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Bartolomé Bermejo

Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid 10/9/2018 - 1/27/2019

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Bartolomé Bermejo was one of the most fascinating figures within Spanish art of the second half of the 15th century. Bringing together a remarkable group of paintings from Spanish, European and American museums, the Prado is able to present this survey exhibition, which has been organized with the collaboration of the Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya and, for the first time, allows for an appreciation of the technical virtuosity and distinctive visual universe of this Cordovan painter active in the Kingdom of Aragon.

Curator:
Joan Molina (Universitat de Girona)

Access

Room Room C. Villanueva's Building

Co-organized by:
Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya
In collaboration with:
Comunidad de Madrid
Fundación Banco Sabadell

Multimedia

Exhibition

The Exhibition

Room C in the Jerónimos Building at the Museo del Prado will host the staging of this exhibition, curated by Joan Molina, a lecturer at the Universitat de Girona. The exhibition seeks to pay well-deserved homage to Bartolomé de Cárdenas, alias El Bermejo (1440-1501), one of the most suggestive and attractive painters of the fifteenth century, by presenting his work to the general public.

Bermejo’s work exploits the pictorial potential of oil painting techniques, a new development at the time. In this respect, he created a personal realist language, one that focused especially on illusionist effects and on the definition of spectacular ranges of color. His main point of reference consisted of Flemish painting, the school inaugurated by Jan van Eyck and Rogier van der Weyden, which, by the latter half of the fifteenth century, had seduced the whole of Europe, including Italy. Although it has been speculated that Bermejo received his training in the workshops of Northern Europe, it is more probable that he learnt his craft in the cosmopolitan city of Valencia during the second third of the fifteenth century, a city that was open to Flemish and Italian styles, both of which the Cordobese painter reflected in his work.

Alongside his technical skill, he had an astonishing capacity to develop new interpretations of all kinds of devotional themes and iconographies. His desire to continue exploring new terrain, especially within the realms of landscape and portrait painting, enabled him to create some of his most complex and innovative works during the latter part of his professional career. His talent was recognized by a select group of commissioning clients, ranging from members of the Church and noblemen to distinguished merchants. It was also acknowledged by his fellow painters, who often imitated his compositions.

After his death, both his name and his work faded into obscurity, and appreciation for his creative work only revived at the end of the nineteenth century, when some of his most exceptional paintings on board aroused the interest of both international collectors and forgers of old paintings.

This exhibition, which will feature some 48 works from the collections of more than 25 loaning parties, will be presented between 9th October 2018 and 27th January 2019 at the Museo del Prado and, featuring some small variations, between 14th February and 19th May 2019 at the Museu Nacional d’Art Catalunya.

Bartolomé Bermejo

Bartolomé de Cárdenas, alias El Bermejo (c. 1440 – c. 1501), is one of the most fascinating painters of the fifteenth century. He was born in Córdoba, though his status as a converted Jew may well have predisposed him to an itinerant life that included stints in Valencia, Daroca and Zaragoza at least and finally Barcelona. To get round the restrictions of the guild regulations of the period, he often teamed up with much less qualified local masters. Even so, the alias with which he proudly signed some of his most innovative works shows that he was a painter with a powerful personality, probably highly aware, and confident, of his skills.

Building on his mastery of the oil painting technique practised by Flemish artists, Bermejo developed a realistic language of his own with a particular emphasis on illusionistic effects, as well as spectacular ranges of colours. His technical prowess was coupled with an astonishing ability to interpret all kinds of themes and iconographies in new ways. His urge to carry on exploring new avenues, especially in landscape and portraiture, led him to produce some of his most complex and innovative works during the last stage of his career. All this drew the attention of a select clientele ranging from high-ranking clergymen and nobles to distinguished merchants as well as his own colleagues, who often imitated his compositions.

Chronology

c. 1440. Born in Córdoba.

1468. Referred to as a resident of Valencia, he receives a down payment for the Tous retable of Saint Michael for the knight Antoni Joan. He signs the work as ‘Bartolomeus Rubeus’.

c. 1471–72. Establishes himself in Daroca.

1474 and 1477. Signs two contracts to execute the retable for the parish church of Santo Domingo de Silos in Daroca. The second is entered into in Zaragoza, where he has been living for some time.

1479. He and Martín Bernat undertake to paint the retable of the Virgin of Mercy for the chapel of the Visitation in Santa María del Pilar.

