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Exhibition Museo del Prado - Fundación BBVA

The other Renaissance. Spanish Artists in Naples in the early Cinquecento

Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid 10/18/2022 - 1/29/2023

On show in Rooms A and B of the Jerónimos Building until 20 January, this exhibition, organised by the Museo e Real Bosco di Capodimonte in Naples, the Museo Nacional del Prado and Fundación BBVA, offers a survey of one of the most productive and unknown chapters within European Renaissance culture, namely the transition of Spanish and southern Italian art towards the “modern manner”: the great art arising from the revolution brought about by Leonardo, Raphael and Michelangelo.

Entitled The other Renaissance. Spanish artists in Naples in the early Cinquecento, the exhibition includes 75 works (44 paintings, 25 sculptures, 5 books and an altarpiece) loaned from public and private collections in Spain and elsewhere. These works draw attention to a time frame (the early years of the 16th century), a place (Naples) and a series of figures (Spanish and Italian painters and sculptors) which together constitute an artistic context that has often been seen as secondary in relation to the great Renaissance centres of Rome and Florence but which had great significance within the broader political reality of the Spanish monarchy, as demonstrated by the subsequent activity in Spain of artists such as Pedro Machuca, Bartolomé Ordóñez, Diego de Siloe, Pedro Fernández and Alonso Berruguete, among others.

Curated by Andrea Zezza, associate professor, department of humanities and cultural heritage at the Università degli Studi della Campania, and Riccardo Naldi, professor in the faculty of humanities and philosophy at the Università degli Studi Napoli “L’Orientale”, the exhibition is benefiting from the sole sponsorship of Fundación BBVA. In the words of Javier Solana, president of the Royal Board of Trustees of the Museo Nacional del Prado, it “embarks on a visual journey through a period filled with interest; a moment which saw the emergence of a new manner of artistic expression that was interpreted differently and would arrive in the Iberian peninsula assimilated, transformed and different.”

Installed in an architectural space that evokes Neapolitan buildings of the period, The other Renaissance offers an accurate idea of the significance of the innovations of this period without restricting itself to a single discipline. The result is to convey an overall vision and one that reflects the coexistence of different techniques and materials characteristic of this period. Paintings on wood or canvas, miniatures, polychromed wood carvings and marble sculptures together present a wide range of typologies and formats in order to convincingly convey the period in question.

For Rafael Pardo Avellaneda, director general of Fundación BBVA, “by participating in an exhibition of this nature we are helping to illustrate one of the most beautiful chapters in this shared story, particularly with regard to assessing the gratifying process of exchange and to revealing how knowledge is devoid of frontiers and that it is collaboration and dialogue which bring out our maximum creativity.”

The exhibition, which will subsequently be shown at the Museo e Real Bosco di Capodimonte in Naples, complete narratives and adds further details to the permanent collection of the Prado through its presentation of the visual arts in Naples in the early 16th century. It also offers an opportunity to emphasise the key role of Spain and Spanish culture in an enriching process of interaction and exchange with the Italian world, given that, in the words of Miguel Falomir, director of the Museo Nacional del Prado, “we can say without any fear of exaggeration that without that Neapolitan experience, the Spanish Renaissance would be very different.”

To this end, the exhibition includes 75 works from national and international public and private collections, among which we would like to highlight the generosity of the loans from the Edifici di Culto Fund of the Italian Ministry dell'Interno in its institutional commitment to continue strengthening cultural ties between Italy and Spain.

Curators:
Andrea Zezza (Università degli Studi della Campania) and Riccardo Naldi (Università degli Studi Napoli «L’Orientale») in collaboration with Manuel Arias (Museo Nacional del Prado).

