hermitage's celebrated collections of painting, drawing and sculpture, together with a similar number of items from its unparalleled holdings of archaeological items and the decorative arts, in addition to court dress and furniture, the exhibition The Hermitage in the Prado is the second part of an unprecedented exchange of collections that has taken place between these two great museums. It was launched earlier this year with the exhibition The Prado in the Hermitage, held in Saint Petersburg. Again co-organised with AC/E, it became the most successful exhibition in the Hermitage's history with more than 600,000 visitors. The two exhibitions fall within the framework of Spain-Russia Year 2011.

Located in a complex of palace buildings on the banks of the River Neva and primarily in the Winter Palace, the residence of Catherine the Great in the eighteenth century, the State Hermitage Museum of Saint Petersburg is one of the world's largest and most spectacular museums. It collections range from Pharaonic Egypt, the Siberian nomadic cultures and the Greco-Roman world to Italian Renaissance art, Neo-classical sculpture and the paintings of Picasso and Matisse. The collecting activities of the czars, starting with Peter the Great (1672-1725), combined with that of various early 20th-century private collectors of avant-garde art, have ensured that the Hermitage's holdings are truly encyclopaedic.

The exhibition, which is curated by the Hermitage's director Mikhail Piotrovsky, temporarily converts the Prado's galleries into a “Small Hermitage”, offering the visiting public the chance to discover not only the magnificent works of art and archaeology housed in this great Russian museum, of which the present exhibition offers a comprehensive selection, but also the history of the building itself. The exhibition therefore opens with portraits of Peter the Great, Catherine the Great and Nicholas I, which are shown alongside splendid views of the Winter Palace's interiors and the surrounding area, as well as a selection of furniture and examples of court dress.

Paintings to be loaned to the Prado include major compositions such as Saint Sebastian by Titian, The Lute Player by Caravaggio, Saint Sebastian by Ribera, andThree Men at a Table by Velázquez. Two important works by Rembrandt, Portrait of a Scholar and Haman accepts his Fate are also on display. Drawings on loan include works by Dürer, Rubens, Watteau and Ingres, while sculptures include the terracotta study by Bernini for The Ecstasy of Saint Theresa and one of Antonio Canova's masterpieces, Mary Magdalen in meditation. The exhibition also has notable examples of the Impressionist and Post-Impressionist paintings in the Hermitage, including works by Monet, Cézanne, Renoir, Gauguin and Matisse, the latter represented by The Game of Bowls andConversation. There are three canvases by Picasso, including Seated Woman and The Absinth Drinker, while this section will be completed with two Russian avant-garde abstract works, Composition VI by Kandinsky and Malevich's enigmatic Black Painting.

Among the highlights from the Hermitage's archaeological collections are the Comb with Battle Scene, a Scythian work from the 4th century BC, and the pieces of Siberian jewellery that came to the Museum from Peter the Great's collection. Among the decorative works of art to be shown in Madrid are the sword embellished with silver, rubies and diamonds that was given to the Czar in the 18th century by the Indian Ambassador, and the Vase of Flowers in rock crystal, gold and diamonds by Carl Fabergé (1846-1920), jeweller to the Imperial family.

Curator:
Mikhail Piotrovsky. Director of The State Hermitage Museum
Supported by:
Fundación BBVA
Co-organizer by:
The State Hermitage Museum
The bi-lateral Spain-Russia Year 2011
Acción Cultural Española
Museo Nacional del Prado

Multimedia

Exhibition

The Imperial founders of the Hermitage

The Imperial founders of the Hermitage
Peter I
Enrico Belli after an original by Godfrey Kneller (1646-1723)
Oil on canvas, 239.7 x 147.5 cm. Mid-19th century
San Petersburgo, State Hermitage Museum

The Hermitage holdings are principally the result of the collecting of Peter the Great (r. 1682-1725), the founder of St Petersburg, his grand-daughter by marriage, Catherine the Great (r. 1762-1796), and her grandson, Nicholas I (r. 1825-1855). All three are shown here in full-length portraits.

Peter consolidated the autocratic power of the Tsars, modernizing Russia and raising it to the status of a European power. He travelled to Germany, the Netherlands, Britain and Austria and sought to 'westernize' aspects of Russian life and government. He reformed the army and built the Russian navy. He founded the first museum in the new capital, the Kunstkámera or cabinet of curiosities, part of whose collections are now in the Hermitage.

Catherine II was a German princess who married Tsar Peter III and became empress after a coup in 1762. She was quick-witted, intelligent and an avid reader of Voltaire and the philosophers of the French Enlightenment, some of whose ideas she tried to implement in Russia. She loved music, theatre and art and laid the foundations of the Hermitage's superb picture gallery, acquiring entire collections from Russia and western Europe and commissioning works from artists like Chardin and Wright of Derby.

The complex of buildings which makes up the Hermitage was completed by Nicholas I who constructed the New Hermitage alongside the Imperial residence opening it to the public in 1852.

