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Bosch. The 5th Centenary Exhibition

31.05.2016 - 25.09.2016

With the sole sponsorship of Fundación BBVA, the Museo del Prado is presenting the exhibition that marks the 5th centenary of the death of Jheronimus Bosch (on display until 11 September 2016), representing an unrepeatable opportunity to see a remarkable group of works comprising the eight original paintings by the artist to be found in Spain together with others loaned from collections and museums around the world. This represents the greatest number of Bosch’s works ever to be assembled, created by one of the most enigmatic and influential artists of the Renaissance. As such, the exhibition will encourage visitors to look deeper into his personal vision of the world through the spectacular installation in which Bosch’s most important triptychs are shown free-standing in order for both the fronts and backs to be visible.

Bosch. The 5th Centenary Exhibition focuses on the artist’s original works and is divided into seven sections. The first, “Bosch and ’s-Hertogenbosch”, locates visitors in the city where the artist lived throughout his life. Given the monographic character of this exhibition and due to the difficulty of establishing a chronology for Bosch’s works, his output has been divided into six thematic sections: The Childhood and Ministry of Christ; The Saints; From Paradise to Hell; The Garden of Earthly Delights; The World and Men: Mortal Sins and non-religious works; and The Passion of Christ.

The exhibition also includes works produced in Bosch’s studio or by followers from now lost originals. Another group, which includes paintings, miniatures, engravings by Alart du Hameel, reliefs by Adrien van Wesel and the manuscript of the Comentario de la pintura by Felipe de Guevara, allows for a better understanding of the context in which Bosch produced his works, the personality of some of his patrons, such as Engelbert II of Nassau, and the status of painting in the 16th century.

Thanks to Philip II’s interest in Bosch, Spain has the finest group of original paintings by the artist, all of which are included in the exhibition. The Prado, which together with Patrimonio Nacional inherited the Spanish royal collection, now houses six of his works, including the triptychs of The Garden of Earthly Delights, The Adoration of the Magi and The Haywain. These are now joined by Christ carrying the Cross from El Escorial, which has been generously sent by Patrimonio Nacional from the exhibition Jheronimus Bosch and El Escorial in order to be present in this one; and Saint John the Baptist from the Fundación Lázaro Galdiano, one of the best acquisitions made by the collector José Lázaro. These works can be seen alongside loans from Lisbon, London, Berlin, Vienna, Venice, Rotterdam, Paris, New York, Philadelphia and Washington, among other cities, making this exhibition a unique opportunity to enter the imagination of one of the most fascinating painters of world art.

The exhibition’s importance lies in the benefits that both the general public and experts alike will derive from its contemplation. In this sense, it is not only important but also necessary. The fact that for the first time it brings together most of the artist’s masterpieces will decisively contribute to resolving some of the questions that relate to his work, both with regard to establishing his corpus and reconsidering issues of dating. 

Only the Museo del Prado is able to accept a challenge of this nature and the exhibition has been in preparation for many years. Firstly, through the systematic restoration of the paintings, thanks to the support of Fundación Iberdrola as a Benefactor Member of the Museum and the Sponsor of its Restoration Programme. In the months leading up to the exhibition this campaign has culminated with the restoration of The Adoration of the Magi Triptych, one of the artist’s masterpieces and a work whose beauty and quality are now even more evident, in addition to the restoration of The Temptation of Saint Anthony, which has regained its original arched top, an element that allows for both a better appreciation of the composition and an assessment of this unique version of a subject so often depicted by the artist.

In addition, the Museo del Prado, which is a pioneer in the technical study of Bosch’s painting, has re-analysed his works using the most advanced scientific methods. Visitors to the exhibition can see the results of these studies in the infra-red reflectograph and the X-radiograph of The Garden of Earthly Delights, which reveal the creative process behind the work and show the surprising changes that Bosch made between the start of the under-drawing and the completion of the pictorial surface. The results of this research into Bosch’s work at the Prado, led by Pilar Silva, have been included in the accompanying catalogue, which also has contributions by leading experts on the artist such as Eric de Bruyn, Paul Vandenbroeck, Larry Silver, Reindert Falkenburg and Fernando Checa.

