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The Master of Paper. Drawing Books from the Seventeenth to the Nineteenth Centuries

Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid 10/15/2019 - 2/2/2020

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Among the events organised to celebrate its Bicentenary, the Museo del Prado is presenting The master of paper. Spanish drawing books of the 17th to 19th centuries. The exhibition offers a reflection on the use of drawing books as an essential teaching tool for learning to draw and their evolution in Europe, including Spain.

Featuring more than 100 examples, the majority from the Prado’s own Library - which is one of the most important in this field thanks to the acquisition of Juan Bordes’s collection of drawing books in addition to the examples from the Madrazo and Cervelló libraries and other individual acquisitions - the exhibition offers a survey of these repertoires of prints based on the human figure which revolutionised the system of teaching drawing in artists’ workshops and Fine Arts academies as well as for amateurs at home.

Drawing books, also known as manuals of principles, first appeared in Italy in the early years of the 17th century and rapidly spread across Europe. Their innovative aspect was the use of prints as the means to compile different models which allowed apprentices and students to learn to draw without the direct presence and supervision of the master. The human body became the principal subject of study, and to achieve the maximum degree of correctness a method was devised that fragmented it into multiple different elements. This allowed students to progress from the particular to the general, from the simple to the complex and from outline to volume. Drawing books started with the parts of the face - eyes, mouth and nose - then moved on to the arms, hands, legs and feet and concluded with the study of complete figures. This new educational tool completely revolutionised the system of teaching drawing and became an important and influential resource capable of transmitting a method and specific prototypes as well as the particular style of some artists.

Due to the material of which they are made (paper) and the fact that they were constantly in use in artists’ studios, academies and private homes, few examples of these books have survived to the present day. In addition, their status as teaching material has meant that their artistic merit has been insufficiently appreciated and they have thus frequently passed unnoticed even though they were often the work of renowned painters, sculptors and printmakers.

The acquisition of Juan Bordes’s collection of drawing books, in addition to the examples from the Madrazo library, that of José María Cervelló and individual acquisitions by the Museum, has created a very significant holding that makes the Library of the Prado one of the most important in the world in this field. As a result, this exhibition aims to introduce visitors to these holdings as the culmination of a broader project that has involved the methodical cataloguing, study and digitalisation of the drawing books housed in the Prado and which on its completion will allow researchers around the world to access this holding from the digital library. Within this collaborative project the work undertaken by the departments of paper restoration, publication and the photographic archive have been particularly important.

Curators:
José Manuel Matilla, Museo Nacional del Prado Senior Curator Drawings and Prints and María Luisa Cuenca, Head of Library, Archive and Documentation Department at Museo Nacional del Prado.

Access

Room D. Jerónimos Building

Multimedia

Exhibition

The Exhibition

The Exhibition
The practice of the Arts
Cornelis Cort (h. 1533-1578)
Joannes Stradanus (1523-1605)
1573
Madrid, MNP, Gabinete de Dibujos y Estampas

In the early 17th century a body of instructional material was produced in Italy that changed the traditional methodology of teaching drawing which had until that moment essentially involved drawing from life and copying plaster casts and in some cases drawings provided by the master. This new material comprised drawing books, also known as manuals of principles. Their innovative aspect was the use of prints as the means to compile different models and parts of the human body, as a result of which the study of drawing acquired a new dimension.

These manuals of prints were based on a teaching model that allowed the student to advance without the presence and supervision of the master through the schematic images, proportions, outlines and hatching reproduced in them. By means of continual and repetitive copying of the models depicted in these prints aspiring artists were able to memorise their appearance and progress with regard to both the proficiency and quality of their drawing and their comprehension of the human body. Understanding how this teaching material was used is fundamental for an appreciation of the degree of effectiveness of drawing manuals in the process of learning the discipline of drawing.

With these books the human body thus became the principal motif for drawing, and as such its fragmentation into its numerous different parts allowed students to progress from separate details to the whole. They consequently advanced from the particular to the general, from the simple to the complex and from outline to volume. Drawing books started with the elements of the face - eyes, mouth, nose and ears - followed by the arms, hands, legs and feet and finally studies of torsos and whole figures. The models were varied and diverse; male and female figures predominated, many of them based on classical sculptures. Also notable were studies of children and putti and in some cases animals.