Saint Petersburg and the Hermitage

Saint Petersburg and the Hermitage
The Library of the Hermitage
Alekséi Vasílievich Tiranov (1808-1859)
1826. Oil on canvas, 94 x 73,1 cm.
San Petersburgo, State Hermitage Museum

Built on the banks of the river Neva in St Petersburg, the Hermitage is both a palace and a museum. Peter the Great, who founded the city in 1703, established a first Winter Palace which was later replaced by the magnificent building we see today, constructed between 1754 and 1762 to the designs of the Italian architect, Rastrelli. Catherine the Great added the adjacent Small and Large (or Old) Hermitages to house the imperial art collections (1771-87). The use of the French word ermitage, meaning a place of solitude or retreat, reflected the private nature of these collections. The Hermitage Theatre, built in the 1780s, and the New Hermitage, constructed by Nicholas I in the mid-nineteenth century, completed the Museum complex.

The history of the Hermitage as an art museum begins in 1764 with Catherine's acquisition of the paintings collection of the Berlin merchant, Gotzkowsky. This was followed by the purchase of the Parisian Crozat collection, and those of the former Prime Ministers of Saxony and Great Britain, Count Brühl and Robert Walpole. In the nineteenth century the collections of the Empress Josephine Bonaparte and those of William II of the Netherlands were also acquired.

Meanwhile the library, and the archeological and numismatic collections were growing. In 1917 following the Russian Revolution, the Museum became a state institution and several private collections were nationalized, notably those of Impressionist and Avant-garde Parisian painting formed by Schukin and Morozov.

Today the Hermitage collections continue to grow and the Museum is engaged in an ambitious programme of expansion in St Petersburg, it has established several outposts in Russia and outside (Vyborg, Amsterdam and Ferrara, for example), as well as significant international research and exhibition collaborations.

The gold of the Eurasian nomads

The gold of the Eurasian nomads
Comb with battle scene
Gold, 12.6 x 10.2 cm. Late 5th – early 4th centuries BC. Northern Black Sea, mouth of the Dnieper.
San Petersburgo, State Hermitage Museum

During the first millennium BC the vast region of the Steppes, which extended from Hungary in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, was populated by nomadic tribes that buried their kings and great warriors in complex tomb structures with funerary chambers beneath burial mounds (kurgans). Between the 7th and the 3rd centuries BC Scythian nomads built sumptuous kurgans in southern Siberia in the region of the Altai mountains. They contained weapons and gold objects decorated in the 'animalistic style', as well as horses belonging to the deceased person, which had ornate bridles and saddles.

Scythian warriors crossed the Eurasian steppes in successive waves from east to west, establishing contact with the neighbouring civilisations of China, Assyria, Greece and Persia. In the 7th century BC they reached the frontier of Assyria after crossing the Caucasus and invading Western Asia in pursuit of the Cimmerians, a people that inhabited the steppes to the north of the Black Sea.

In the 5th to 4th centuries BC the Scythians settled in the Dnieper basin where their civilisation reached its height through contact with the Greek world. In the 3rd century BC this period was abruptly terminated by the arrival of the Sarmatians, a new wave of nomads from the east characterised by a very similar culture. They settled in the regions between the Don and the Danube and pushed the Scythians towards the Crimean peninsula.

The first Russian archaeological collection, known as the Siberian Collection of Peter I, was assembled in the first quarter of the eighteenth century. It includes objects pillaged from the ancient kurgans and others discovered during the earliest archaeological campaigns.

Greek Gold

Greek Gold
Pendant with the head of Athena Parthenos
Gold and enamel, 18.5 х 7.3 cm. 4th century BC. Kul-Oba tumulus (outskirts of Panticapea near Kerch, Eastern Crimea)
San Petersburgo, State Hermitage Museum

The Hermitage's collection of Greek goldsmiths' work contains ancient jewels of exceptional historical and artistic importance. They entered the Museum as acquisitions, personal gifts and donations as well as from official archaeological campaigns on the north coast of the Black Sea. Excavations were undertaken in this region from the late eighteenth century onwards following the annexation of the Crimean peninsula into Catherine II's empire in 1783 after the Russian-Turkish wars.

The year 1830 saw the chance discovery of the burial mound (kurgan) of Kul-Oba in the Kerch peninsula on the outskirts of Panticapaeum, former capital of the kingdom of Bosphorus. The richness and abundance of jewellery found in the tomb indicate that the bodies in the funerary chamber were those of members of the aristocratic elite. The jewels comprised a magnificent group of Greek and Scythian toreutic objects (metal worked in relief ) from the 4th century BC.

In an attempt to stop the pillaging of the kurgans, Nicholas I decided to regulate excavations and in 1859 the Imperial Archaeological Commission was established to supervise archaeological campaigns in Russia. New finds began to be studied and explorations extended to the banks of the Dnieper and the Taman peninsula. It was here that the Artyukhov kurgan was discovered, which contained 2nd-century BC objects that reflected the influence of oriental craftsmen on Greek goldsmiths' work during the Hellenistic period as a result of Alexander the Great's expeditions. In comparison to the decoration of the classical period, in which smooth surfaces were combined with others covered in filigree, the principal characteristic of Hellenistic period jewellery is the use of polychromy, an effect achieved with inset stones, of which garnets were particularly popular.

