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David with the head of Goliath
Caravaggio. Michelangelo Merisi
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Caravaggio. Michelangelo Merisi

Caravaggio o Milán, 1571 - Porto Ercole (Grosseto), 1610

David with the head of Goliath

Ca. 1600. Oil on canvas, 110.4 x 91.3 cm.

The Bible story (Samuel 1:17) depicted here corresponds to the moment when, as a young shepherd, David kills Goliath, the giant, with his sling and cuts off his head to triumphantly exhibit it. The episode of tying the giant’s tresses to reveal his head has no iconographic precedent and is not explicitly mentioned in the Bible, making this work yet another example of Caravaggio’s originality and independence.

This painting is first listed in an inventory of the Buen Retiro Palace in Madrid in 1794. Its previous history is unknown but it is thought, with some reservation, to be from the collection of Juan Bautista Crescenzi. This collector with a known predilection for modern artists-that is, naturalists- arrived in Madrid in 1617 and died there in 1635. Alternatively, it may have been brought to Spain by the Count of Villamediana, who was in Italy between 1611 and 1615. According to Bellori, he owned a David by Caravaggio. Finally, though less likely, it could be the David of Caravaggio that Monsignor Galeotto Rospigliosi left in his will in 1643. The painting’s presence in Spain is borne out by some period copies, all of which were made in a Spanish context.

During the 19th century, this canvas was attributed to the school of Caravaggio, and while it was later included in that master’s catalog, some critics considered it an ancient copy of a lost original. Caravaggio’s authorship was finally demonstrated by Mina Gregori, who published an X-ray of it that shows the first version of the giant’s head, with a dramatic expression, bulging eyes and a gaping mouth whose terrifying appearance recalls Medusa (Florence, Galleria degli Uffizi) and Holofernes (Rome, Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Antica), two paintings in which Caravaggio successfully expresses the horror of physical pain. This expression may have been changed because that painter’s client considered it excessively violent. In any case, the X-ray certifies that the canvas is an original Caravaggio. Attention has been drawn to the expressive containment of the head in the shadows, which contrasts with the customary image of David as winner, as well as the tight composition, which resembles no other work by this artist except for Narcissus (Rome, Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Antica), with its geometric scheme- based, here, on a rectangle.

As to this painting’s date: specialists agree that it is from the artist’s relatively youthful period, somewhere between 1596 and 1600 (Text drawn from Pérez Sánchez, A. E.: El Prado en el Ermitage, Museo Nacional del Prado, 2011, pp. 98-99).

Check the encyclopaedia


Technical data

Inventory number
Caravaggio. Michelangelo Merisi
David with the head of Goliath
Ca. 1600
High/Height: 110.4 cm.; Width: 91.3 cm.
Royal Collection (Royal Palace of El Buen Retiro, Madrid, 1794, n. 1118; Royal Palace Madrid, “pinturas almacenadas”, 1814-1818, s.n.)

Bibliography +

Inventario Palacio de Madrid. 1689. I. Pinturas., Madrid, 1689.

Madrazo, Pedro de, Catálogo descriptivo e histórico del Museo del Prado de Madrid., [s.n.],, Madrid, 1872, pp. n.77.

Ainaud, J., Ribalta y Caravaggio, Anales y Boletin de los Museos de Arte de Barcelona, 3 y 4, 1947, pp. 385.

Berenson, Bernard, Del Caravaggio, delle sue incongruence e della sua fama, Florencia, 1951, pp. 34, 38-39, 58.

Mahon, Denis, Addenda to Caravaggio, The Burlington magazine, 94, 1952, pp. 2-23 [18-19].

Longhi, Roberto, Le Caravage, Aldo Martello editeur, Milan, 1952, pp. 24.

Guttuso, Renato, La obra pictórica completa de Caravaggio, Noguer, Barcelona, 1968, pp. nº38.