As a result, drawing books completely revolutionised the system of teaching drawing and became a much used and important resource capable of transmitting a method and specific models in a way comparable to the particular manner and style of some artists. It was the possibility that these books offered for learning to draw without a teacher that widely extended the teaching of drawing, allowing for long-distance instruction. The importance of drawing books was thus extremely long-lasting and their status, influence and use reveals their effectiveness.

Learning to draw: masters and pupils

Learning to draw: masters and pupils
Livre de Pourtraicture, [s.l.: s.n., s.a.]
Jean Cousin (h. 1522-1594)
Madrid, MNP, Biblioteca, Bord/65

Any aspiring artist in whatever discipline inevitably began his or her studies with the practice of drawing. Through the few surviving visual examples depicted in rare, mid-16th-century prints which show scenes in the studio we know that the youngest apprentices devoted their time to repetitively memorising and copying teaching models provided by their masters, either in the form of prints or drawings. As these students advanced in manual dexterity and quality they moved on to exercises of copying plaster casts and drawing from life. With the appearance of drawing books this praxis was partly modified as supervision by the master no longer had to be so direct and first-hand. An even more interesting consequence was the significant rise in the number of people wishing to learn to draw as the teaching process ceased to be limited to artists’ direct circles or studios and now extended to amateurs and private individuals who could learn to draw at home by simply following the guidelines and instructions in these manuals. The notion of “learning to draw without a teacher” thus became possible.

Italian drawing books and the development of the method

Italian drawing books and the development of the method
Il vero modo et ordine per dissegnar tutte le parti et membra del corpo humano, Venetia: Remondini, siglo XVIII (1º ed. de 1608)
Odoardo Fialetti (1573-h. 1638)
Madrid, MNP, Biblioteca, Bord/131

In the space of barely a decade the first three drawing books were published in Italy which gave rise to this teaching method. While all of them are based on the same premise, that of learning to draw from the particular to the general, in other words from the face to the complete human figure, their approaches and methods are notably different. Odoardo Fialetti opted for a system based on line in which the use of a succession of strokes enabled the student to memorise each element in order to create the desired model. In contrast, the Carracci introduced a method through which the student started with the outlines of the figures, drawing only their linear elements, and having mastered that aspect then moved on to achieve the desired volumes. Finally, Giacomo Franco and Palma Giovane proposed a more visually crowded method in which the models were clustered together to occupy the entire composition, meaning that the student was required to carefully observe the figures and memorise the forms in order to be able to draw with them without recourse to the manual.

The three systems were extremely successful and subsequent drawing books published in Italy imitated all these methods. While they differed in nature the three coincided in establishing and disseminating the same canons of proportion and beauty.

The internationalisation of models

The internationalisation of models
Eerste Beginselen Der Teken-Kunst, Vervattende in haar veelerlei Oogen, Neusen, Monden, Ooren…, Amsterdam: By de Wed[uwe] J. Ottens, en Zoone, h. 1720 [primera edición de 1650-56]
Abraham Bloemaert (1566-1651)
Madrid, MNP, Biblioteca, Bord/73

From the time of their first appearance drawing books achieved a significant presence on an international level. With regard to the rapid dissemination of Italian models throughout Europe, it is evident that they arrived almost immediately and simultaneously in the different countries of this region. Flemish and Italian artists were the first to engrave and publish this educational material, closely followed by French ones. While all these books reveal evident Italian influences, the stylistic characteristics of each place and the unique traits of the different artists are also evident. In addition to the effectiveness of the method, key factors that explain this successful reception include the promotional aspect, as it is not surprising that throughout Europe there was a desire to learn to draw in the manner of celebrated Italian artists such as Guercino, Della Bella and Palma Giovane, among others. Drawing books allowed a common methodology to extend across Europe which favoured the internationalisation of a teaching method based on the power of images.