Painting, sculpture and drawings

Painting, sculpture and drawings
The Fall of Haman (Haman is commanded to honour Mordecai)
Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn. Oil on canvas, 128 x 116.5 cm. 1660 - 1665.
San Petersburgo, State Hermitage Museum

The Hermitage has remarkably rich holdings of western European fine arts: paintings, drawings, prints and sculptures dating from the thirteenth to the twentieth century. Peter I contributed the first Rembrandt and his successors, notably Catherine II and Alexander I, acquired entire collections both in Russia and abroad to fill the grandiose spaces of their palaces. Well represented are Dutch and Flemish seventeenth-century painting (Rubens, Van Dyck, Rembrandt and Hals) and Italian and Spanish Baroque, acquired through diplomats and artistic agents in Berlin, London, Paris and Amsterdam.

The selection of works shown here is of particularly high quality and includes masterpieces from the Hermitage, among them Titian's late Saint Sebastian, bought in Venice in 1850, and Caravaggio's Lute Player, painted for the Marchese Vincenzo Giustiniani and acquired in Paris in 1808. Spanish paintings include works by Velázquez, El Greco and Ribera, while among the Dutch paintings on display are two works by Rembrandt, and an impressive still life by Willem Kalf. The acquisition in Paris in 1772 of the spectacular collection of Pierre Crozat, Louis XV's finance minister, laid the foundations for the superb representation in the Hermitage of French art.

On display here are works by Champaigne, Poussin, Le Nain and Boucher, together with drawings by Claude and Watteau. The earliest works are a drawing by Dürer and a sculpture of a mythological subject by the Venetian, Antonio Lombardo, both dating from the 1510s. Among seventeenth-century sculptures is Bernini's terracotta modello of the Ecstasy of Saint Theresa, a demonstration of the artist's technical bravura.

The Hermitage: the setting for the court

The Hermitage: the setting for the court
Ceremonial Court Dress in red Velvet and white Silk
Saint Petersburg, maison 'Izambard Chanceau'. Velvet, silk, lace and gold thread. Second half of the 19th century.
San Petersburgo, State Hermitage Museum

The Russian court was characterised by Eastern luxury and European refinement. The grandeur and Baroque ornateness of the State rooms designed by Rastrelli for the Winter Palace (remodelled in a more monumental, classical style by Giacomo Quarenghi in 1790 and restored by Vasily Stasov and Alexander Briullov after the great fire in 1837) reflect the splendour of the Imperial court. Guests and ambassadors at official ceremonies ascended the Ceremonial Staircase, subsequently renamed the Jordan Staircase, which impressed them with its striking effects of light and the gleam of gilt. This staircase led up to the reception rooms where official events and solemn ceremonies took place, as well as theatrical performances and musical soirées.

In emulation of the court at Versailles, Catherine the Great built the Small Hermitage which hosted receptions where favoured guests enjoyed the arts and relaxed conversation. She also introduced the fashion for luxury clothing in the Russian style made with velvet and brocades and adorned with jewels and semiprecious stones of a type that provoked surprise among foreign visitors. Catherine's court became a meeting place for numerous European monarchs and illustrious figures of the period. All court activities were governed by strict protocol and there were rules on uniforms, dress and accessories. In the nineteenth century the Emperor Nicholas I stipulated the cut, colours, cloth and decorative motifs for the formal dresses worn by women on ceremonial occasions. These specifications were maintained with few significant changes until the demise of the monarchy in 1917.

Eighteenth-century painting and sculpture

Eighteenth-century painting and sculpture
The penitent Magdalen
Antonio Canova
Marble, 92 x 74 x 78 cm.
San Petersburgo, State Hermitage Museum

The Hermitage is principally an eighteenth-century construction and in its architecture and decoration it reflects the optimism of Enlightened absolutism, a paradoxical mixture of ancien régime splendour and progressive political policies. The building combines late Baroque and Neoclassical styles, and it is entirely fitting that it should house not only the library of Voltaire, acquired after his death by Catherine the Great, but also a splendid collection of eighteenth-century European painting and sculpture, including two effigies of the philosopher by Houdon. One of these, a bust, is shown here.

Catherine purchased the collection of the Saxon Prime Minister, Count Brühl, in 1769. It comprised about a thousand drawings, nearly six hundred paintings and a large group of prints. The painting of the Kreuzkirche in Dresden by Bernardo Bellotto, who was court painter in the city, had originally been commissioned by Brühl. Mengs's large mythological allegory of Perseus and Andromeda (1778) was painted for an English patron but was acquired by the Empress in 1780. She commissioned, directly from the artist, Chardin's The Attributes of the Arts and their Rewards for the St Petersburg Academy of Fine Arts but could not resist keeping it for her own contemplation.

The Hermitage houses one of the finest collections of Neoclassical sculpture in the world, notably statues and busts by the Italian, Antonio Canova, and the Dane, Thorvaldsen. The Penitent Magdalene is one of Canova's most sensual and moving early sculptures. Alexander I sat to Thorvaldsen for his marble bust in Warsaw in 1820. He was so pleased with the results that a contemporary recalls that the Emperor broke protocol and embraced the artist.