Finally, as part of the complete and extensive programme of activities organised in conjunction with the exhibition, from 4 July, Room C of the Museum will have an audio-visual space entitled Infinite Garden, specially created by the artist Álvaro Perdices and the filmmaker Andrés Sanz.

In the light of the anticipated interest in this event, the Prado will be remaining open later for the exhibition (two hours more a day from Fridays to Sundays) and advance purchase of tickets is recommended.

Curator:
Pilar Silva, Head of the Department of Spanish Painting until 1500 and Flemish and Northern School Paintings.

Access

Room A, B. Jerónimos Building

Exclusive Sponsorship:
Fundación BBVA

Bosch. A story in pictures

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Jheronimus Bosch was born around 1450 in the town of ’s-Hertogenbosch. He took the surname of Bosch from the last syllable of the city’s name. His real name was Jheronimus van Aken.

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The statue of Mars that appears in the landscape of The Adoration of the Magi indicates that Christ was born into a world ruled over by the Romans, who worshipped idols.

The Adoration of the Magi Triptych (detail of the central panel).

’s-Hertogenbosch belonged to the duchy of Brabant. At that time part of the Low Countries, in the present day these regions are divided between Belgium, Holland, Luxembourg and France.

During Bosch’s lifetime, this duchy was one of the wealthiest and most brilliant courts in Europe. Its prosperity was based on productive agriculture and the flourishing manufacture of textiles, which were traded through the port of Antwerp.

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For most of his life Bosch seems to have lived in his native city without travelling elsewhere. Nonetheless, the knowledge of various painters of his time that is evident in his works suggests that he may have travelled around the Netherlands.

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Bosch depicted the architecture of his native city in many of his works.

The Adoration of the Magi Triptych (detail of the right panel).

The period of Bosch’s childhood and youth, during the reign of Philip the Good, was a cheerful, optimistic one. In his later life, under the rule of Charles the Bold and Mary of Burgundy, this social context deteriorated, resulting in a period of crisis, conflicts and instability.

The Christ Child playing (detail). Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Gemäldegalerie.

Mary of Burgundy married the Emperor Maximilian I, uniting her domains to those of the Habsburgs. The marriage of their son Philip the Fair to the Catholic Kings’ daughter Juana of Castile, known as “The Mad”, aimed to unite the duchy of Brabant, Spain and the Holy Roman Empire under a single rule.

As Bosch’s works reflect, the artist lived through a complex spiritual climate that was still almost medieval with the result that, at the end of the 15th century, it underwent a profound crisis of change and growth.

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The world is a haywain, from which every man takes what he can”. Bosch illustrates this Flemish proverb in this triptych.

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A couple enjoy listening to music at the top of the haywain, oblivious to the events below.

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Everyone follows the haywain to try to take some hay: the Pope, the Emperor, a king, a member of the nobility and various clerics…

The Haywain (detail).

Bosch was born into a prosperous family that owned land and property and was traditionally associated with painting. His grandfather, father, two of his maternal uncles and his two brothers were also painters. He very probably first learned the basics of his art in his father’s studio.

At the age of around 30, Bosch married Aleid van de Meervenne, a young woman from a wealthy family who brought him a sizeable dowry. They had no children. Aleid survived her husband by ten years.

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Bosch located Saint Joseph in the left-hand panel, distanced from the principal scene and busy drying the Christ Child’s nappies.

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The almost naked man wearing chains and looking round the door has been successively identified as Adam, the Anti-Christ or Herod, but none of these suggestions are entirely convincing.

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The phoenix picking up a grain in its beak on top of the circular pot is a reference to the Resurrection of Christ.

Bosch worked as a painter in his native city where he acquired enormous renown. He was a member of the Brotherhood of Our Lady, which had its chapel in the church of Saint John in the city. Its archives contain the few documentary references to the artist that exist.

During his long life Bosch produced a large body of drawings and paintings. Sadly, many of his works were subsequently destroyed in the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century, which considered them immoral.

The Saint Anthony Triptych (detalle). Lisbon, Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga.

We know the year of Bosch’s death from documentation in the archive of the Brotherhood of Our Lady. This states that on 9 August 1516 the funerary service was held for the deceased member “Jheronimus van Aken painter”, who must have died a few days before.

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Death stalks a dying man while an angel and a devil wait to carry off his soul. He holds a candle while he is shown a crucifix and receives extreme unction.