Spanish drawing books

Spanish drawing books
Modelos de narices y bocas
José de Ribera (1591-1652)
Private collection

Drawing books soon made their appearance in Spain. The presence of Italian artists at court combined with the trips made by young Spanish apprentices to Italy meant that these educational resources rapidly circulated in the country’s different artistic contexts. This was all the more important given that this period also saw the project to establish an art academy in Madrid comparable in nature to that of San Lucca in Rome. As a result, the earliest models engraved by a Spanish artist were published in Madrid just three decades after the first drawing book appeared in Italy.

Although the number of such Spanish manuals published between the 17th and 19th centuries was small, they are of exceptional interest as not only did they soon reflect this emerging artistic tradition but were notable from the outset  for their autochthonous and on occasions innovative nature and for their inclusion of distinctive elements that reflect national artistic traits.

Artworks

1

Academia de Baccio Bandinelli

Enea Vico según Baccio Bandinelli

Grabado al buril, 31 x 48 cm

c. 1546-1561

Colección Furió

2

Academia de pintor

Pier Francesco Alberti

c. 1615

Londres, The British Museum

The practice of the Arts
3

The practice of the Arts

Cornelis Cort

Aguafuerte y buril sobre papel verjurado, 43,6 x 29,7 cm

1573

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

4

Color olivi

Seguidor de Johannes Stradanus. (Iluminado, atribuida a Hans Collaert)

Grabado al buril coloreado, 20,3 x 27 cm

c. 1580-1605

Colección Furió

5

Libellus artificiosus omnibus pictoribus, statuariis, aurifabris, lapidicidis, arculariis, laminariis et cultrariis fabris sumopere utilis…

Heinrich Vogtherr

1540

París, Bibliothèque nationale de France

6

Hierin sind begriffen vier bücher von menschlicher Proportion durch Albrechten Dürer von Nürenberg erfunden und beschriben, zu nuk allen denen, zu diser Lunst lieb tragen

Alberto Durero

Entalladura, 30,8 x 21 x 2,8 cm

1528

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

7

De varia commensuracion para la esculptura y architectura…

Juan de Arfe y Villafañe

1585 - 1587

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

8

L'art de dessiner, Par Jean Cousin, Excallent peintre François. A Paris, chez Jacques-François Chepeau

Cousin

c. 1595

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

9

The Art of Drawing with the Pen, and limming in water colours, ... with the true manner of painting upon glasse, the order of making your furnace, annealing, etc.

Henry Peacham

1606

Londres, The British Library

10

Retrato de un hijo de Carmona

Manuel Salvador Carmona

Lápiz negro, sanguina y clarión sobre papel agarbanzado oscuro verjurado, 22,2 x 26 cm

1799-1804

Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional de España

11

Leerling in een atelier

Pieter Feddes van Harlingen

Ámsterdam, Loan from the Rijksmuseum

12

Arte de escreuir inventada conel favor de Dios porel maestro P.o Diaz Morante, conlaqual sabran escreuir en muy breue tiempo, y con gran destreza y gala, todos los que con quenta y cudicia le imitaren y con particularidad hombres, y mancebos

Pedro Díaz Morante

Grabado calcográfico, 34 x 48 cm

1616

Madrid, Real Academia Española. Biblioteca, Legado Rodríguez - Moñino-María Brey

13

Muestra caligráfica: eles, emes y otras letras trabadas

Pedro Díaz Morante

Grabado calcográfico, 34 x 48 cm

1616

Madrid, Real Academia Española. Biblioteca, Legado Rodríguez - Moñino-María Brey

14

Ejercicios de dibujo por los príncipes

Aranjuez, enero de 1802, 1802

Fernado VII, rey de España

Dibujos a lápiz de grafito, Dib 1: 16 x 16,5

Dib 4: 10,5 x 18,6 cm

Dib 6: 10,5 x 19,7 cm

Dib 21: 13,5 x 21,5 cm

Madrid, Colecciones Reales. Patrimonio Nacional, Real Biblioteca

15

Álbum de dibujo de María Luisa de Orleans

María Luisa Reina consorte de Carlos II, Rey de España

Pluma, lápiz  grafito, aguadas pardas y de colores sobre papel agarbanzado, 21,6 x 28,9 x 2,7 cm

c. 1673

Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional de España

16

Scelta di disegni del Caracci, Parmegiani et di Guido Reni itagliati da Francesco Curti

