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Painting from the Viceroyalties. Shared Identities in the Hispanic World

Museo Nacional del Prado and Palacio Real. Madrid 10/26/2010 - 1/30/2011

The exhibition will include works made in Spain for the South American market, paintings by European artists working in Nueva España and Peru, paintings by artists born in South America and works made in Europe for a European public but which function to define a frame of reference for the activities of artists working for the viceroyalties.

The scholarly argument of the exhibition will allow for a better understanding of painting from Nueva España and the Viceroyalty of Peru. It is organised into sections that analyse the professional context of artistic production, stylistic development and iconographic issues with the intention of offering a complete vision of origins and influences and of the levels of quality and originality achieved within this chapter of the history of western art.

The exhibition aims to bring the European public closer to an area of 16th- and 17th-century painting that has generally been excluded from the art historical literature on painting, while demonstrating to what degree the Spanish monarchy was a motor for artistic and intellectual stimulus. In addition, it will assist in a better understanding of South American painting, opening up new research paths and offering a clearer explanation of the role of Spain with regard to its capacity to create cultural processes within its territories.

Contents shown below (Sections, List of works, Activities...) belong to the exhibition at its seat at the Museo del Prado. The information on the exhibition at its main seat can be viewed at Palacio Real.

Curator:
Jonathan Brown

Access

Room C. Jerónimos Building

Opening time

Tuesday to Sunday from 9am to 8pm

Supported by:
Citibank
Banamex. Fomento cultural
Ministerio de Cultura, Gobierno de España
Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes
Organized by:
Patrimonio Nacional
Sociedad Estatal de Conmemoraciones Culturales
Fomento Cultural Banamex
In collaboration with:
Fundación Roberto Hernández Ramírez
Secretaría de Relaciones Externas de México – Embajada de México en España
Aeroméxico
Fundación Alfredo Harp Helú

Multimedia

Exhibition

Exhibition

Exhibition
Saint Teresa Receives the Necklace and Veil
Cristóbal de Villalpando
Oil on canvas, 205 x 134 cm.
ca. 1680 - 1690
Ciudad de México, Templo San Felipe Neri. La Profesa

The exhibition held at the Prado is complementary to the one at the Palacio Real and further emphasises its aim, namely that of identifying a common idiom as well as specific local characteristics.

At the Prado the exhibition (whose scholarly coordinator is Javier Portús, Chief Curator of Spanish Painting) consists of three principal sections: an introductory one that includes two prints based on compositions by Martin de Vos and Rubens shown alongside Spanish paintings from Nueva España and Peru inspired by them; a section that traces the principal lines of stylistic development in western painting in the 16th and 17th centuries through Spanish and South American works; and a final section that analyses the way that various common religious subjects were depicted in painting in South America and Spain, including the Immaculate Conception and female saints.

The Prado will be showing 39 works by European and South American artists including Bernardo Bitti, Sebastián López de Arteaga, Claudio Coello, Francisco de Zurbarán, Nicolás Rodríguez Juárez, and Cristóbal de Villalpando, as well as two prints, one loaned by the Albertina in Vienna. The installation will allow some of these large-scale works to be seen from a suitable distance, assisting in an appreciation of the originality and ambition of South American painting.

Models

Models
Communion of Saint Teresa
Juan Martín Cabezalero
Oil on canvas, 248 x 222 cm. ca. 1670
Madrid, Fundación Lázaro Galdiano

The history of painting during the early Modern Age can be explained as the result of a complex process of exchanges and transmissions of models. Two examples from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries respectively serve as an introduction to these mechanisms. In 1581 the Flemish painter Martin de Vos put his signature to the picture of Saint Michael the Archangel that hangs in Cuautitlán Cathedral, Mexico. Th e presence of this work in New Spain and its circulation through a print by Hieronymus Wierix caused the composition to spread across all the Spanish territories, as shown by the examples from Peru and Spain in this section.