In his paintings, Bosch represented the obsessions and anxieties of men and women of his own time in a masterly manner.

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The false doctor wears a funnel – symbol of wisdom – upside-down on his head, which transforms it into a symbol of madness.

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It is a flower rather than a stone that is being extracted from the patient’s head. The scene thus acquires sexual connotations. The man is not being cured of his madness but castrated.

The Brotherhood of our Lady, which was extremely important for both Bosch and the city of ’s-Hertogenbosch, was a pious, philanthropic religious association. Its activities included organising festivals, processions and theatrical performances in honour of the Virgin Mary.

It is likely that Bosch was also associated with the Brotherhood of the Common Life, another of the many religious associations of the day that promoted an exemplary life, charity and purity of spirit in the face of the widespread corruption and hypocrisy of religious life.

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Real and imaginary animals form a great cavalcade of the vices.

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The lovers inside the glass sphere probably refer to the Flemish proverb that runs: “Happiness is like glass, it soon breaks.".

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In 1605, Friar José de Sigüenza, the librarian at El Escorial, referred to this painting as a "panel of the vain glory and short-lived taste of the strawberry…", a fruit which appears numerous times in the painting.

The Garden of Earthly Delights (detail of Paradise).

Bosch must have been an educated man with a good knowledge of the literature of his day, given that many of his works are based on literary sources. He also reflected popular wisdom by illustrating proverbs and traditions.

Saint John the Evangelist on Patmos (detail). Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie.

The theatre had a notable influence on Bosch’s work. Many of his paintings are organised in the manner of stage sets. The influence of the theatre is also evident in the adornments to the clothes worn by the figures and in the importance given to masks in many of his compositions.

Bosch enjoyed enormous success in his lifetime and his works were regularly copied and faked. In his prints the architect and engraver Alart du Hameel included motifs directly taken from Bosch’s compositions, which notably contributed to knowledge of his works and to the growth in the number of his admirers.

The key subjects in Bosch’s work are essentially religious and allegorical themes. While his religious works are always easy to identify and in general to interpret, his allegorical compositions require a profound knowledge of the society of his day and the vices and virtues of his contemporaries, which the artist often mocked, showing viewers their habits, customs and moral weaknesses.

Bosch was undoubtedly a man of his time and one also gifted with a powerful imagination and rich inventive abilities.

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’s-Hertogenbosch had a flourishing knife-making industry. Emerging from between two ears, it represents those deaf to the message of salvation.

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The Tree-Man is probably a self-portrait of Bosch, who points out our destiny to us.

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Bosch’s interest in fires seems to have originated with the one that swept through ’s-Hertogenbosch in 1463. Aged only 12 or 13, he was never able to forget this terrible sight.

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Bagpipes are a symbol of lust and the pleasures of the flesh.

Multimedia

Exhibition

Bosch and ’s-Hertogenbosch

Bosch and ’s-Hertogenbosch
Tree-man
Jheronimus Bosch (c. 1450–1516)
Pen, brown ink, 227 x 211 mm
c. 1500–10
Vienna, Albertina

Jheronimus van Aken (ca.1450-1516) was born and lived in ’s-Hertogenbosch (Bois-le-Duc), a city in the north of the duchy of Brabant in modern-day Holland, to which the artist linked his own fame by signing his works “Jheronimus Bosch”.

Bosch’s immense powers of invention are evident in the innovations he introduced into the technique of painting, notably his distinctive treatment of the pictorial surface, in addition to the content of his works, which is difficult or even impossible to decipher, given that the many of the keys to interpreting it are now lost.

This section, which locates the artist and his work in the city with which he so closely identified, centres on the Ecce Homo Triptych from Boston, painted in the artist’s studio for Peter van Os.

Also on display are works by other artists who either worked for ’s-Hertogenbosch during Bosch’s lifetime, such as the two reliefs by the Utrecht sculptor Adriaen van Wesel for the altarpiece of the Brotherhood of Our Lady’s chapel in the church of Saint John (1475-1477), or who were active there at this time, for example the three prints by the architect and engraver Alart du Hameel.