Access

Room A and B. Jerónimos Building

RDF

RDF

Exclusive Sponsorship:
Fundación BBVA

Multimedia

Exhibition

The exhibition

The exhibition
The Virgin and the Souls of Purgatory
Pedro Machuca
1517
Oil on poplar panel, 167 x 135 cm
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

After defeating the French army that aimed to occupy Naples, Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, the Great Captain, triumphantly entered the city in 1503 and took over its governance on behalf of the Catholic Monarchs. This was an important step in the process that led to Spain’s consolidation as a hegemonic European power. The rest of Italy, gripped by a deep political crisis, witnessed the affirmation of its humanist culture, with Antiquity as a reference model that was admired and respected on the continent.

Naples had experienced a major cultural boom in the previous decades, and the loss of its political independence did not mark the end of this brilliant period but helped shape a new role for the city, which played a fundamental part in disseminating Italian Renaissance culture on the Iberian Peninsula.

During those years the southern capital – which, although traditionally cosmopolitan, lacked a strong local artistic school – welcomed the maniera moderna or ‘modern manner’, the new art based on the revolution led by Leonardo, Michelangelo and Raphael. This exciting period was ushered in by artists destined for promising future: it was in Naples that Spaniards Pedro Fernández, Bartolomé Ordóñez, Diego de Siloe, Pedro Machuca and possibly Alonso Berruguete reaped their first successes before becoming the foremost Spanish Renaissance figures.

This exhibition sets out to draw attention to this brief but extraordinary period and to underline the very high quality of the artworks produced from the beginning of the century until 1530, when the war between Emperor Charles and the Papacy ended.

Section I

Section I
Castello novo de Nápoles
Francisco de Holanda
Pluma y tinta sobre papel, 270 x 395 mm (en una hoja de 465 x 355 mm)
Patrimonio Nacional. Colecciones Reales. Real Biblioteca del Monasterio de San Lorenzo de El Escorial, 28-I-20, fol. 53v

At the dawn of the 1500 s century Naples had more than 100,000 inhabitants and was the most populated European city after Paris. Many leading Italian humanists had settled there during the decades preceding the establishment of the court of the kings of Aragón and developed a particular form of ‘monarchical humanism’ – as distinct from the ‘civic’ humanism of the free cities in the centre of the Italian peninsula – based on the prestigious legacy of the ancients. All this had a profound influence on European civilisation as it advocated a new role for lay intellectuals disassociated from the Church and devoted, under the king’s protection, to political, social, legal and cultural reflection as well as to transmitting the sovereign’s reasons and building a state machinery.

The works brought together in this section provide an introduction to the exhibition and show some of the places and faces that embodied life and culture in Spanish Naples: the fortress-palace of Castel Nuovo, the bronze bust after the antique by Gioviano Pontano and the naturalistic portrait by Jacopo Sannazaro, which is very human and completely devoid of grandiloquence. Both reveal the features of the two main figures of Neapolitan cultural and artistic life, as well as the transition from the rigid ‘antiquarian’ classicism of the 900s to a more natural and modern way of representing forms and making the figures seem alive.

Section II: Naples becomes Spanish

Section II: Naples becomes Spanish
Breviary-Missal of Ferdinand the Catholic
Master of the Bolea Altarpiece
c. 1506-7
Tempera, gold ink and gold leaf on parchment
Ciudad del Vaticano, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Chig C.7. 205

The incorporation of Naples into the Spanish Crown spurred a development based on new foundations: southern Italy was integrated into a complex Mediterranean empire and became both an outpost for spreading Spanish customs in Italy and a bridgehead for disseminating the Italian Renaissance style on the Iberian Peninsula.

As much as the armies travelled through the kingdom, Naples retained its open and cosmopolitan spirit and therefore continued to attract artists of all nationalities: Roman, Emilian, Tuscan, Lombard and even Iberian.

Ferdinand the Catholic’s journey to his new possessions (1506−7) was a key event in this process: the king was received with high hopes and honoured with ephemeral architecture and paintings celebrating his triumph in the style of the ancient emperors, leading to the development of a ceremonial model that was immediately exported to the Iberian Peninsula. These years saw the appearance in Naples of a mysterious artist known as the Master of the Bolea Altarpiece and Pedro Fernández, a painter from Lombard who established himself in the city for a few years and succeeded in deeply renewing local figurative art.