Francesco Curti

c. 1630-1660

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

17

Arte nueva de escribir inventada por ... Pedro Diaz Morante e ilustrada ... por D. Francisco Xavier de Santiago Palomares... de la Real Sociedad Bascongada de los Amigos del Pais ; se publica a expensas de la referida Real Sociedad ...-- En Madrid: en la, 1776

Pedro Díaz Morante

Madrid, Real Academia Española. Biblioteca

18

Método sucinto i compendioso de cinco simetrias apropiadas a las cinco ordenes de arquitectura..., 1730-1739., 1730-1739

Matías de Irala

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

19

Estampa del taller

Copia de Odoardo Fialetti

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

Il vero modo et ordine per dissegnar tutte le parti et membra del corpo humano
20

Il vero modo et ordine per dissegnar tutte le parti et membra del corpo humano

Odoardo Fialetti

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

21

Il vero modo et ordine per dissegnar tutte le parti et membra del corpo humano. Tutte le parti del corpo humano diviso in piu pezzi. Inventato, delineato, et intagliato da--Ju. Sadeler excu

Odoardo Fialetti

c. 1600

Ámsterdam, Loan from the Rijksmuseum

22

Artis pictoriae ex operibus Hannib. Caracii : con cinnata

Carracci

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

23

Scuola perfetta per imparare a disegnare

Publicación [Roma?]

Buril, 30,7 x 20,5 x 2,9 cm

c. 1599-1614?

Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional de España

24

Modelos de torsos

Giacomo Franco

Buril sobre papel verjurado, 30,7 x 20,2 cm

c. 1611

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

25

Estudio de figuras

Giacomo Franco y Jacopo Palma

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

Della Nobilitá del disegno, diviso in due libri, nel primo, si può imparar`a disegnare con facilità… secondo, si veggono in oltre alcuni camei, trionfi, ornamenti, et animali cavati da gemme et p... (Texte imprimé)
26

Della Nobilitá del disegno, diviso in due libri, nel primo, si può imparar`a disegnare con facilità… secondo, si veggono in oltre alcuni camei, trionfi, ornamenti, et animali cavati da gemme et p... (Texte imprimé)

De Excellentia et nobilitate delineation

Giacomo Franco

1611

París, Bibliothèque nationale de France

27

I primi elementi del disegno in gratia de i principianti nell'arte della pittura

Giovanni Luigi Valesio

c. 1606-1616

Viena, The Albertina Museum

28

Estudio de bocas y ojos

Anónimo italiano

Pluma, pincel, tinta y aguadas pardas sobre papel verjurado amarillento, 25,3 x 37,1 (dimensiones soporte secundario); 19,6 x 32,8 (dimensiones dibujo) cm

s. XVIII

Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional de España

29

Estudio de ojos

Anónimo italiano

Pluma, pincel, tinta y aguadas pardas sobre papel verjurado amarillento, 25,3 x 36,8 (dimensiones soporte secundario); 19,7 x 30,8 (dimensiones dibujo) cm

s. XVIII

Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional de España

30

Essemplario della nobile arte del dissegno

Francesco Cavazzoni

1612

Biblioteca dell'Archiginnasio

Sereniss. Mantuae Duci Ferdinando Gonzaghae DD. Jo. Franciscus Barberius Centen. Inventor ; Oliverius Gattus sculpsit
31

Sereniss. Mantuae Duci Ferdinando Gonzaghae DD. Jo. Franciscus Barberius Centen. Inventor ; Oliverius Gattus sculpsit

Il Guercino

1619

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

32

Principii del disegno

Stefano della Bella

c. 1641

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

33

Principii del disegno

Stefano della Bella

c. 1641

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

34

Facillima methodus delineandi ommnes humani corporis partes

Esegrenio y Colombina

c. 1770

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

35

Alfabeto in sogno, esemplare per disegnare…

Giuseppe Maria Mitelli

1683

Londres, The British Museum

36

Alfabeto in sogno, esemplare per disegnare… The letter A and B

Giuseppe Maria Mitelli

1683

Londres, The British Museum

37

Alfabeto pittorico secondo i vaghi Capricy del Mitelli : ovvero esemplare per disegnare intagliato da D. Antonio Gabaldón, fl.