Western and Asian Decorative Arts

Western and Asian Decorative Arts
Large hairpin with landscape
Gold, filigree, silver, rubies, sapphires and painting, 22 x 27 cm China, Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), 16th to 17th centuries.
San Petersburgo, State Hermitage Museum

The origins of the Asian treasures in the Hermitage lie in the collections of Imperial jewels and precious objects. The Russian monarchs' palaces were embellished with diplomatic gifts and objects acquired from the luxury goods market. Peter the Great steered the court towards European taste, summoning Russian and western European craftsmen in response to the increasing demand for luxury associated with the new court etiquette. The Tsar assembled a Cabinet of Curiosities of rare natural objects, jewels and works of art in emulation of other European monarchs. Peter's daughter, Elizabeth Petrovna, acquired examples of goldsmiths' work from the principal European markets and in Saint Petersburg.

Notable acquisitions of this period include the objects made by the Swiss artist Jérémie Pauzié for the court and the city's aristocracy. Housed beneath her apartments in the Winter Palace was Catherine the Great's collection of Oriental gold and silver filigree, which she referred to as her 'Museum', unique in its variety and content. She also installed a 'Diamonds Room' that housed a wide range of jewels and precious objects made by European craftsmen who had settled in Saint Petersburg, including Jean-Pierre Ador and Jean-Louis David Duval. The most valuable objects from these collections were later displayed to the public in the 'Treasure Gallery', which constituted a separate museum of goldsmiths' work within the Imperial Hermitage created by Nicholas I.

The collection of jewels continued to expand during the nineteenth century through acquisitions and gifts and included modern pieces by René Lalique and the house of Fabergé.

The nineteenth- and twentieth-century art collections

The nineteenth- and twentieth-century art collections
Woman in a black Hat
Kees van Dongen
Oil on canvas, 100 x 81.5 cm. 1908
San Petersburgo, State Hermitage Museum

In the early years of the twentieth century the Hermitage notably lacked collections of nineteenth- and twentieth-century art. This situation was remedied after the 1917 Revolution when the great imperial, aristocratic and private collections were nationalised. Important works such as Friedrich's paintings from the imperial Cottage Palace and Rodin's sculptures from the Eliseev family's palace passed directly from their previous locations to the Hermitage. Others, such as Ingres' Portrait of Count Nikolai Guriev, entered the State Museums Fund from where they were specifically selected to complete the Hermitage's collections. The absence of Impressionist and European avantgarde works was remedied at a later date, in 1948, following the closure of the State Museum of Western Art in Moscow, which had principally housed the avant-garde art collections of the two muscovite collectors, Sergei Schukin and Ivan Morozov.

The Hermitage's holdings of modern art have continued to grow through donations, including the group of works by Matisse given by his friend Lydia Delektorskaya in 1971, and by major acquisitions such as Beethoven, Large Tragic Mask by Bourdelle, which entered the Museum in 1973. Numerous other avant-garde works, including Soutine'sSelf-portrait, were acquired through the mediation of President Boris Yeltsin in 1996. More recently, in 2002, the Russian State purchased Malevich's Black Square.

Sergei Sckukin and Ivan Morozov

Sergei Sckukin and Ivan Morozov
Black Square
Kazimir Malevich
Oil on canvas, 53.5 x 53.5 cm Ca. 1932
San Petersburgo, State Hermitage Museum

The Hermitage's collections of late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century art largely derive from the collecting activities of two muscovite businessmen: Sergei Schukin (1854-1936) and Ivan Morozov (1871-1912). Wealthy, cultured and fascinated by modern art, both men assembled important collections in an almost parallel manner after they became acquainted with Impressionist painting during their trips to Paris. Starting with the purchase of his first Monet at the end of the nineteenth century, Schukin went on to acquire avantgarde art up to Cubism, primarily focusing on Gauguin, Picasso and Matisse, whose most important patron he became. His collection of more than two hundred works was open to the public and had a significant influence on the early Russian avant-garde movements and on artists such as Kazimir Malevich. Ivan Morozov began to acquire Impressionist paintings in the early years of the twentieth century, among them Monet's Pond at Montgeron on display here. Above all he favoured Cézanne and acquired a large number of his works including Blue Landscape. Both collections were nationalised after the Revolution and were united to create the State Museum of Western Art in Moscow. After World War II its collections were divided between the Hermitage and the Pushkin State Museum for Fine Arts in Moscow.

Artworks

1

Peter I

Enrico Belli after an original by Godfrey Kneller (1646-1723)

Oil on canvas, 239.7 x 147.5 cm

Mid-19th century

 

2

Catherine II

Giovanni Battista Lampi I (1751-1830)

Oil on canvas, 290 x 208 cm

1793. Signed and dated

3

Nicholas I

Anonymous painter after an original by Yegor Botman

Oil on canvas, 263 x 199 cm

Mid-19th century

 

4

Pair of Armchairs from the Winter Palace

Saint Petersburg. Designed by Carlo Rossi

Conifer and birch wood; carved and gilded. Modern upholstery

Ca. 1819

5

Pair of Armchairs from the Anichkov Palace

Saint Petersburg. Designed by Carlo Rossi

Conifer and birch wood; carved and gilded. Modern upholstery

1817

6

View of the Palace Courtyard and the Winter Palace from the Start of Nevsky Prospect

Benjamin Patersson (1750-1815)

Oil on canvas, 64.7 x 99.4 cm

1801. Signed and dated

7

The Embankment of Vasilievsky Island and the Fine Arts Academy

Benjamin Patersson (1750-1815)