Section III: Towards the maniera moderna

Section III: Towards the maniera moderna
Saint John the Baptist
Pedro Fernández
c. 1508-10
Oil on panel
Pasadena (California), The Norton Simon Foundation

Between the 1400s and the 1500s the arts experienced a moment of historic transformation in Italy. The oeuvre of artists such as Leonardo and Giorgione, clearly assimilated by their contemporaries, marked a break with the past: the representation of nature took on a new dimension, and figures gained feelings, vitality and movement. Michelangelo and Raphael introduced a more complex and idealised model of beauty. This model aspired to emulate the grandeur, proportion and rhetorical power of the art of the ancients, until then regarded as unattainable. Artists sought a perfection that went beyond the representation of nature to reveal the divine gift of Grace. It is the style that Vasari would refer to as the maniera moderna or ‘modern manner’, that of the attainment of perfection.

Florence, Milan, Venice and later Rome were the places where this new style caught on. The Spanish artists trained in these centres of innovation who coincided in Naples after the conquest were responsible for introducing it there together with Florentine sculptor Andrea Ferrucci and Lombard painter Cesare da Sesto.

Section IV: Around Raphael

Section IV: Around Raphael
The Holy Family with Raphael, Tobias and Saint Jerome (The Madonna del Pesce)
Raphael
1512-13
Oil on panel transferred to canvas
Museo Nacional del Prado

The years Viceroy Ramón Folch de Cardona (1509−22) governed Naples were remembered as one of the happiest periods in the history of the kingdom. They also witnessed an extraordinary flourishing of the arts: the arrival from Rome of Raphael’s Madonna with a Fish marked a turning point in the activity of local artists, who welcomed it with great enthusiasm. After Fernández, the most outstanding sculptors were Diego de Siloe and Bartolomé Ordóñez. Both developed an original style by combining the poetics of Leonardo’s emotional portrayals with the charm of Raphael and the expressive power of Michelangelo.

At the end of the 1510s a more agitated version of the Raphaelesque style spread, stimulated once again by the presence of a Spanish artist who went on to pursue a brilliant career: Pedro Machuca, the future architect of the Palace of Charles V in Granada.

Neapolitan humanist culture appreciated and favoured this free interpretation of classical art, as evidenced by Polidoro da Caravaggio’s two stays in the city and the short but important career of Girolamo Santacroce, the most highly regarded local artist.

This moment of creative fervour was cut short by the war of 1527−28, as had occurred in Rome with the Sack of 1527.

Section V: The heralds of the Spanish Renaissance

Section V: The heralds of the Spanish Renaissance
Saint Sebastian
Diego de Siloe
c. 1520−25
Marble
Burgos, Arzobispado

The Iberian artists already active in Naples in the early 1500s laid the foundations for the Spanish Renaissance. Bartolomé Ordóñez worked chiefly in Barcelona but died in Carrara at the end of 1520. Diego de Siloe, who operated between Burgos and Granada, infused his sculptures and architectural designs with a feeling of truthfulness and grandeur never previously seen in these artistic centres.

Pedro Machuca worked between Jaén, Granada and Toledo and established himself as the main champion of his master Raphael, whose inventiveness he captured in both his paintings and his architectural creations.

Alonso Berruguete, active between Valladolid and Toledo, imbued his works with a strong expressiveness driven by his passion for Michelangelo. His figures have a visionary nature that places them among the main achievements of 16th-century European art.

For his part, Gabriel Joly, an expert carver from Picardy (France), earned prestige in Aragón. In the final stage of his career, the artist attained a technical and aesthetic expertise close to that of Siloe and Berruguete.