1482–1483. He is the highest paid painter of all those involved in polychroming the doors of the retable for the high altar of Zaragoza cathedral.

c. 1483–89. Together with the Valencian artists Rodrigo and Francisco de Osona, he paints the Virgin of Montserrat triptych. It is commissioned by the Italian merchant Francesco della Chiesa, who later bequeaths it to Acqui Terme cathedral.

1486. His wife, Gracia de Palaciano, is convicted by the Aragonese Inquisition for engaging in Jewish practices. Tenders for the contract to paint the organ doors of the church of Santa María del Mar in Barcelona.

1490. Completes the Desplà Pietà, his masterpiece, in Barcelona.

1495. Receives a payment of 30 sueldos for designing the stained-glass window of the baptismal chapel of Barcelona cathedral, executed by Gil Fontanet.

1500–1. Produces designs for stained-glass windows with depictions of the cardinal virtues for the trading room of the merchants’ exchange building (Llotja de Mar) in Barcelona.

c. 1501. Probably dies in Barcelona.

The Beginnings: Between Flanders and Valencia

The Beginnings: Between Flanders and Valencia
Saint Michael Triumphant over the Devil with the Donor Antoni Joan
Bartolomé Bermejo
Oil on panel, 179,7 x 81,9 cm
1468
Londres, The National Gallery. Bought by Private Treaty Sale with a grant from the American Friends of the National Gallery, London, made possible by Mr J. Paul Getty Jnr’s Endowment Fund, 1995. NG6553       

Mastery of the oil technique and a predominantly naturalistic approach afforded Bermejo the power to paint the substance and quality of things, making them appear tangible and palpable.

Elías Tormo, 1926

Bermejo’s beginnings are unclear. Nothing is known about his youth and formative period, except that he was born in Córdoba. His earliest documented work is Saint Michael, dated 1468. Executed in Valencia for the parish church of Tous, it reveals an excellent knowledge of Flemish painting. The arrival of northern masters and the steady flow of imported paintings, drawings and prints made Valencia an ideal setting where a young, enquiring-minded painter, fascinated by the models of northern masters from Jan van Eyck to Hans Memling, could have assimilated the keys to their language. Bermejo acquired a perfect command of oil painting techniques, which enabled him to employ many illusionistic effects in his works – from delicate gleams and reflections of light on metal, gemstones, and gold and silver objects to surprising effects of transparency in gauze – and to combine colours skilfully to achieve a lifelike rendering of the properties of textiles, marble and paving. This is how the career of one of the most masterly painters of the fifteenth century began to take shape.

A converted Jewish painter in Daroca

A converted Jewish painter in Daroca
Death and Assumption of the Virgin
Bartolomé Bermejo
Oil on panel, 65,2 x 42,4 cm
c. 1468 - 72
Berlín, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie

Bermejo’s wife did not know the Credo and furthermore performed Jewish ceremonies.

Master Martín, inquisitor, 1486

Following his stay in Valencia, Bermejo established himself in Daroca around 1472. His close relationship with a few members of the town’s community of converted Jews has led scholars to think he shared the same status. He married Gracia de Palaciano, a rich widow who was prosecuted years later for engaging in Jewish practices. Juan de Loperuelo, a wealthy merchant and a convert who was also tried by the Inquisition, is directly or indirectly linked to most of the retables Bermejo painted in Daroca and can therefore be regarded as his professional and personal agent. A further indication is the fact that he painted pictures on subjects that seem designed to satisfy new Christians’ expectations and alleviate their fears. In addition, Bermejo’s signatures are preceded by the initials ihs (Ihesus) – possibly a strategy for proclaiming his new Christian faith loud and clear and getting round the religious authorities, as the late fifteenth century was a particularly difficult time for Jews and converts. All this suggests that, like so many others, the itinerant Bermejo must have been a victim of the prevailing climate of religious intolerance and exclusion.

Luxury and sophistication in the retable of Saint Engracia

Luxury and sophistication in the retable of Saint Engracia
Flagellation of Saint Engracia
Bartolomé Bermejo
Oil on panel, 92,5 x 52 cm
c. 1474 - 77
Bilbao, Museo de Bellas Artes de Bilbao

Dressed in cloth of fine colours like the Saint Engracia in San Pedro in Daroca, with copious gold.