This section also includes an engraved portrait of Bosch by Cornelis Cort; an anonymous painting of the cloth market in the main square in ’s-Hertogenbosch, which shows the house where the artist lived; and the manuscript of the Comentarios de la pintura by Felipe de Guevara from the Museo del Prado’s library.

In Bosch’s day, ’s-Hertogenbosch was a prosperous city. The market square, where the artist lived between 1462 and 1516, was a meeting point for all social classes and the setting for a range of everyday, festive, religious and secular events. These were fundamental to the artist’s visual universe and he witnessed them from the privileged vantage-point of his own house.

Bosch’s rising social status is evident in the fact that from 1487 to 1488 he was a sworn member of the Brotherhood of Our Lady, bringing him into contact with the city’s social elites. Bosch received commissions from individuals such as Peter van Os, another sworn member of this brotherhood, and from the numerous ecclesiastical institutions existing at that date.

The absence of a local tradition and of a guild of painters encouraged Bosch to create an original style. While his starting point was the work of earlier painters such as Jan van Eyck, he broke away from them in terms of both technique and iconography.

The Childhood and Ministry of Christ

The Childhood and Ministry of Christ
The Adoration of the Magi Triptych
Jheronimus Bosch (c. 1450–1516)
Oil on panel, 133 x 71 cm (centre panel); 135 x 33 cm (left and right panels)
c. 1494
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

Displayed to flank the Prado’s Adoration of the Magi Triptych are the versions of The Adoration of the Magi from New York and Philadelphia, a drawing by a follower of Bosch of The Marriage at Cana from the Louvre, and an engraving by Alart du Hameel.

The figure of Christ is the principal focus in these works, reflecting the spiritual trend known as the devotio moderna, which aimed to transmit to the faithful the practice of the imitation of Christ.

The subject most represented by Bosch is that of the Adoration of the Magi, through which he expressed the universality of the Redemption. The pagans – the Magi – undertake a long journey to adore the Messiah, whom the Jews rejected.

While the artist remained relatively close to tradition in these works, he nonetheless reformulated them in his own style, incorporating symbolic elements in the backgrounds and buildings, and in the figure of the Antichrist in the central panel of the Prado Adoration triptych.

The Saints

The Saints
Saint Anthony Triptych
Jheronimus Bosch (c. 1450–1516)
Oil on panel, 131.5 x 111.9 cm (centre panel); 131.5 x 53 cm (left and right panels)
c. 1500–5
Lisbon, Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga

This section, which is larger, focuses around the Saint Anthony Triptych from Lisbon, displayed together with the Prado’s two versions of The Temptation of Saint Anthony, one original and the other a workshop product, and the fragment of the Temptation from Kansas City, in addition to the drawing from the Louvre of sketches for a composition on this subject.

Completing this section are the Saint Wilgefortis Triptych from Venice, the Job Triptych from the Museum in Bruges (the latter by a follower), and the panels of Saint John the Baptist from the Museo Lázaro Galdiano in Madrid, Saint John the Evangelist from Berlin, Saint Jerome from Ghent, Saint Christopher from Rotterdam and the drawing from the Albertina of Beggars and Cripples by a follower.

The cult of saints flourished during Bosch’s lifetime, as evident in their widespread presence in his works and in those of his studio, either as protectors or as separate figures. These depictions include Job and some of the Apostles, who were honoured as saints at this period. Other images depict female protector saints such as Agnes, Catherine and Mary Magdalene, or titular saints such as Wilgefortis, the bearded virgin venerated in the Low Countries.

Among male saints (the most frequently depicted) some enjoyed particularly widespread devotion, including Saint Christopher, protector against sudden death. Notably important in Bosch’s work are hermit saints, who lived on the margins of society in the desert, which at this period symbolised solitude rather than absence of life.

Saint Jerome and above all Saint Anthony Abbot, the patron saint of Bosch and his father, were examples for the faithful. The artist presents them as models of self-restraint (particularly over the passions of the flesh), patience and constancy in the face of the Devil’s temptations.

In the Saint Anthony Triptych in Lisbon, the backgrounds are not directly related to the saint’s life. Rather, they are inventions of the artist who was guided by his imagination, as evident in his depiction of the demons.