Antonio Gabladón

1730-1750

Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional de España

38

Principj del disegno tratti dalle piu eccellenti statue antiche per li giovani che vogliono incamminarsi nello studio delle belle arti pubblicati ed incisi da Giovanni Volpato e Raffaelle Morghen

Giovanni Volpato

1786

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

39

Principios del dibujo sacados de las mas excelentes estatuas antiguas para los jobenes, que quieren instruirse en las bellas artes publicados

Giovanni Volpato

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

40

Studieblad met negentien hoofden

Pieter Feddes van Harlingen

Grabado, 16,7 x 12,1 cm

1615

Ámsterdam, Loan from the Rijksmuseum

41

DIAGRAPHIA, sive ars delineatoria, in qua ad amussim proponuntur principia, necnon ratio sive modus, quo ducenda sint prima operum lineamenta…

Joannes Janssonius

1616

Utrecht University Library

42

La prima-[quinta] parte della luce del dipingere et disegnare, ... messa in luce diligentemente da Crispino del Passo, con molte belle stampe = Eerste-[vijfde] deel van't light der teken en schilder konst, ...

Crispijn van de Passe

1654

Utrecht University Library

43

The Artist and his models

Frederik Bloemaert; After: Abraham Bloemaert

Londres, The British Museum

Eerste beginselen der Teken-Kunst : vervattende in haar veelerlei oogen, neusen, monden, ooren als meede natuurlyke beweegingen van hoofden, troniën
44

Eerste beginselen der Teken-Kunst : vervattende in haar veelerlei oogen, neusen, monden, ooren als meede natuurlyke beweegingen van hoofden, troniën

Abraham Bloemaert

1740

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

45

Tres estudios: virgen, cabeza masculina y plantas

Abraham Bloemaert

c. 1625-1650

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

46

Eerste Teekenboek

Petig

1757 - 1758

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

47

Ontslote deure der tekenkunst, waarin, door natuurlyke voorbeelden

Hoet

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

48

Diversche figuren wt de Academia

Pieter de Jode

1629

Amberes, Museum Plantin-Moretus / Prentenkabinet, Antwerp -UNESCO World Heritage-

Petrus Paulus Rubbens delineavit
49

Petrus Paulus Rubbens delineavit

Pedro Pablo Rubens

c.1630

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

50

Diferentes manieres de dessiner et peindre, c. 1640-1650. Cerv/221 o Recueil de figures : pour apprendre à dessiner sans mâitre le portrait, la figure, l'histoire et le paysage

Abraham Bosse

1737

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

Nouveaux principes de dessein ; et Diferents caracters des passions
51

Nouveaux principes de dessein ; et Diferents caracters des passions

Charles Le Brun

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

52

Nouveaux principes de dessein ; et Diferents caracters des passions

Charles Le Brun

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

53

Nouveaux principes de dessein ; et Diferents caracters des passions

Charles Le Brun

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

54

Nouveaux principes de dessein ; et Diferents caracters des passions

Charles Le Brun

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

55

Principes de dessein Par S. le Clerc A Paris chez Jeaurat au bas fossez S. Victor

Le Clerc

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

56

Méthode pour apprendre le dessein... enrichie de 100 planches représentant différentes parties du corps humain d'après Raphaël et les autres grands maîtres...

Jombert

1755

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

Estudio de narices y bocas
57

Estudio de narices y bocas

José de Ribera

Aguafuerte, 13,9 x 21,3 cm

c. 1622 (primer estado)

Colección Particular, Madrid

58

Estudio de orejas

José de Ribera

Aguafuerte, 14,5 x 21,9 cm

1622

Colección Particular, Madrid

59

Estudio de ojos

José de Ribera

Aguafuerte, 14,5 x 21,8 cm

c. 1622 (primer estado)

Colección Particular, Madrid

60

Estudios de ojos

Anónimo español

Pluma, lápiz negro y tinta parda sobre papel verjurado amarillento, 18,3 x 13,8 cm