Contract for the retable for the church of Nuestra Señora de la Piedad in Romanos (Zaragoza), 1501

The introductory quote, taken from the contract for the retable for the parish church in the village of Romanos, near Daroca, shows to what extent the sophisticated colouring of some of Bermejo’s works – in this case the retable dedicated to Saint Engracia – aroused the admiration of spectators and clients, who took them as models for their own commissions. Five of the six surviving panels of the Saint Engracia ensemble executed for the church of San Pedro in Daroca have been brought together in this room. A feature common to them all is the arresting, varied chromatic range Bermejo achieved thanks to his mastery of the oil technique and use of certain formulas – such as the application of lakes and glazes – to heighten the sensation of depth and the brightness of the colours, especially the reds and greens. This rich palette was no doubt one of the keys to Bermejo’s success. In fact, when he was hired in 1479 to execute the retable of the Virgin of Mercy, the leitmotiv of the notarial document was that he should employ ‘crimsons and greens and violets, all finished in oil’.

Apotheosis of the saint and excommunication of the painter

Apotheosis of the saint and excommunication of the painter
Saint Dominic of Silos enthroned as Bishop
Bartolomé Bermejo
Oil on panel, 242 x 130 cm
1474 - 77
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

That the said Bartolomé Bermejo be made to swear an oath before the public notary on the cross and the four Holy Gospels, and may receive a sentence of excommunication.

Contrato del retablo de Santo Domingo de Silos, 1474

Bermejo must have been a difficult person, as he breached several of the contracts he signed. One was for the retable for the parish church of Santo Domingo de Silos in Daroca, commissioned in 1474. Distrustful of him, his clients enlisted other painters – first Juan de Bonilla and later Martín Bernat – to supervise his work. When he abandoned the project in 1477 after painting the spectacular central panel, they decided to make him return by enforcing the excommunication clause included in the contract, which entailed certain work restrictions rather than spiritual punishments. A new contract was signed that year, but even that failed to ensure Bermejo complied with the established conditions: the two surviving side panels of the ensemble were executed mainly by the workshop of his partner Martín Bernat. Possible explanations for this non-conformist attitude are that he considered the job low paid, he was uncomfortable working with less qualified masters, or he was unwilling to conform to the clients’ conservative aesthetic criteria.

Bermejo and his partners

Bermejo and his partners
Virgin of Mercy
Bartolomé Bermejo – Martín Bernat
Oil on panel, 181 x 103 cm
1479 - 84
Grand Rapids Art Museum, Gift of Friends and Familly of Eugene Masselink, 1965.1.1  

Close the doors so that nobody may go inside to see Bermejo.

Records of the fabric fund of Zaragoza cathedral, 1482

To get round the restrictions of the guild system Bermejo often had to team up with local masters living in the cities where he established himself: Juan de Bonilla in Daroca, Martín Bernat in Zaragoza and the Osonas in Valencia. Although clients always entrusted Bermejo with designing the compositions and executing the main figures, this method of working in tandem influenced the quality of the end result, which was compromised by his partners’ lesser skills and use of devices – such as gesso relief – that conflicted with Bermejo’s Flemish-style illusionism.

These partnerships did, however, facilitate the dissemination of the models designed by Bermejo, especially through the Aragonese workshop of Martín Bernat and Miguel Ximénez. This shows that he was respected and admired by painters and clients for his technical superiority and outstanding creativity. Perhaps this is why the chapter of Zaragoza cathedral (La Seo) had a lock fitted to protect his privacy by stopping people entering the old cloister where Bermejo was painting the doors of the retable for the high altar.

An international oeuvre, a cosmopolitan painter

An international oeuvre, a cosmopolitan painter
Triptych of the Virgin of Montserrat
Bartolomé Bermejo and Osona's Workshop
Oil on panel, Central: 156,5 x 100,5 x 2,1 cm
Left panel: 156,2 x 50,2 x 1,6 cm
Right panel: 156,2 x 50,2 x 1,6 cm
c. 1483 - 89
Cattedrale Nostra Signora Assunta, Aula Capitolare, Acqui Terme (Alessandria)

And [send] a retable for the altar of the chapel of Our Lady of Montserrat in the main church of Acqui.