Oil on canvas, 64.5 x 93.5 cm

Ca. 1799

8

View of the Palace Courtyard and the Winter Palace from the Start of Nevsky Prospect

Benjamin Patersson (1750-1815)

Oil on canvas, 64.7 x 99.4 cm

1801. Signed and dated

9

View of the Taurida Palace from the Garden

Benjamin Patersson (1750-1815)

Oil on canvas, 57.5 x 89.5 cm

Before 1797

10

View of Sennaya Square

Benjamin Patersson (1750-1815)

Oil on canvas, 58 x 90 cm

Before 1797

11

Sadovaya Street with the Cathedral of Saint Nicholas and the Market

Benjamin Patersson (1750-1815)

Oil on canvas, 69 x 89 cm

Ca. 1800. Signed and dated

12

The Library of the Hermitage

Aleksei Vasilievich Tyranov (1808-1859)

Oil on canvas, 94 x 73.1 cm

1826

13

Perspectival View of the Military Gallery

Grigori Grigorievich Chernetsov (1802-1865)

Oil on canvas, 121 x 93 cm

1827

14

View of the Rotunda of the Winter Palace

Yefim Tujarinov

Oil on canvas, 104 x 81 cm

1834. Signed

15

View of the Empress Maria Fyodorovna’s Throne Room in the Winter Palace

Yevgraf Fyodorovich Krendovski (1810-after 1853)

Oil on canvas, 91.5 x 120 cm

1830 - 1835

16

View of the Room of Peter the Great (The Small Throne Room)

Sergey Konstantinovich Zarianko (1818-1870)

Oil on canvas, 85.8 x 109.5 cm

1837. Signed

17

View of the Pavilion Room in the Small Hermitage

Piotr Vasilievich Tutukin (1813-1900)

Oil on canvas, 119 x 151.2 cm

1857

18

Pair of jasper Vases

Russia, Peterhof Lapidary Workshop

Orsk jasper, bronze

Early 19th century

19

Belt buckle with a fighting gryphon, tiger and yak

Gold and turquoises, 10 x 15.1  cm

4th to 3rd centuries BC

Peter I’s Siberian Collection

20

Belt buckle with a monster attacking a horse

Gold, 8.2 x 12.3 cm

4th to 3rd centuries BC

Peter I’s Siberian Collection

21

Belt buckle with a tiger and fantastical beast fighting

Gold, 10 x 16.8 cm

4th to 3rd centuries BC

Peter I’s Siberian Collection

22

Spiral arm-band with zoomorphic figures

Gold, Diameter, 10 cm

4th to 3rd centuries BC

Peter I’s Siberian Collection

23

Spiral torque with zoomorphic figures

Gold, turquoises and glass paste, Diameter, 33 cm

4th to 3rd centuries BC

Peter I’s Siberian Collection

24

Torque with predatory animal terminals

Gold and turquoises, Diameter, 25 cm

5th to 3rd centuries BC

Peter I’s Siberian Collection

25

Vessel with zoomorphic handles

Gold, Diameter, 16 cm; height, 10.2 cm

5th to 4th centuries BC

Peter I’s Siberian Collection

26

Phalera (piece of horse harness)

Gold and turquoises, Diameter, 12.3 cm

3rd to 1st centuries BC

Peter I’s Siberian Collection

27

Decorative element with a gryphon attacking a goat

Gold and enamel, 15.6 х 16 cm

4th to 3rd centuries BC

Peter I’s Siberian Collection

28

Belt buckle with figures beneath a tree

Gold, 12.3 x 16.1 cm

5th to 4th centuries BC

Peter I’s Siberian Collection

29

Plaque-hair ornament with fantastic beast

Gold, 4.3 x 7.6 cm

5th to 3rd centuries BC

Peter I’s Siberian Collection

30

Comb with battle scene

Gold, 12.6 x 10.2 cm

Late 5th – early 4th centuries BC

Northern Black Sea, mouth of the Dnieper

31

32

33

Flask with zoomorphic figures

Gold, coral and paste, Height, 7 cm; diameter (body) 5.8 cm

1st century AD

Jojlach kurgan, Rostovskaia Oblast, city of Novocherkassk

34

Pair of jasper Vases

Russia, Peterhof Lapidary Workshop

Orsk jasper, bronze

Early 19th century

35

Bracelet with deer and gryphons

Gold, Diameter, 8 cm; height, 5.6 cm

4th century BC

Kul-Oba tumulus (outskirts of Panticapea near Kerch, Eastern Crimea)

36

37

Phiale (libation vessel)

Gold, 23 x 2.5 cm

4th century BC

Kul-Oba tumulus (outskirts of Panticapea near Kerch, Eastern Crimea)

38

Pendant with the head of Athena Parthenos

Gold and enamel, 18.5 х 7.3 cm

4th century BC

Kul-Oba tumulus (outskirts of Panticapea near Kerch, Eastern Crimea)

39

Earring with pendant element in the form of a boat

Gold and enamel, Height, 9.1 cm

4th century BC

Kul-Oba tumulus (outskirts of Panticapea near Kerch, Eastern Crimea)