From Paradise to Hell

From Paradise to Hell
The Haywain Triptych
Jheronimus Bosch (c. 1450–1516)
Oil on panel, 133 x 100 cm (centre panel); 136.1 x 47.7 cm (left panel); 136.1 x 47.6 cm(right panel)
c. 1512-15
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

Displayed in close proximity to The Haywain are various other triptychs by Bosch in which Paradise and Hell are depicted on the lateral panels, albeit represented in different ways. Traditionally, the central panel of such triptychs included the Last Judgment, as in the example in Bruges.

For the first time in art and in a totally original manner, in the centre of The Haywain Triptych and flanked by the panels of The Garden of Eden and Hell, Bosch located a haywain. Using this motif, he showed how, in their desire to give themselves over to the pleasures of the senses and to acquire material goods, men and women of all social classes are deceived by demons who lead them to hell. The haywain thus functions as a mirror, in which whoever looks into it can see his own image, offering the lesson that in order to avoid eternal punishment, it is less a matter of doing good than of avoiding evil throughout life. As a result, the work illustrates exempla contraria or examples to be avoided.

Also in this section are two drawings from Berlin, the first of a walking grotesque head and a small toad-monster, and the second, a studio product, of a scene of Hell, which thus connects with another studio drawing on display, The Ship of Fools in Flames, loaned from Vienna.

The Garden of Earthly Delights

The Garden of Earthly Delights
The Garden of the Earthly Delights Triptych
Jheronimus Bosch (c. 1450–1516)
Oil on panel, 185.8 x 172.5 cm (centre panel); 185.8 x 76.5 cm (left and right panels)
c. 1490–1500
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado. Depósito de Patrimonio Nacional

Displayed alongside the artist’s most celebrated and iconic work are the infra-red reflectograph and X-radiograph of it, reproduced on a smaller scale. These technical images enable visitors to appreciate the changes Bosch made between the start of the under-drawing and the completion of the pictorial surface. Also displayed here is the remarkable Tree-Man drawing from the Albertina.

This section is completed with a portrait of the work’s patron, Engelbert II of Nassau, from the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, painted by the Master of the Portraits of Princes; The Book of Hours of Engelbert of Nassau by the Vienna Master of Mary of Burgundy, loaned from the Bodleian Library in Oxford; and the manuscript of the Vision of Tundale by Simon Marmian from the Getty Museum in Los Angeles.

The X-radiograph

The X-radiograph shows details of the support and the paint layers that are not visible to the naked eye. Given that this image passes through all the paint layers, the scenes on the front and back of the lateral panels appear as superimposed.

Bosch made changes and small corrections during the painting phase. In the central scene of The Garden of Earthly Delights he eliminated some elements such as the piece of fruit (possibly a pomegranate) at the lower left edge and also modified some aspects of the landscape, such as the diagonal plane that emerged from the right.

Particularly striking is the precision of the outlines and the way the artist focused on some figures, including the woman with two cherries on her head, whose face he insistently reworked. In the scene of Hell Bosch eliminated various large objects and fantastical beasts such as the amphibian with a large sphere emerging from its body with a man inside it.

The infra-red reflectograph

The under-drawing was executed free-hand in brush over the white ground. It reveals Bosch’s characteristic strokes, to be seen in the faces in which just three lines define the eyes and nose.

The under-drawing of the earthly Paradise underwent significant changes: Adam, Eve and God the Father were first located in the middle of the scene but were then moved further down. Initially drawn as bearded and as addressing Adam, God the Father was subsequently given the appearance of Christ and is shown looking out at the viewer. Even more significant are the changes in the scene of The Garden of Earthly Delights: the couple in the cave in the lower right corner and the group of men and women next to them; the rider breaking the circle around the pool and above all, the false fountain of the Four Rivers in the centre of the background. 

The World and Men: Mortal Sins and non-religious works

The World and Men: Mortal Sins and non-religious works
Table of the Seven Deadly Sins
Jheronimus Bosch (c. 1450–1516)
Oil on panel, 120 x 150 cm
c. 1505–10
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado. Depósito de Patrimonio Nacional

This section centres on the Table of the Seven Deadly Sins in the Prado and the incomplete Triptych of The Path of Life, comprising The Pedlar from Rotterdam, Death and the Miser from Washington, The Ship of Fools from the Louvre and Allegory of Intemperance from New Haven.