Artworks

Castello novo de Nápoles
1

Castello novo de Nápoles

Francisco de Holanda

1539−40

Pen and ink on paper

Patrimonio Nacional. Colecciones Reales. Real Biblioteca del Monasterio de San Lorenzo de El Escorial

2

Giovanni Pontano

Adriano Fiorentino

c. 1490

Bronze

Génova, Museo di Sant´Agostino

3

Jacopo Sannazaro

Paolo degli Agostini

c. 1511−15

Oil on panel

New Orleans (EEUU), New Orleans Museum of Arts (NOMA)

4

The Virgin

Pietro Belverte

1507−8

Polychromed Wood

Nápoles, Chiesa di San Domenico Maggiore

5

Saint Joseph

Pietro Belverte

1507−8

Polychromed Wood

Nápoles, Chiesa di San Domenico Maggiore

6

Triptych of the Virgin and Child

Jean Bourdichon

1501-4

Tempera on panel

Nápoles, Museo e Certosa di San Martino

7

The Washing of the Feet

Master of the Bolea Altarpiece

Before 1503

Oil on panel

Bolea (Huesca), Colegiata de Santa María la Mayor, Diócesis de Huesca

8

Lamentation over the Dead Christ

Master of the Bolea Altarpiece

Before 1503

Oil on panel

Bolea (Huesca), Colegiata de Santa María la Mayor, Diócesis de Huesca

9

The Vision of Saint Eustace

Pietro Buono

1501

Oil on panel

Salerno (Italia), Soprintendenza Archeologia, Belle Arti e Paesaggio

10

The Flagellation

Master of the Bolea Altarpiece

First decade of the 1500s

Oil on panel

Atri (Italia), Museo Capitolare

11

The Adoration of the Child

Master of the Bolea Altarpiece

First decade of the 1500s

Oil on panel

Atri (Italia), Museo Capitolare

Breviary-Missal of Ferdinand the Catholic
12

Breviary-Missal of Ferdinand the Catholic

Master of the Bolea Altarpiece

c. 1506−7

Tempera, gold ink and gold leaf on parchment

Ciudad del Vaticano, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Chig C.7. 205

13

Antiphonary B

Master of the Bolea Altarpiece

1505−8

Tempera and gold leaf on parchment

Montecassino, Archivio dell’Abbazia

14

Antiphonary C

Master of the Bolea Altarpiece

1505−8

Tempera and gold leaf on parchment

Montecassino, Archivio dell’Abbazia

15

Book of hours

Master of the Bolea Altarpiece (?) and collaborator

1506/7−1511/12

Tempera, gold ink and gold leaf on parchment

Milán, Archivio Storico Civico e Biblioteca Trivulziana, Ms. TRIVULZIANO 440

16

The Holy Family

Pedro Fernández

c. 1504

Oil on panel

Madrid, Colección Várez

17

Rest on the Flight into Egypt

Pedro Fernández

c. 1500

Oil on canvas

Hartford (Connecticut), Trinity College

18

The Virgin of the Annunciation

Giovanni da Nola

c. 1508−11

Polychromed Wood

Nápoles, Museo e Real Bosco di Capodimonte

19

The Adoration of the Shepherds

Pedro Fernández

c. 1501−2

Oil on panel

Celle (Alemania), Bomann-Museum Celle, Residenzmuseum im Celler Schloss, Inv. No.: BM 30/ST

Altarpiece of the Visitation
20

Altarpiece of the Visitation

Pedro Fernández

c. 1508−10

Oil on panel

Nápoles, Museo e Real Bosco di Capodimonte

Saint John the Baptist
21

Saint John the Baptist

Pedro Fernández

c. 1508−10

Oil on panel

Pasadena (California), The Norton Simon Foundation

Saint John the Baptist
22

Saint John the Baptist

Andrea di Piero Ferrucci

c. 1508−10

Marble

Nápoles, Chiesa dei Santi Severino e Sossio, Patrimonio del Fondo Edifici di Culto

23

Saint John the Evangelist

Andrea di Piero Ferrucci

c. 1508−10

Marble

Nápoles, Chiesa dei Santi Severino e Sossio, Patrimonio del Fondo Edifici di Culto