1780-1800

Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional de España

61

Dos estudios fisiognómicos

Anónimo español

Pluma y tinta negra sobre papel verjurado amarillento, 20,8 x 14,8 cm

ca. 1789

Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional de España

62

Livre de portraiture receuilly des oeuures

París Mariette

c. 1650

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

63

Cartilla de dibujo de José de Ribera

Abraham Blooteling

c. 1660-1690

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

64

Cartilla para aprender a dibuxar sacada por las obras de Joseph de Rivera

Barcelón

c. 1772

Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

65

Livre De Portraitvre : Receuilly des Oeuures de Ioseph de Riuera

Stada ditta Jean de Beauvais

1729

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

66

Proporciones de una cabeza. [Principios del dibujo]

Pedro de Villafranca y Malagón

Grabado calcográfico, 34 x 24 cm

1637-1638

Madrid, Real Academia Española. Biblioteca, Legado Rodríguez - Moñino-María Brey

67

Modelos de cabezas. [Principios del dibujo]

Pedro de Villafranca y Malagón

Grabado calcográfico, 24 x 34 cm

1637-1638

Madrid, Real Academia Española. Biblioteca, Legado Rodríguez - Moñino-María Brey

68

Modelos de torsos. [Principios del dibujo]

Pedro de Villafranca y Malagón

Grabado calcográfico, 24 x 34 cm

1637-1638

Madrid, Real Academia Española. Biblioteca, Legado Rodríguez - Moñino-María Brey

69

Proporciones de un rostro. [Principios del dibujo]

Pedro de Villafranca y Malagón

Grabado calcográfico, 34 x 24 cm

1637-1638

Madrid, Real Academia Española. Biblioteca, Legado Rodríguez - Moñino-María Brey

70

Proporciones de una cabeza. [Principios del dibujo]

Pedro de Villafranca y Malagón

1637-1638

Madrid, Real Academia Española. Biblioteca, Legado Rodríguez - Moñino-María Brey

71

Proporciones de rostros. [Principios del dibujo]

Pedro de Villafranca y Malagón

1637-1638

Madrid, Real Academia Española. Biblioteca, Legado Rodríguez - Moñino-María Brey

72

Modelos de orejas. [Principios del dibujo]

Pedro de Villafranca y Malagón

1637-1638

Madrid, Real Academia Española. Biblioteca, Legado Rodríguez - Moñino-María Brey

73

Modelos de cabezas. [Principios del dibujo]

Pedro de Villafranca y Malagón

Grabado calcográfico, 24 x 34 cm

1637-1638

Madrid, Real Academia Española. Biblioteca, Legado Rodríguez - Moñino-María Brey

74

Modelos de manos. [Principios del dibujo]

Pedro de Villafranca y Malagón

1637-1638

Madrid, Real Academia Española. Biblioteca, Legado Rodríguez - Moñino-María Brey

75

Modelos de narices. [Principios del dibujo]

P. o V. a F. a  F.

1637-1638

Madrid, Real Academia Española. Biblioteca, Legado Rodríguez - Moñino-María Brey

76

Modelos de piernas. [Principios del dibujo]

P. o V. a F. a  F.

1637-1638

Madrid, Real Academia Española. Biblioteca, Legado Rodríguez - Moñino-María Brey

77

Modelos de manos. [Principios del dibujo]

P. o V. a F. a  F.

Grabado calcográfico, 24 x 34 cm

1637-1638

Madrid, Real Academia Española. Biblioteca, Legado Rodríguez - Moñino-María Brey

78

Modelos de ojos y bocas. [Principios del dibujo]

P. o V. a F. a  F.

1637-1638

Madrid, Real Academia Española. Biblioteca, Legado Rodríguez - Moñino-María Brey

79

Regla de las cinco ordenes de architectura

Vignola

Grabado calcográfico, 29 x 20,5 x 1,5 cm

1658

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

80

Modelos de torsos

Pedro de Villafranca y Malagón

1637 - 1638

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

81

Cartilla y fundamentales reglas de pintura por las quales llegará uno a çer muy ducho pintor