40

Diadem with knot of Hercules

Gold, almandine garnet, glass and enamel, Diameter, 20 cm

2nd century BC

Artiujov tumulus (Taman Peninsula, between the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea)

41

Bead necklace

Gold, almandine garnets and amber, Length, 47.5 cm

2nd century BC

Artiujov tumulus (Taman Peninsula, between the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea)

42

Earrings with pendant elements in the form of a dove

Gold, grossular, glass and enamel, Height, 6.3 and 6.5 cm

2nd century BC

Artiujov tumulus (Taman Peninsula, between the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea)

43

Pin with pendant element

Gold, almandine garnet, cornelian, beryl, glass, glass paste and enamel, Pin length, 7.7 cm; Pendant length, 7.2 cm

2nd century BC

Artiujov tumulus (Taman Peninsula, between the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea)

44

Ring with the top in the form of a sole

Gold, almandine garnet and glass paste, Diameter, 2.5 cm

2nd century BC

Artiujov tumulus (Taman Peninsula, between the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea)

45

The Virgin and Child

Albrecht Dürer

Charcoal on paper, 425 x 242 mm

Ca. 1515

46

Philoctetes

Antonio Lombardo

White marble with coloured inlays, 40 x 22.2 x 6.4 cm

Ca. 1510

47

Faun

Baccio Bandinelli (?)

Marble, 76 x 42 x 40 cm

1540 - 1549

48

Charles IX of France

François Clouet

Black and red chalk on paper, 331 x 225 mm

1566

49

Rest on the Flight into Egypt with Saint Justina

Lorenzo Lotto

Oil on canvas, 83 x 103.5 cm

1529 - 1530

(exhibited until 25 March)

50

Saint Sebastian

Tiziano Vecellio

Oil on canvas, 210 x 115.5 cm

Ca. 1576

51

Lamentation over the Body of the dead Christ

Paolo Cagliari, known as Veronese

Oil on canvas, 147 x 112 cm

1576 - 1580

52

The Holy Women at the Tomb of the Risen Christ

Annibale Carracci

Oil on canvas, 121 x 145.5 cm

1597 - 1598

 

53

Lute Player

Caravaggio (Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio)

Oil on canvas, 94 x 119 cm

1595 - 1596

54

Saint Peter and Saint Paul

El Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulos)

Oil on canvas, 121.5 х 105 cm

1587 - 1592

55

Tavern Scene

Diego Velázquez

Oil on canvas, 108.5 x 102 cm

Ca. 1617

56

Saint Sebastian attended by the Holy Women

José de Ribera

Oil on canvas, 156.5 x 188 cm

1628

57

Still Life

Antonio Pereda

Oil on canvas, 80 x 94 cm

1652

58

Witches with a Cat

Jacob de Gheyn

Pen and grey-brown ink on paper, 244 x 153 mm

Ca. 1610

59

Winter Landscape with Skaters on the Ice

Jan Brueghel the Elder

Black chalk, pen and grey-brown ink and blue-grey wash on paper,192 x 270 mm

1611

60

Study of the ancient sculpture known as the “African Fisherman” or “Seneca”

Peter Paul Rubens

Black chalk with touches of red chalk on paper, 460 x 320 mm

1601 - 1608

61

Landscape with a Wagon carrying Stones

Peter Paul Rubens

Oil on canvas (originally on panel, transferred to canvas in 1823), 86 х 126.5 cm

Ca. 1615 - 1620

62

Pieter Brueghel the Younger

Anthony van Dyck

Black chalk on paper, 230 x 190 mm

1628 - 1632

63

Henry Danvers, Earl of Danby, as a Knight of the Order of the Garter

Anthony van Dyck

Oil on canvas, 223 х 130.6 cm

Late 1630s

64

Portrait of a Scholar

Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn

Oil on canvas, 104 x 92 cm

1631

65

The Fall of Haman (Haman is commanded to honour Mordecai)

Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn

Oil on canvas, 128 x 116.5 cm

1660 - 1665

66

Portrait of a Man

Frans Hals

Oil on canvas, 80 x 66.5 cm

Ca. 1640

67

Guard Dog

Paulus Potter

Oil on canvas, 96.5 х 132 cm

Ca.1650 - 1652

68

Still Life with Glasses and Fruit

Willem Kalf

Oil on canvas, 105 х 87.5 cm

1653 - 1654

69

The Doctor’s Visit

Gabriel Metsu

Oil on canvas, 61.5 х 47.5 cm

1660 - 1665

70

Visiting Grandmother

Louis Le Nain

Oil on canvas, 58 x 73 cm

1645 - 1648

71

Moses with the Tablets of the Law

Philippe de Champaigne

Oil on canvas, 91.5 x 74.5 cm

1648

72

Landscape

Claude Lorrain (Claude Gellée)

Pen, brown ink and wash on paper, 184 x 282 mm

1636 - 1638

73

The Ecstasy of Saint Theresa

Gian Lorenzo Bernini

Terracotta, 45 x 35 x 22 cm

Ca. 1647

74

Rest on the Flight into Egypt

Nicolas Poussin

Oil on canvas, 106 x 146 cm

1657

75

Ambassador Piotr Ivanovich Potemkin

Godfrey Kneller

Oil on canvas, 135 х 103.5 cm

1681 - 1682

76

Porphyry Vase

1851 - 1854

Russia, Kolyvan workshop

The Hermitage, Setting for the Court

77

Ceremonial Court Dress in red Velvet and white Silk

Saint Petersburg, maison “Izambard Chanceau”