Pérez Sánchez, Alfonso E., Pintura italiana del siglo XVII: exposición conmemorativa del ciento cincuenta aniversario de la fundación del Museo del Prado, Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, Madrid, 1970, pp. 122.

Spear, Richard E., Caravaggio and his followers, Harper & Row. Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, 1971, pp. 78-79 n.19.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Museo del Prado: catálogo de las pinturas, Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1972, pp. 116.

Caravaggio y el naturalismo español, Comisaría General de Exposiciones de la Dirección, Madrid, 1973, pp. nº 2.

I Pittori bergamaschi: dal XIII al XIX secolo, Poligrafiche Bolis, Bergamo, 1975, pp. 454-455, 597.

Moir, Alfred, Caravaggio and his copyists, Published by New York University Press for the Col..., New York, 1976, pp. 107 f.54b, 54c.

Marini, Maurizio, Michelangelo Da Caravaggio, Bestelli e Bozzi, Roma, 1979, pp. 149 ?.

Nicolson, Benedict, The international Caravaggesque movement: lists of pictures..., Phaidon, 1979, pp. 32.

Bissell, R., Orazio Gentileschi and the Poetic Tradition in Caravaggesque, The Pennsylvania State University, Londres, 1981, pp. 203.

El niño en el Museo del Prado, Ministerio de Cultura, Dirección General de Bellas Artes, Madrid, 1983, pp. 151.

Cinotti, Mia, Michelangelo Merisi detto Il Caravaggio: tutte le opere : es, Poligrafiche BolisBanca Popolare, Bergamo, 1983, pp. 596.

Cinotti, Mia, 'Michelangelo Merisi, detto Il Caravaggio' En: I pittori bergamaschi. Il Seicento, I, Bergamo, 1983, pp. 203-641 [454-458 n.27].

Bonsanti, Giorgio, Caravaggio, Scala, Florencia, 1984, pp. 42 / lám. 46.

Andrews, K., Caravaggio e Il Suo Tempo, Electa Editrice, Milan, 1985, pp. 268.

Gregori, Mia, 'Caravaggio. David' En:, The Age of Caravaggio, Metropolitan Museum of Art Electa, Nueva York, 1985, pp. 268-270 n.77.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Museo del Prado: catálogo de las pinturas, Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1985, pp. 118.

Kitson, Michael, The Complete Paintings of Caravaggio, Penguin Books, Italia, 1985, pp. 92.

Christiansen, Keith, Caravaggio and l 'essempio davanti del naturale, The Art bulletin, 68, 1986, pp. 421-445 [440].

Marini, Maurizio, Caravaggio: Michelangelo Merisi Da Caravaggio ''pictor praestantissimus'': la tragica esistenza, la raffinata cultura, il mondo sanguigno del primo Seicento, nell'iter pittorico completo di uno dei massimi rivoluzionari dell'arte di tutti i tempi, Newton Compton, Roma, 1987, pp. 178-179 424-426 nº 37.

Gash, J., Caravaggio, Bloomsbury Books, Londres, 1988, pp. 62.

Garrard, Mary D., Artemisia Gentileschi: the image of the female hero in itali, University Press, Princeton, 1989, pp. 311 / lám. 276.

Passamani, Bruno, Giovanni Gerolamo Savoldo Tra Foppa Giorgione e Caravaggio, Electa, Milan, 1990.

Ebert-Schifferer, Sybille, Giovanni Gerolamo Savoldo Von Foppa Und Giorgione Bis Carava, Electa, Frankfurt, 1990, pp. 327.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Museo del Prado: inventario general de pinturas, Museo del Prado, Espasa Calpe, Madrid, 1990, pp. 550.

Gregori, Mina, Michelangelo Merisi Da Caravaggio. Come Nascono i Capolavori, Electa, Milán, 1991, pp. 22, 28-29.

Buendía, José Rogelio, El Prado. Colecciones de Pintura, Lunwerg Editores, Barcelona, 1994, pp. 298.

Bettagno, Alessandro, El Museo del Prado, Fonds MercatorFundación Amigos del Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1996, pp. 74.