The prints, original pictures and copies spread artistic languages and compositional formulas throughout Europe and the Americas. One of the most important cases during the seventeenth century was Rubens, who supplied American, Spanish, Italian and Flemish artists with models and played a decisive role in creating an international style. Villalpando’s Assumption is directly derived from a print based on a composition by the Flemish artist and is one of dozens of examples of the deep mark Rubens left on Spanish art and the art of New Spain.

Sixteenth-century painters

Sixteenth-century painters
Saint John Writing the Apocalypse
Martín de Vos
Oil on panel, 240 x 170 cm.
Second half XVIth Century
Tepotzotlán, Estado de México, Museo Nacional del Virreinato, INAH

Following the initial contact with America at the end of the 1400s, Spanish and Portuguese territorial expansion throughout the continent reached a peak in the sixteenth century. A complex administrative structure was established, new cities were founded and many settlers arrived from the Iberian Peninsula and other parts of Europe. Among the new settlers were many artists, who brought techniques, styles and compositional formulas learned in Europe and laid the foundations for the development of the visual arts and architecture in Latin America. It was a slow process, which became consolidated during the final decades of the century and involved artists from Italy, Flanders and Spain.

Such variety meant that the beginnings of the history of painting in Spanish America were very richly underpinned and refl ected major trends in European art. Th is is illustrated by the works in this section, which were executed by European-born painters such as the Italian Jesuit Bernardo Bitti, who settled in Cuzco in 1575; the Spaniard Alonso Vázquez, who after contributing to the development of Mannerism in Andalusia went to live in Mexico in 1603; and Mateo Pérez de Alesio, also an Italian, who began working in Lima in 1588. Other painters, such as Martin de Vos, sent their works from Europe.

Naturalism

Naturalism
Incredulity of Saint Thomas
Sebastián López de Arteaga
Oil on canvas, 226 x 156.5 cm.
ca. 1643
Ciudad de México, Museo Nacional de Arte, INBA

The early decades of the seventeenth century witnessed the spread across Europe of a movement in painting, spurred by artists such as Caravaggio, which advocated reality as the basic subject-matter in painting and used the chiaroscuro technique as the chief instrument for describing this “reality”. This was Naturalism, one of the most international trends in painting. The language of Naturalism was disseminated across Latin America during the middle decades of the century and interested most of the painters who were active at the time.

This section shows two facets of the phenomenon. Doubting Thomas is structured around a composition that is similar to models used by followers of Caravaggio active in Rome in the second decade of the century, such as Ribera. It was painted in 1643 by Sebastián López de Arteaga, a Sevillian pupil of Zurbarán who established himself in Mexico in 1640. His master was one of the most important disseminators of the naturalist language in Spanish America through paintings produced expressly for religious institutions, such as the set of apostles for the monastery of San Francisco in Lima, to which Saint James the Greater belongs.

The Baroque

The Baroque
The Apparition of the Virgin and Child to Saint Francis
José Juárez
Oil on canvas, 264 x 286 cm.
XVIIth Century
Ciudad de México, Museo Nacional de Arte, INBA

Beginning in the middle of the seventeenth century, the painters active in Spanish America and their patrons grew increasingly ambitious as regards formats, compositional solutions and pictorial language, and an expansive, vibrant style was developed which marks one of the peak moments in the history of painting in America. Four examples help understand the phenomenon. The large size of all four is suggestive of the extraordinary ambition and confidence in art of the time. The Lactation of Saint Dominic shows the highly personal style of Cristóbal de Villalpando and his eff ective technique for depicting very numerous groups of people in movement and for revealing a brilliant, supernatural reality. A comparison with The Death of Saint Dominic by the “Murillesque” Andalusian artist Juan Simón Gutiérrez reveals notable compositional similarities, though the Mexican artist employs a much higherkey palette. Th is emphasis on colour has often led him to be compared with Valdés Leal, and it is a characteristic shared by many other Spanish painters such as Claudio Coello. Villalpando started off producing works like that of the Mexican José Juárez, which is more restrained in colour but equally ambitious in composition.