Also on display are the drawing entitled Grotesque with a Man in a Basket from the Albertina in Vienna, The Conjurer from the museum in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Concert in an Egg from Lille, and The Battle between Carnival and Lent from the Noordsbrabant Museum in ’s-Hertogenbosch, the latter three by followers of Bosch.

The Passion of Christ

The Passion of Christ
Saint John the Evangelist on Patmos / The Passion of Christ
Jheronimus Bosch (c. 1450–1516)
Oil on panel, 63 x 43.3 cm
c. 1505
Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie

The exhibition is completed with works relating to Christ’s Passion: Ecce Homo from Frankfurt, The Crowning with Thorns from the National Gallery in London, two versions of Christ carrying the Cross from El Escorial and Vienna, The Passion Triptych from Valencia, by a follower, and three drawings: The Entombment of Christ from the British Museum, Two Orientals in a Landscape from Berlin, and Two Men from a private collection in New York.

In addition to the depiction of episodes from the Passion in grisaille on the reverse of The Adoration of the Magi, Saint John the Evangelist on Patmos and The Temptation of Saint Anthony, Bosch also depicted these scenes as separate works. In the latter type he reduced the number of figures, while Christ looks out at the viewer, appealing to us and arousing sentiments of anguish and compassion, suggesting the influence on the artist of the spiritual trend that promoted an ascetic life and prayer.

Artworks

1

Jheronimus van Aken, called Bosch

Cornelis Cort (1533-1578), engraver

Engraving (first state), 195 x 123 mm

c. 1565

London, on loan from The British Museum

2

Cloth market in ’s-Hertogenbosch

Unknown Flemish artist

Oil on panel, 126 x 67 cm

c. 1530

’s-Hertogenbosch (Low Countries), Het Noordbrabants Museum

3

Ecce Homo Triptych

Workshop of Jheronimus Bosch

Oil on panel. 73.4 x 58.4 cm (centre panel), 69.3 x 26 cm (left panel), 69.2 x 26 cm (right panel), 15.5 x 68.4 cm (predella)

c. 1500

Boston, Museum of Fine Arts:William K. Richardson Fund, William Francis Warden Fund, and Juliana Cheney Edwards Collection. Gift of Arthur Kauffmann (left panel), (right panel) and (predella)

4

The War Elephant

Alart Du Hameel (c. 1450-1506/7)

Engraving, 203 x 327 mm

c. 1490

Vienna, Albertina

5

The Last Judgment

Alart du Hameel (c. 1450-1506/07)

Engraving, 243 x 355 mm

c. 1490

Vienna, Albertina

6

Lovers with a fool by a fountain

Alart du Hameel (c. 1450-1506/07)

Engraving (unique impression), 244 x 117 mm

c. 1490

London, on loan from The British Museum

7

Comentario de la pintura y pintores antiguos

Felipe de Guevara (c. 1500–1563)

Manuscript on paper, 300 x 228 mm; 2 + 100 fols

c. 1600

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca, Ms/8

8

Augustus and the Tiburtine Sibyl

Adriaen van Wesel (1417–1489/90)

Polychromed oak wood, 48.2 x 34.5 x 17 cm

c. 1476–77

’s-Hertogenbosch (Low Countries). Collection Museum het Zwanenbroedershuis, courtesy Het Noordbrabants Museum, ’s-Hertogenbosch

9

Saint John the Evangelist on Patmos

Adriaen van Wesel (1417–1489/90)

Polychromed oak wood (traces of original polychromy), 48.2 x 34.5 x 17 cm

c. 1476–77

’s-Hertogenbosch (Low Countries). Collection Museum het Zwanenbroedershuis, courtesy Het Noordbrabants Museum, ’s-Hertogenbosch

10

The Adoration of the Magi

Jheronimus Bosch

Oil and gold on panel, 71.1 x 56.5 cm

c. 1475

New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, John Stewart Kennedy Fund

11

Thistle leaves

Alart du Hameel (c. 1450-1506/07)

Engraving, 87 x 197 mm

c. 1490

Dresden, Kupferstich-Kabinett, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden

13

The Wedding at Cana (with a donor and a bishop saint)

Follower of Jheronimus Bosch

Pen, brown ink, over black chalk, 281 x 209 mm

c. 1550–70

Paris, Musée du Louvre, département des Arts graphiques, collection Edmond de Rothschild

14

The Adoration of the Magi

Jheronimus Bosch (and workshop?)