24

The Adoration of the Child

Master of the Bolea Altarpiece

First decade of the 1500s

Tempera and oil on panel

Siena, Pinacoteca Nazionale di Siena

25

The Adoration of the Child with Donor

Cesare da Sesto and collaborator

c. 1514−15

Oil on panel

Nápoles, Direzione Regionale Musei Campania, Museo di San Martino

26

The Adoration of the Magi

Andrea Sabatini

c. 1512−13

Oil on panel

Nápoles, Biblioteca e Complesso monumentale dei Girolamini

27

The Way to Calvary

Pedro Fernández

1512−13

Oil on panel transferred to canvas

Nápoles, Chiesa di San Domenico Maggiore, Patrimonio del Fondo Edifici di Culto

28

Saint Blaise

Pedro Fernández

1511−12

Oil on panel

Barcelona, Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya. Adquisición, 1986

29

Saint Francis receiving the Stigmata

Pedro Fernández

1514−15

Oil on panel

Turín, Galleria Sabauda, Musei Reali Torino

30

The Virgin and Child

Marco Cardisco

c. 1517−20

Oil on paper transferred to canvas

Turín, Galleria Sabauda, Musei Reali Torino

31

Saint Catherine of Alexandria

Agostino Tesauro

1518

Oil on panel

Nápoles, Biblioteca e Complesso monumentale dei Girolamini

32

Saint Mary Magdalene

Agostino Tesauro

1518

Oil on panel

Nápoles, Biblioteca e Complesso monumentale dei Girolamini

33

The Virgin and Child with Angels

Cesare da Sesto

1515

Tempera on panel

Cava de’ Tirreni (Salerno), Museo della Badia della SS. Trinità

Saint Nicholas of Bari on the Bishop’s Throne
35

Saint Nicholas of Bari on the Bishop’s Throne

Andrea Sabatini

c. 1514−16

Oil on panel

Nápoles, Museo e Real Bosco di Capodimonte

36

Saint Bertharius among his Fellow Martyrs and the Patron, Abbot Squarcialupi

Andrea Sabatini

c. 1514

Oil on panel

Montserrat, Museo de Montserrat

37

Nursing Madonna

Pedro Machuca (attributed)

c. 1518

Oil on panel

Turín, Galleria Sabauda, Musei Reali Torino

Lamentation for the Dead Christ
38

Lamentation for the Dead Christ

Bartolomé Ordóñez

c. 1517−18

Walnut in its natural colour

Colección particular

Saint Sebastian
39

Saint Sebastian

Diego de Siloe

c. 1514−15

Marble

Colección particular

Saint Matthew and the Angel
40

Saint Matthew and the Angel

Bartolomé Ordóñez

c. 1514−15

Marble

Nápoles, Chiesa di San Pietro Martire, Patrimonio del Fondo Edifici di Culto

41

The Virgin and Child

Diego de Siloe

1513−14

Marble

Nápoles, Università degli Studi Suor Orsola Benincasa, Chiesa di Santa Maria dei Pignatelli

42

The Holy Family

Pedro Machuca

c. 1516−17

Oil on panel

Roma, Galleria Borghese

43

God the Father blessing and Angels

Pedro Machuca

c. 1519

Oil on panel

París, Courtesy of Étienne Bréton / Saint-Honoré Art Consulting Paris

44

Saint John the Baptist

Giovanni da Nola

c. 1528−32

Marble

Liechtenstein. The Princely Collections, Vaduz-Vienna

46

Salome

Alonso Berruguete

c. 1516−17

Oil on panel

Florencia, Gallerie degli Uffizi

47

Allegory of Justice

Girolamo Santacroce

c. 1525−28

Marble

Nápoles, Chiesa di San Pietro Martire, Patrimonio del Fondo Edifici di Culto

48

Allegory of Prudence

Girolamo Santacroce

c. 1525−28

Marble

Nápoles, Chiesa di San Pietro Martire, Patrimonio del Fondo Edifici di Culto

49

Saint John the Baptist

Girolamo Santacroce

c. 1532−36

Marble

Nápoles, Seminario Arcivescovile

50

Saint Benedict

Girolamo Santacroce

c. 1532−36

Marble

Nápoles, Seminario Arcivescovile

51

The Virgin crowned by Angels with Saint Anthony of Padua and Saint Michael the Archangel