Shared identities and local variants

Shared identities and local variants
Immaculate Conception
José Antolínez
Oil on canvas, 207 x 167 cm.
1666
Madrid, Fundación Lázaro Galdiano

The last section of the exhibition is the most fascinating and significant. As the title indicates, it shows the Spanish American painters’ gamut of responses to the various sources available to them. Arranged into thematic comparisons, these paintings function at several levels. The most evident is the relationship with Spanish painting, particularly that of Andalusia, and, to a lesser extent, that of Madrid. However, as we have seen in the previous section, American painters had access to images from other Crown territories, particularly Flanders, and were capable of interpreting for themselves how these sources could be used. They gradually developed what is known as a local tradition or an adaptation of Spanish artistic conventions, which they reshaped to fit the needs and requirements of their own societies.

This process is shown by arranging the paintings into themed groups which illustrate the “shared identities and local variants” in Hispanic painting from 1550 to 1720.

In the works on the subject of the Immaculate Conception, one of the most characteristic devotional focuses of the Spanish world, we find both the common basis shared by artists on either side of the ocean and the particular features of the output of the various centres, with the variants that progressively emerged in the symbols accompanying the image, in her posture and in the colour of her robes.

Artworks

1

The Annunciation

Schelte Adams Bolswert, from Peter Paul Rubens
Burin engraving, 61.5 x 43.9 cm
XVIIth Century
Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional

2

Assumption

Cristóbal de Villalpando
Oil on canvas, 225 x 178 cm
ca. 1680 - 1690
Guadalajara, Jalisco, Museo Regional de Guadalajara, INAH

3

Saint Michael Archangel

Hieronymus Wierix, from Martín de Vos
Engraving, 57.2 x 43.2 cm
1581
Vienna, Graphische Sammulung Albertina

4

Saint Michael Archangel

Cristóbal Vela Cobo
Oil on canvas, 177 x 117 cm
XVIIth Century
Córdoba, Museo de Bellas Artes de Córdoba

5

Saint Michael Archangel

Anonymous
Oil on canvas, 209 x 143.5 cm
ca. 1635 - 1640
Lima, Parroquia de San Pedro

6

Christ Resurrected

Bernardo Bitti
Oil on canvas, 213 x 117.5 cm
ca. 1603
Arequipa, Compañía de Jesús-Residencia del Sagrado Corazón

7

Virgin of Belén

Mateo Pérez de Alesio
Oil on copper, 49.5 x 40 cm
ca. 1604
Lima, Private Collection

8

Saint John Writing the Apocalypse

Martín de Vos
Oil on panel, 240 x 170 cm
Second half XVIth Century
Tepotzotlán, Estado de México, Museo Nacional del Virreinato, INAH

9

Immaculate

Alonso Vázquez
Oil on canvas, 283.6 x 206 cm
ca. 1590
Seville, Museo de Bellas Artes de Sevilla

11

Incredulity of Saint Thomas

Sebastián López de Arteaga
Oil on canvas, 226 x 156.5 cm
ca.1643
Ciudad de México, Museo Nacional de Arte, INBA

12

Santiago The Major. Apostolate Series

Francisco de Zurbarán
Oil on canvas, 199 x 115 cm
ca. 1637 - 1638
Lima, Orden Franciscana Seglar. Fraternidad de los XII Apóstoles de Lima

13

The Lactation of Saint Domingo

Cristóbal de Villalpando
Oil on canvas, 361 x 481 cm
1684 - 1695
Ciudad de México, Iglesia de Santo Domingo

14

Death of Saint Domingo

Juan Simón Gutiérrez
Oil on canvas, 166.5 x 383.5 cm
1710
Seville, Museo de Bellas Artes de Sevilla