Vicente Salvador y Gómez

Manuscrito, 28,2 x 17,2 x 1 cm

1674

Madrid, Colecciones Reales. Patrimonio Nacional, Real Biblioteca

82

Cuatro estudios de las proporciones de la cabeza humana

Vicente Salvador y Gómez

Aguada amarillenta, aguada parda y pluma sobre papel verjurado amarillento, 16 x 19,6 cm

c. 1674

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

83

Principios para estudiar el nobilissimo, y real arte de la pintura

José García Hidalgo

1693

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

84

Principios para estudiar el nobilissimo, y real arte de la pintura

José García Hidalgo

1693

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

85

Principios para estudiar el nobilissimo, y real arte de la pintura

José García Hidalgo

1693

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

86

Principios para estudiar el nobilissimo, y real arte de la pintura

José García Hidalgo

1693

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

87

Principios para estudiar el nobilissimo, y real arte de la pintura

José García Hidalgo

1693

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

88

Principios para estudiar el nobilissimo, y real arte de la pintura (brazos)

José García Hidalgo

Aguafuerte y buril, 27,5 x 21 cm

1691-1693

Barcelona, Palau Antiguitats

89

Principios para estudiar el nobilissimo, y real arte de la pintura

José García Hidalgo

1693

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

90

Principios para estudiar el nobilissimo, y real arte de la pintura

José García Hidalgo

1693

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

91

Principios para estudiar el nobilissimo, y real arte de la pintura

José García Hidalgo

1693

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

92

Principios para estudiar el nobilissimo, y real arte de la pintura

José García Hidalgo

1693

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

93

Principios para estudiar el nobilissimo, y real arte de la pintura

José García Hidalgo

1693

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

94

Principios para estudiar el nobilissimo, y real arte de la pintura

José García Hidalgo

1693

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

95

Principios para estudiar el nobilissimo, y real arte de la pintura

José García Hidalgo

1693

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

96

Principios para estudiar el nobilissimo, y real arte de la pintura

José García Hidalgo

1693

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

97

Principios para estudiar el nobilissimo, y real arte de la pintura

José García Hidalgo

1693

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

98

Principios para estudiar el nobilissimo, y real arte de la pintura

José García Hidalgo

1693

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

99

Estudio geométrico de cabezas, brazos y piernas

Juan Bernabé Palomino y Fernández de la Vega

Buril sobre lámina de cobre, 28 x 19 cm

1724

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

100

El museo pictórico y escala óptica

Antonio Palomino

1724

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

101

Método sucinto i compendioso de cinco simetrias apropiadas a las cinco ordenes de arquitectura adornada con otras reglas vtiles

Matías de Irala

1730-1739

Colección Antonio Bonet Correa

102

Estudios de párpados y ojos

Manuel Bru Pérez

Papel sobre buril, aguafuerte y tinta negra, 22 x 33,4 cm

c. 1777-1802

Valencia, Museo de Bellas Artes de Valencia (Colección Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Carlos)

103

Estudios de Narices y labios

Manuel Bru Pérez

Papel sobre buril, pointillé, tinta negra, 22,3 x 16 cm

c. 1777-1802

Valencia, Museo de Bellas Artes de Valencia (Colección Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Carlos)

104

Cartilla ó método de enseñanza del Dibuxo

Espinosa

1778

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

105

Estudio de orejas

Isidoro Bosarte

Aguafuerte y buril, 37 x 27 cm

1785

Madrdi, Biblioteca Nacional de España

106

Cartilla de principios de dibuxo...

José López Enguídanos

1797

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

107

Estudio de un pie derecho y otro izquierdo y pie izquierdo de perfil

Fernando Camarón

1830

Madrid, Museo de la Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando. Madrid

108

Cabezas

María del Carmen Saiz

Talla dulce, 26 x 33 cm

c. 1816

Madrid, Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando. Calcografía Nacional. Madrid

109

Cabezas

María del Carmen Saiz

Talla dulce, 26 x 33 cm

c. 1816

Madrid, Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando. Calcografía Nacional. Madrid

110

Tratado elemental sobre Dibujo y Pintura

Miguel Sanz y Benito

c. 1828

Miguel Mª Sanz Moreno

111

Cartilla para aprender a dibujar

José María Avrial

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca

112

Estudio de cabeza femenina del Pasmo de Sicilia

Luis Zavala

Sanguina sobre papel agarbanzado claro, 42,3 x 30,4 cm

1836

Madrid, Museo de la Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando

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