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Prophet David
Correa de Vivar, Juan
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Correa de Vivar, Juan

Mascaraque (Toledo, Spain), 1510 - Toledo (Spain), 1566

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Prophet David

1533 - 1535. Oil on panel.
On display elsewhere

This panel is part of the altarpiece or seasonal altar of the Guisando Nativity (P00683P00690). This is a structure frequently found in numerous Spanish monastic cloisters. It comes precisely from the Hieronymite monastery of Guisando (Ávila), as cited by Ponz in 1773. In the cloister, the altarpiece was set into a wall and formed a sort of box. The doors of the altarpiece depict The Visitation with Saint Jerome in Penitence on its exterior side. On the other hand, they also depict The Presentation of Jesus in the Temple, which was sawn off and dismembered from the door, with The Agony in the Garden on the other side. The ensemble was completed with four prophets (David, Isaiah, Jeremiah and Habakkuk). They are located on the sides of the altarpiece and act as the minor sides of the altarpiece’s parallelepiped. Most likely, and following the formula of this type of altarpiece, a sculptural or pictorial image would round off the piece, such as that of God the Father. With the ecclesiastical confiscation, the panels of the altarpiece were dismantled and dispersed. Furthermore, its painter Juan Correa de Vivar and the provenance of the ensemble were forgotten. It was thought to be from the monastery of Santa María de Valdeiglesias (Pelayos de la Presa, Madrid), where Correa worked between 1545 and 1550. Based on Ponz’s description, the reconstruction of the Altarpiece of the Nativity has been proposed by the researcher Isabel Mateo. She dates it to between 1533–35 due to its stylistic proximity to Juan de Borgoña’s painting. The latter is a key figure in the emergence of Renaissance forms in Castile via Toledo. The combined use of the new Italian Quattrocento styles and Borgoña’s Nordic heritage made it fit right into an area with a traditional Gothic substratum, now covered by the suggestive Tuscan contributions of the aforementioned Borgoña. The Guisando Nativity still shows all the postulates learned from the Nordic master, who was still present on the Toledo scene (Borgoña died in 1536). During this time, Correa maintained a marked sense of drawing, linked to the local use of colour. These were somewhat harsh at that time, and he progressively softened and brightened them. He developed an elementary and notably geometrical approach to composition, using classical architectures but not fully understanding the one-point perspective used. This Nativity, in the context of other earlier commissions – for example, Griñon, Mora or Guadalupe – demonstrates the maturing process at stake in the artist’s early works during which time he established his correct artistic work in the footsteps of Juan de Borgoña without any other yet-perceptible contributions.

Museo Nacional del Prado, El Greco y la pintura española del Renacimiento: guía, Madrid, Museo del Prado, Aldeasa, 2001

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Technical data

Related artworks

Prophet Isaiah
Oil on panel, 1533 - 1535
Correa de Vivar, Juan
Prophet Jeremiah
Oil on panel, 1533 - 1535
Correa de Vivar, Juan
Prophet Habakkuk
Oil on panel, 1533 - 1535
Correa de Vivar, Juan
The Nativity
Oil on panel, 1533 - 1535
Correa de Vivar, Juan
Inventory number
P000683
Author
Correa de Vivar, Juan
Title
Prophet David
Date
1533 - 1535
Technique
Oil
Support
Panel
Dimension
Height: 90.5 cm; Width: 42.5 cm; Grosor: 2.3 cm
Series
Retablo de la Natividad, monasterio jerónimo de Guisando (Ávila)
Provenance
Jerónimos Monastery, Guisando (Ávila); Museo de la Trinidad.

Bibliography +

Cruzada Villaamil, Gregorio, Catálogo provisional, historial y razonado del Museo Nacional de Pinturas, Madrid, 1865, pp. 198.

Mateo Gómez, Isabel, Juan Correa de Vivar y el Retablo de la Natividad de Guisando, Boletín del Museo del Prado, III, 1982, pp. 163-168.

Espinós, A.; Orihuela, M. y Royo Villanova, M. [et al.], ''El Prado disperso''. Cuadros depositados en Toledo y Ávila. Toledo. Museo de Santa Cruz, Boletín del Museo del Prado, V, 1984, pp. 69.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Museo del Prado: inventario general de pinturas (II). Museo de la Trinidad, Museo del Prado, Espasa Calpe, Madrid, 1991.

Museo Nacional del Prado, El Greco y la pintura española del Renacimiento: guía, Museo del Prado, Aldeasa, Madrid, 2001.

Mateo, Isabel, 'Juan Correa de Vivar. Retablo de la Natividad' En:, Juan Correa de Vivar, c. 1510-1566 : maestro del Renacimiento español., Sociedad Don Quijote de Conmemoraciones culturales de Castilla la Mancha, Toledo, 2010, pp. 94-101 n.4.

Bruquetas Galán, Rocío, 'Pintar para la Eternidad. Talleres toledanos a la llegada de El Greco' En:, El Greco arte y oficio, Fundación El Greco 2014, 2014, pp. 98-121 [109,111].

Marías, Fernando, Detalles e indicios en Juan Correa de Vivar : apertura de hipótesis, datos e incertidumbres, BSAA Boletín del Seminario de Estudios de Arte y Arqueología., LXXXIII, 2107, pp. 125-152 [137].

Other inventories +

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1872-1907. Núm. 2154N.
[Catálogo de 1876]

Catálogo Museo de la Trinidad, 1865. Núm. 855.
CUADROS ANÓNIMOS DE LAS PRIMITIVAS ESCUELAS ESPAÑOLAS [...] 855. David. / Tabla.-Al. 0,91.-An. 0,425.-Fig. 0,65. / Escuela de Correa. / Dentro de una hornacina, igual á las anteriores, está de pié y de frente el Rey David, con barba larga y cana, la cabeza cubierta con un gorro rojo de terciopelo y sobre el una corona, y vestido con túnica morada con pieles y manto rojo. En la mano izquierda tiene el cetro; sobre el suelo, en el lado derecho, el arpa, y de la mano derecha arranca una cinta con esta inscripcion: Notus fecit Dñs. salutare suum. (Ps. 97)

Inv. Museo de la Trinidad, Pintura. Núm. 855.
855. / Tabla. Una figura con un lema en la mano dra. y un cetro en la izd. á sus pies un arpa, figª como de tres cuartasa y cuerpo entº parece colocada en una ornacina. / Autor / Rectif.do Alto 0,91 Ancho 0,44 / id. id. id. / Nº 249 / G.P.

Inscriptions +

Notus fecit Dñs. salutare suum Ps. 97 [en filacteria]
Inscribed in black. Front, upper area

Exhibitions +

Quinto centenario del nacimiento del pintor Juan Correa de Vivar
Toledo
16.12.2010 - 13.03.2011

Location +

Toledo - Museo de Santa Cruz (Deposit)

Displayed objects +

Harp, diatonic: Arpa apoyada a la izquierda del profeta David. El arpa medieval era diatónica, y el arpa moderna, por el contrario, nació con los primeros intentos de cromatismo que la evolución de la música occidental exigía. Los primeros intentos surgieron de los talleres de luthiers irlandeses en el siglo XVI, que proveyeron al arpa de una doble fila de cuerdas. En el siglo XVII se incorpora una tercera fila, la primera y la tercera fila eran diatónicas (veintinueve cuerdas cada fila) mientras que la segunda fila, con veinte cuerdas, estaba reservada para los semitonos (Proyecto Iconografía Musical, U.C.M.).

Update date: 28-05-2022 | Registry created on 28-04-2015

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