16

The Apparition of the Virgin and Child to Saint Francis

José Juárez
Oil on canvas, 264 x 286 cm
XVIIth Century
Ciudad de México, Museo Nacional de Arte, INBA

17

Immaculate Conception

José Antolínez
Oil on canvas, 207 x 167 cm
1666
Madrid, Fundación Lázaro Galdiano

18

Franciscan Exaltation of the Immaculate Conception

Basilio de Salazar
Oil on canvas, 123 x 104 cm
1637
Querétaro, Museo Regional de Querétaro, INAH

19

Tota Pulchra

Maestro de San Ildefonso
Oil on canvas, 241 x 170 cm
First half of the XVIIth Century
Ciudad de México, Private collection

20

Virgin

Cristóbal de Villalpando
Oil on canvas, 206 x 142 cm
ca. 1680
Puebla, Catedral de Puebla

21

Virgin of the Immaculate Conception

Juan Carreño de Miranda
Oil on canvas, 211 x 145 cm
1670
New York, The Hispanic Society of America

22

Immaculate Conception

Anonymous
Oil on canvas, 207 x 145.3 cm
Last quarter of the XVIIth Century
Lima, Orden Franciscana Seglar. Fraternidad de los XII Apóstoles de Lima

23

Tota Pulchra

Baltasar de Echave Ibía
Oil on canvas, 191 x 121.5 cm
XVIIth Century
Ciudad de México, Museo Nacional de Arte, INBA

24

Virgin of the Apocalypse

Juan Correa
Oil on canvas, 234 x 124 cm
ca. 1689
Tepotzotlán, Estado de México, Museo Nacional del Virreinato, INAH

25

Virgin of Guadalupe

Antonio Rodríguez
Oil on canvas, 187 x 107.5 cm
End of the XVIIth Century
Ciudad de México, Private collection

26

Ecstasy of Saint Teresa

Nicolás Rodríguez Juárez
Oil on canvas, 217 x 144 cm
1692
Tepotzotlán, Estado de México, Museo Nacional del Virreinato, INAH

27

Saint Teresa Receives the Necklace and Veil

Cristóbal de Villalpando
Oil on canvas, 205 x 134 cm
ca. 1680 - 1690
Ciudad de México, Templo San Felipe Neri. La Profesa

28

Saint Teresa

Francisco de Zurbarán
Oil on canvas, 276 x 196 cm
ca. 1650
Seville, Catedral de Sevilla

29

Communion of Saint Teresa

Juan Martín Cabezalero
Oil on canvas, 248 x 222 cm
ca. 1670
Madrid, Fundación Lázaro Galdiano

30

Ecstasy of Saint Teresa

Anonymous
Oil on canvas, 240 x 182 cm
XVIIIth Century
Arequipa, Monasterio de Carmelitas Descalzas de San José y Santa Teresa

31

Saint Úrsula

Francisco de Zurbarán
Oil on canvas, 171.5 x 104.8 cm
Genoa, Musei di Strada Nuova - Palazzo Bianco

32

Saint Catalina of Alexandria

Diego de Borgraf
Oil on canvas, 167 x 116.2 cm
1656
Denver, Colorado, Frederick and Jan Mayer

33

Saint Úrsula

Anonymous
Oil on canvas, 177 x 150 cm
Second half of the XVIIth Century
Ciudad de México, Private collection

34

Saint Barbara

Anonymous
Oil on canvas, 162 x 110.5 cm
XVIIth Century
Lima, Barbosa-Stern

35

Saint Agueda

Anonymous
Oil on canvas, 215 x 147 cm
XVIIth Century
Lima, Parroquia de San Pedro

36

The Four Elements (obverse) / Liberal Arts (back)

Juan Correa
Oil on canvas, folding screen with six sides, 242 x 324 cm
ca. 1670
Ciudad de México, Museo Franz Mayer

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