Oil on panel, 77.5 x 55.9 cm

1495–1516

Philadelphia Museum of Art, John G. Johnson Collection, 1917

15

Beggars and Cripples

Follower of Jheronimus Bosch

Pen, ochre-coloured ink, 285 x 208 mm

c. 1520–40

Vienna, Albertina

16

Bocetos para unas Tentaciones de san Antonio / Monstruos y jinete con lanza

Jheronimus Bosch

Tinta parda a pluma, 206 x 263 mm

1495–1505

París, Musée du Louvre, département des Arts graphiques

17

Saint Wilgefortis Triptych

Jheronimus Bosch

Oil on panel. 105.2 x 62.7 cm (centre panel); 105 x 27.5 cm (left panel); 104.7 x 27.9 cm (right panel)

c. 1495–1505

Venice, Gallerie dell’Accademia

18

Saint Cristopher carrying the Christ Child

Jheronimus Bosch

Oil on panel, 112.7 x 71.8 cm

c. 1490–1500

Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, inv. no. St 26 (Koenigs Collection)

19

Saint Jerome at Prayer

Jheronimus Bosch

Oil on panel, 80 x 60.7 cm

c. 1490–1500

Ghent (Belgium), Museum voor Schone Kunsten

20

Saint Anthony Triptych

Jheronimus Bosch

Oil on panel. 131.5 x 111.9 cm (centre panel); 131.5 x 53 cm (left and right panels)

c. 1500–5

Lisbon, Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga

21

The Temptation of Saint Anthony (fragment)

Jheronimus Bosch

Oil on panel, 38.6 x 25.1 cm

c. 1505–10

Kansas City, Missouri, The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art (Purchase: William Rockhill Nelson Trust)

23

Saint John the Baptist in the Wilderness

Jheronimus Bosch

Oil on panel, 48 x 40 cm

c. 1485–1510

Madrid, Fundación Lázaro Galdiano

24

Saint John the Evangelist on Patmos / The Passion of Christ

Jheronimus Bosch

Oil on panel, 63 x 43.3 cm

c. 1505

Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie

25

Job Triptych

Follower of Jheronimus Bosch

Oil on panel. 98.3 x 72.1 cm (centre panel); 98.1 x 39.5 cm (left panel); 97.8 x 30.2 cm (right panel)

c. 1510–15

Bruges, Musea Brugge. City of Bruges. Groeningemuseum

27

Grotesque walking head and small toad-monster (verso). (In the recto side: Two monsters)

Jheronimus Bosch

Pen, brown ink, 85 x 182 mm

c. 1505–15

Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett

29

The Ship of Fools in flames

Workshop of Jheronimus Bosch

Pen, grey-brown ink, 175 x 154 mm

c. 1505–15

Vienna, Akademie der Bildenden Künste. Graphische Sammlung

30

Hellish scene with anvil and monsters (recto). (In the verso side: Seven monsters)

Workshop of Jheronimus Bosch

Pen, grey-brown ink, 156 x 176 mm

c. 1510–20

Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett

31

Visions of the Hereafter

Jheronimus Bosch

Oil on panel.From left to right:

The Garden of Eden. 88.5 x 39.8 cm

The Ascent of the Blessed, 88.8 x 39.9 cm

The Fall of the Damned, 88.8 x 39.6 cm

Hell, 88.8 x 39.6 cm

1505–15

Venice, Gallerie dell’Accademia

32

The Last Judgment Triptych

Jheronimus Bosch  

Oil on panel. 99.2 x 60.5 cm (centre panel); 99.5 x 28.8 (left panel); 99.5 x 28.6 cm (right panel)

c. 1505–15

Brugge, Musea Brugge. City of Bruges. Groeningemuseum

33

Tree-man

Jheronimus Bosch

Pen, brown ink, 227 x 211 mm

c. 1500–10

Vienna, Albertina

34

Les visions du chevalier Tondal

Simon Marmion (c. 1425-1489), miniaturist David Aubert (active 1449–79), copyist

Miniature on parchment, 363 x 262 mm. Fols. 16v-17r

1475

Los Angeles, The J. Paul Getty Museum

35

Engelbrecht II, Count of Nassau

Master of the Princely Portraits (active c. 1470–92)