Langdon, Helen, Caravaggio: A life, Londres, 1998, pp. 169-170.

Caravaggio, Electa, Madrid, 1999, pp. 106-109.

Caravaggio y la pintura realista europea, Museu Nacional D'Art de Catalunya, Barcelona, 2005, pp. 56-59 n.4.

De Herrera a Velázquez: el primer naturalismo en Sevilla, Fundación Focus-AbengoaBilboko Arte Eder Museoa =M, Sevilla, 2005, pp. 172.

Schütze, Sebastian, Caravaggio: obra completa, Taschen, 2009, pp. 76, 256-257 n.22.

Cappelletti, Francesca, Caravaggio: un ritratto somigliante, Mondadori Electa, 2009, pp. n.47.

Publisi, Catherine R., Caravaggio, Phaidon,, 2010, pp. 398 f.200 n.21.

Spike, John T, Caravaggio, Nueva York, Londres, 2010, pp. 252-255 n.43.

Vodret, Rosella, Caravaggio in Rome: itinerary, Silvana, 2010, pp. 90-91 n.20.

Salas, Xavier de, Caravaggio y los caravaggistas en la pintura española, Estudios, 2010, pp. 379.

Bober, Phyllis Pray, Renaissance artists & antique sculpture: a handbook of sources., Harvey Miller, 2010, pp. 254-256 n.203.

El Prado en el Hermitage, Museo Estatal del Hermitage: Mus, 2011, pp. 98-99.

Schütze, Sebastian, Staging religious history for collectors and connoisseurs, Caravaggio and his followers in Rome, Yale University Press, New Haven, 2011, pp. 256-295 [282-295].

Strinati, Claudio., Caravage, 2015, pp. 72-73 245.

van der Sman, gert Jan, 'Caravaggio. David vencedor de Goliath' En:, Caravaggio y los pintores del norte, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza,, Madrid, 2016, pp. 76-77 n.5.

Other inventories +

Inv. Testamentaría Carlos III, Buen Retiro, 1794. Núm. 1118.
Otra [pintura] de Micael Angelo Carabacho, con David, triunfante del Filisteo, de dos varas y quarta de alto y vara de ancho ... 500

Inv. Fernando VII, Palacio Nuevo, 1814-1818. Núm. s. n..
Pinturas Almacenadas [...] {22080} Vara y cuarta de ancho vara y media de alto, David = escuela del Caravagio

Inv. Real Museo, 1857. Núm. 2081.
E. Caravaggio. / 2081. David con la cabeza de Goliat. / Alto 3 pies, 11 pulg, 6 lin; Ancho 3 pies, 3 pulg.

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1872-1907. Núm. 77.
Caravaggio (Escuela del). / 77.-David vencedor de Goliat. / Alto 1,10. Ancho 0,91.-Lienzo. / Está el jóven pastor, puesta la rodilla izquierda sobre la espalda del gigante, que yace muerto en tierra, atando con un cordel, por el cabello, su cabeza ya separada del tronco.-Figura de tamaño menor que el natural. / Colec. de Cárlos II, R. Alc. y Pal. de Madrid, pasillos al pié de la escalera de la galería del Cierzo.

Exhibitions +

Caravaggio y el Norte
21.06.2016 - 18.09.2016

El Prado en el Hermitage
San Petersburgo
25.02.2011 - 29.05.2011

Juan Bautista Maíno (1581-1649)
20.10.2009 - 17.01.2010

De Herrera a Velázquez. La pintura sevillana en la encrucijada de 1600
01.12.2005 - 01.03.2006

Caravaggio y la pintura realista europea
06.10.2005 - 15.01.2006

29.11.1999 - 23.01.2000

Gerolamo Savoldo
08.06.1990 - 26.08.1990

Gerolamo Savoldo
03.03.1990 - 31.05.1990

Location +

Room 006 (On Display)

Update date: 24-09-2016 | Registry created on 02-12-2015

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