Velvet, silk, lace and gold thread

Second half of the 19th century

78

Uniform of a General of the Household Cavalry Hussars

Dolman, pelisse and breeches

Between 1816 and 1855

Russia

79

Insignia and Star of the Order of Saint Andrew

Russia, Saint Petersburg

Gold silver, pink diamonds and rubies

Ca. 1800

80

Surtout de table

Pierre-Phillipe Thomire

Paris, gilt bronze, glass, marble

Last quarter of the 18th – first quarter of the 19th century

81

Pair of rhodonite Vases

Russia, Ekaterinburg Lapidary Workshop

1827

82

Study of a Head of a Woman

Antoine Watteau

Black and red chalk with white highlights on paper, 330 x 230 mm

1710 – 1719

83

Pastoral Scene

François Boucher

Oil on canvas, 61 x 75 cm (oval)

1740 – 1749

84

The Attributes of the Arts and their Rewards

Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin

Oil on canvas, 112 x 140.5 cm

1766

85

The Kreuzkirche in Dresden

Bernardo Bellotto

Oil on canvas, 197 x 187 cm

1751 - 1752

86

Mercury crowning Philosophy, Mother of the Arts

Роmрeо Girolamo Batoni

Oil on canvas, 120 x 89.5 cm

1747

87

Perseus and Andromeda

Anton Raphael Mengs

Oil on canvas, 227 x 153 cm

1778

88

Voltaire

Jean-Antoine Houdon

Marble, 60 x 52 x 34 cm

1778

89

Head of the Genius of Death

Antonio Canova

Marble, 86 x 36 x 38 cm

90

The penitent Magdalen

Antonio Canova

Marble, 92 x 74 x 78 cm

91

Alexander I of Russia

Bertel Thorvaldsen

Marble, 66 x 54 x 28 cm

1820

92

Casket

Silver, 22.8 x 37 x 21.8 cm

China (or Chinese artisans working in Portuguese or Spanish workshops in south-east Asia), first half or middle of the 17th century

93

Tray

Silver, Diameter, 25 cm

Chinese makers in south-east Asia or Goa, 17th century

94

Large hairpin with landscape

Gold, filigree, silver, rubies, sapphires and painting, 22 x 27 cm

China, Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), 16th to 17th centuries

95

Hairpin with flying Phoenix

Gold, silver, stones and painting, Height of the hairpin, 10 cm; length of the bird, 10 cm

China, 17th century

96

Vessel with handles in the form of a dragon

Silver gilt and enamel, Height, 28.5 cm; diameter, 7.5 cm

China, late 17th – early 18th century

97

Small box in the form of a crab on a leaf

Silver and silver gilt, Length of the crab, 18.5 cm; length of the leaf, 20 cm

China, ca.1740-60

98

Box in the form of a basket

Silver, silver gilt, silver filigree, watercolour, enamel, 19.5 x 24 x 18 cm

China, 1740-60

99

Small table

Gold, diamonds, rubies, emeralds, enamel and pearls, 10 x 23.7 x 23.7 cm

India, 17th century, signed by the goldsmith and jeweller Situram

100

Rose water sprinkler

India, 17th century

Gold, silver, diamonds, emeralds, rubies and pearls, Height, 28.7 cm

101

Tray

Gold, rubies, emeralds and enamel, Diameter, 28.7 cm

India, 17th century

102

Sword with scabbard

Steel, gold, silver, enamel, emeralds, diamonds, rubies and spinels, Length of sword, 92.5 cm; length of sheath, 85.7 cm

Iran, mid-19th century

103

Hat with jewelled plume

Gold, emeralds, rubies, spinels, pearls, glass, velvet, leather and feathers, Height with feathers, 34.5 cm; plume, 21.5 cm

Bukhara, Uzbekistan, second half of the 19th century

104

Jewelled plume

Gold, silver, diamonds, emeralds, precious stones, pearls, glass, paste and feathers

Plume, 28 x 5 х 9 cm; total length with feathers, 45 cm

Bukhara, Uzbekistan, second half of the 19th century

105

Belt

Gold, precious stones, glass, leather, velvet, paste and gold and silver thread

8 x 129 cm; width of the threads, 8.8 cm

Bukhara, Uzbekistan, second half of the 19th century

106

Pendant

Quartz, gold, enamel, 2.7 х 3.2 cm

London, 1590

107

Pendant with a caravel

Emeralds, gold and enamel, 9.3 х 6 cm

Spain, late 16th century

108

Casket of Eduvigis Jagellón

Silver, precious and semiprecious stones, pearls and enamel, 38.5 х 37 х 18.5 cm

Mark of Nuremberg; dated in 1533

Nuremberg (Germany), 1533

109

Watch with chain

Gold, silver, diamonds, glass, enamel, thin metal sheet and metal alloy

Diameter of the face, 4.6 cm; length, 17.4 cm

1760

Geneva, maker, Dunant

110

Pocket watch with chain

Gold, silver, diamonds, glass, enamel, metal alloy and cloth, Diameter of the face, 4.3 cm; length of the chain, 11.7 cm