Marco Cardisco

c. 1527−30

Oil on panel

Ferrara, Fondazione Cavallini Sgarbi

52

Christ carried to the Tomb

Polidoro de Caravaggio

1527−28

Oil on panel

Nápoles, Museo e Real Bosco di Capodimonte

53

Saint Peter

Polidoro de Caravaggio

1527−28

Oil on panel

Nápoles, Museo e Real Bosco di Capodimonte

54

Saint Andrew

Polidoro de Caravaggio

1527−28

Oil on panel

Nápoles, Museo e Real Bosco di Capodimonte

Angel of the Annunciation
55

Angel of the Annunciation

Polidoro de Caravaggio

1527−28

Oil on panel

Nápoles, Museo e Real Bosco di Capodimonte

The Virgin of the Annunciation
56

The Virgin of the Annunciation

Polidoro de Caravaggio

1527−28

Oil on panel

Nápoles, Museo e Real Bosco di Capodimonte

57

The Descent from the Cross

Andrea Sabatini

c. 1520

Oil on panel

Nápoles, Museo e Real Bosco di Capodimonte

Altarpiece of Saint Helena
59

Altarpiece of Saint Helena

Pedro Fernández y Antoni Norri

1519−21

Oil and tempera on panel

Gerona, Tresor de la Catedral de Girona. Capítol de la Catedral

60

The Annunciation

Pedro Fernández

c. 1525−30

Oil on panel

Milán, Matteo Lampertico

61

The Presentation of Jesus in the Temple

Pedro Fernández

c. 1525−30

Oil on panel

Milán, Matteo Lampertico

62

The Adoration of the Shepherds

Pedro Machuca

c. 1530−35

Oil on panel

Valladolid, Museo Nacional de Escultura

64

The Holy Family with the Infant Saint John

Pedro Machuca

1519−20

Oil on panel

Jaén, Catedral de Jaén

Saint John the Baptist
65

Saint John the Baptist

Diego de Siloe

c. 1520

Polychromed Wood

Burgos, Catedral de Santa María

66

Saint Michael the Archangel

Diego de Siloe

c. 1525

Polychromed Wood

Sasamón (Burgos), Iglesia Parroquial de Santa María la Real

67

Saint Sebastian

Diego de Siloe

c. 1520−25

Marble

Burgos, Arzobispado

Saint Sebastian
68

Saint Sebastian

Alonso Berruguete

1526−32

Polychromed Wood

Valladolid, Museo Nacional de Escultura

69

Christ flagellated

Diego de Siloe

c. 1525

Polychromed Wood

Burgos, Museo Catedralicio

70

The Entombment

Alonso Berruguete

c. 1540

Oil on panel

Fuentes de Nava (Palencia), Iglesia Parroquial de San Pedro Apóstol

71

The Virgin and Child with the Infant Saint John

Bartolomé Ordóñez

c. 1519−20

Marble with remains of gilding and polychromy

Zamora, Museo Catedralicio

72

The Holy Family with the Infant Saint John

Gabriel Joly

c. 1536

Wood in its natural colour

Valladolid, Museo Nacional de Escultura

73

The Two Thieves on the Cross and a Skeleton

Gabriel Joly

c. 1532−36

Boxwood in its natural colour

Nueva York, Frances F. L. Beatty and Allen Adler

74

Warrior (?)

Gabriel Joly

c. 1532−36

Wood in its natural colour

Colección particular

75

The Virgin and Child

Círculo de Diego de Siloe

Second quarter of the 1500s

Alabaster

Valladolid, Museo Diocesano y Catedralicio

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