Oil on panel, 33.5 x 24 cm

c. 1475

Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Gift of H.W.C. Tietje

36

The Book of Hours of Engelbrecht of Nassau (Dominican use)

Vienna Master of Mary of Burgundy (active c. 146983), miniaturist Nicolas Spierinc (active c. 1453-99), copyist

Miniature on parchment, 138 x 97 mm. Fols. 132v-133r

c. 1475-80

Oxford, The Bodleian Libraries, University of Oxford

38

Two male figures / The Temptation of Eve

Jheronimus Bosch

Pen and grey-brown ink, 137 x 103 mm

c. 1505–15

Courtesy The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, private collection

39

Grotesque with a man in a basket / Grotesque with a man in a basket and witch

Jheronimus Bosch

Pen, brown and grey-brown ink, 192 x 270 mm

c. 1510–15

Vienna, Albertina

40

The Concert in the Egg

Follower of Jheronimus Bosch

Oil on canvas, 108 x 126.5 cm

c. 1550–1600

Lille, Palais des Beaux-Arts

41

The Battle between Carnival and Lent

Follower of Jheronimus Bosch

Oil on panel, 59 x 118.5 cm

c. 1540–50

’s-Hertogenbosch (Low Countries), Het Noordbrabants Museum

42

The Conjurer

Follower of Jheronimus Bosch

Oil on panel, 53.7 x 65.2 cm

After 1496

St-Germain-en-Laye, Musée municipal

45

The owl’s nest

Jheronimus Bosch

Pen, brown and grey-brown ink, 140 x 196 mm

1505–15

Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen,(Koenigs Collection)

46

The Pilgrimage of Life

Jheronimus Bosch

Oil on panel

c. 1505-16

The Ship of Fools

Jheronimus Bosch

Oil on panel, 58.1 x 32.8 cm

Paris, Musée du Louvre, département des Peintures. Don de Camille Benoit, 1918

Allegory of Intemperance

Jheronimus Bosch

Oil on panel, 34.9 x 30.6 cm

New Haven, Ct., Yale University Art Gallery, Gift of Hannah D. and Louis M. Rabinowitz

The Pedlar

Jheronimus Bosch

Oil on panel, 71.3 x 70.7 cm (octagonal)

Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, inv. no. 1079 (Acquired with the support of: Vereniging Rembrandt, D.G. van Beuningen, F.W. Koenigs and J.P. van der Schilden).

Death and the Miser

Jheronimus Bosch

Oil on panel, 94.3 x 32.4 cm

Washington, D.C., National Gallery of Art, Samuel H. Kress Collection

47

Two Orientals in a landscape

Jheronimus Bosch

Pen and brush in grey-brown ink, white highlights, over black chalk, 138 x 108 mm

c. 1500

Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett

48

Ecce Homo

Jheronimus Bosch

Oil on panel, 71.1 x 60.5 cm

c. 1485–95

Frankfurt am Main, Städel Museum, Property of the Städelscher Museums-Verein e.V.

49

Christ carrying the Cross

Jheronimus Bosch

Oil on panel, 142.3 x 104.5 cm

c. 1500

Colecciones Reales. Patrimonio Nacional, Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo del Escorial

50

Christ carrying the Cross / The Christ Child playing

Jheronimus Bosch

Oil on panel, 59.7 x 32 cm

c. 1505/10–16

Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Gemäldegalerie

51

The Passion Triptych

Follower or workshop of Jheronimus Bosch

Oil on panel. 139.7 x 170.2 cm (centre panel); 152.5 x 85.6 cm (left panel); 152.4 x 84.5 cm (right panel)

c. 1520–30

Valencia, Museo de Bellas Artes

52

Christ Mocked (The Crowning with Thorns)

Jheronimus Bosch

Oil on panel, 73.8 x 59 cm

c. 1510

London, National Gallery, bought, 1934

53

The Entombment of Christ

Jheronimus Bosch (?)

Brush in black and grey ink with grey wash over black chalk, 253 x 305 mm

c. 1505–15

London, on loan from the British Museum

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