Late 1770s – early 1780s

Saint Petersburg, Duval workshop: Louis-David Duval, Mikhail Heinrich Teriong and Sandoz

111

Snuff box with a portrait of the Empress Elizabeth I of Russia

Gold, enamel, diamonds, silver, gouache and glass, 5.2 х 10.1 х 7.1 cm

Saint Petersburg, late 1750s

112

Snuff box belonging to Frederick II, King of Prussia

Gold, diamonds and rubies, 4.7 х 9.6 х 7.9 cm

Ca. 1770

Potsdam (Germany), workshop of Frederick the Great

113

Chalice and paten

Gold, silver, pink diamonds, sapphires, emeralds, rubies, spinel, enamel, glass and steel

Chalice, 28 х 17 cm; diameter of the paten, 21.3 cm

1677

Saint Petersburg, Moscow Kremlin workshops

114

Vase-candelabra

Gold and enamel, Height, 25.5 cm; base, 7.8 х 7.8 cm

1775 - 1780

Saint Petersburg, Jean-Pierre Ador

115

Bouquet of flowers

Gold, silver, pink diamonds, emeralds, rubies, topazes, aquamarine, garnets, cacholong, turquoise, chrysolites, corals, agate, flint, hessonites, pyrope, rock crystal, glass and cloth

Flowers, 11.7 х 23 cm; vase, 8.5 х 5.5 cm

1740 - 1750

Saint Petersburg, Jérémie Pauzié

116

Bouquet of cornflowers with ears of corn in a vase

Gold, silver, diamonds, enamel and rock crystal, Height, 19 cm

Saint Petersburg, Fabergé workshop, ca.1900

117

Pair of porphyry vases

Rusia, Peterhog workshop

Porohyry, bronze

1830

118

Portrait of a young Woman

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres

Graphite on paper, 285 x 207 mm

1815

119

Count Nikolai Dimitrievich Guriev

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres

Oil on canvas, 107 х 86 cm

1821

120

Dawn in the Mountains

Caspar David Friedrich

Oil on canvas, 135 х 170 cm

1823

121

Moonrise: two Men on the Shore

Caspar David Friedrich

Graphite and grey-brown ink wash on paper, 245 x 345 mm

1835 – 1840

122

The Pond at Montgeron

Claude Monet

Oil on canvas, 174 x 194 cm

1876

123

Boy with a Riding Whip

Pierre-Auguste Renoir

Oil on canvas, 105 x 75 cm

1885

124

Te avae no Maria (The Month of Mary)

Paul Gauguin

Oil on canvas, 96 x 74.5 cm

1899

125

Ivan Ivanovich Schukin

Ignacio Zuloaga

Oil on canvas, 139 х 89 cm

1899

126

The Kiss of the Sphinx

Franz von Stuck

Charcoal, white highlights and pastel on grey paper, 520 x 460 mm

Ca. 1895

127

Eternal Spring

François-Auguste-René Rodin

Marble, 75.5 x 86 x 53.5 cm

1906

128

Blue Landscape

Paul Cézanne

Oil on canvas, 100.5 x 81 cm

Ca. 1904 - 1906

129

A Tiger attacking a Bull. In the tropical Forest

Henri Rousseau

Oil on canvas, 46 x 55 cm

Ca. 1908 -1909

130

The Absinthe Drinker

Pablo Picasso

Oil on canvas, 73 x 54 cm

1901

131

Boy with a Dog

Pablo Picasso

Wash of opaque pigments and pastel on brown card, 572 x 412 mm

1905

132

Seated Woman

Pablo Picasso

Oil on canvas, 150 x 100 cm

1908

133

Café Table (Bottle of Pernod)

Pablo Picasso

Oil on canvas, 46 x 33 cm

1912

134

Game of Skittles

Henri Matisse

Oil on canvas, 115 x 147 cm

1908

135

Conversation

Henri Matisse

Oil on canvas, 177 x 217 cm

1909 - 1912

136

Henriette III (Large smiling Head)

Henri Matisse

Bronze, 39.5 x 20 x 36 cm

1929

137

Woman in a black Hat

Kees van Dongen

Oil on canvas, 100 x 81.5 cm

1908

138

Girl dressed in black

André Derain

Oil on canvas, 116.5 x 89.3 cm

Ca. 1913

139

Beethoven, large Tragic Mask

Émile-Antoine Bourdelle

Bronze, 74 x 43 x 36 cm

1901

140

Self-portrait

Chaim Soutine

Oil on canvas, 54 x 30.5 cm

Ca. 1920 - 1921

141

Metaphysical Still life

Giorgio Morandi

Oil on canvas, 71.5 х 61.5 cm

1918

142

Prose of the Trans-Siberian and of Little Jehanne of France

Sonia Delaunay-Terk

Watercolour and typography with coloured inks, 1,980 x 355 mm

1913

143

Composition VI

Wassily Kandinsky

Oil on canvas, 194 x 300 cm

1913

144

Composition

Fernand Léger

Oil on canvas, 73 x 92 cm

1924

145

Black Square

Kazimir Malevich

Oil on canvas, 53.5 x 53.5 cm

Ca. 1932

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