Provision of the will of Francesco della Chiesa, c. 1515

The Acqui Terme Triptych of the Virgin of Montserrat might be summed up as a triptych in Flemish format commissioned by an Italian merchant for the chapel of an Italian cathedral and executed by three Spanish painters in cosmopolitan Valencia. Bermejo’s painting, produced with the collaboration of Rodrigo and Francisco de Osona, draws even more intensely from Flemish sources: from the format of the triptych and use of an oak support to the adoption of formulas reminiscent of Jan van Eyck, Dirk Bouts and the Master of the Legend of Saint Lucy. It also shows that he and the Osonas also assimilated Italian devices such as the spectacular background seascape.

Like other Italian merchants, Francesco della Chiesa, who commissioned the triptych, had a penchant for Flemish painting. Established in Valencia, he must have regarded Bermejo as the ideal choice for painting a votive offering to the Virgin of Montserrat – perhaps in gratitude for being saved from shipwreck during one of his voyages between the ports of Savona and Valencia – to preside over the chapel he founded in the cathedral of Acqui Terme, his birthplace.

The Desplà Pietà, a masterpiece created jointly

The Desplà Pietà, a masterpiece created jointly
Desplà Pietà
Bartolomé Bermejo
Oil on panel, 175 x 189 cm
1490
Barcelona, Catedral de Barcelona

Executed by Bartolomé Bermejo, a Cordovan, commissioned by Lluís Desplà, archdeacon of Barcelona, completed on 23 April in the year of Our Lord 1490.

Inscription on the frame of the Desplà Pietà, 1490

Around 1490 archdeacon Lluís Desplà (1444–1524) of Barcelona commissioned Bermejo’s last known painting: a Pietà that is absolutely unique in several aspects. Firstly, its fanciful expressionistic and symbolic landscape is designed to encourage meditation on the meaning of Christ’s sacrifice and redemptive role. Secondly, the presence of Saint Jerome is an indication of the humanistic leanings of Desplà, a churchman with an Italian cultural background and tastes. A third aspect is the ancient-style text engraved along the base of the painting, a testament to Desplà’s fondness for collecting antique inscriptions. We are therefore dealing with a work conceived jointly by a powerful humanist and the most talented Spanish painter of the time.

Following the completion of the Desplà Pietà the surviving records on Bermejo end in 1501. All that is known of this period is that he made preparatory drawings for a few stained-glass windows in Barcelona. What led the best painter of his generation to almost disappear from the art scene after executing his most important work? This is undoubtedly one of the main mysteries still surrounding the figure of Bermejo.

Bermejo’s renaissance

Bermejo’s renaissance
Saint Michael
Edmond Dyer (Copy of Bartolomé Bermejo)
Oil on panel, 182,5 x 82 cm
1926
Córdoba, Palacio de Viana, Fundación Cajasur

 

Following his death in the early sixteenth century, Bermejo’s fame faded. Over time many of his works came to languish in sacristies and attics or were simply lost. It was not until the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, when medieval painting aroused keen interest among international specialists and collectors, that his memory was revived. Indeed, although his name was known in the mid-1800s thanks to the inscription on the Desplà Pietà, he was only rediscovered between 1905 and 1907, when a stylistic link was established between the Barcelona panel and three iconic works: the Tous Saint Michael, the central panel of the Saint Engracia retable and the Acqui triptych. Studying his work and establishing his corpus became a primary concern of many scholars, notably the Valencian historian Elías Tormo, during the following years. However, it also led to the appearance of the first copies and forgeries of his works – undeniable proof that Bermejo had come to be recognised as one of the best fifteenth-century painters.

Artworks

Saint Michael Triumphant over the Devil with the Donor Antoni Joan
1

Saint Michael Triumphant over the Devil with the Donor Antoni Joan

Bartolomé Bermejo

Oil on panel, 179.7 x 81.9 cm

1468

The National Gallery, London. Bought by Private Treaty Sale with a grant from the American Friends of the National Gallery, London, made possible by Mr J. Paul Getty Jnr’s Endowment Fund, 1995. NG6553

Death and Assumption of the Virgin
2

Death and Assumption of the Virgin

Bartolomé Bermejo

Oil on panel, 65.2 x 42.4 cm

c. 1468 – 1472

Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie

Christ at the Tomb supported by Two Angels
3

Christ at the Tomb supported by Two Angels

Bartolomé Bermejo

Oil on panel, 94.8 x 61 cm

c. 1470 – 1475

Museo del Castillo de Peralada

4

Resurrection

Bartolomé Bermejo

Oil on panel, 90 x 69 x 3 cm

c. 1470 – 1475

Barcelona, Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya

Descent of Christ into Limbo
5

Descent of Christ into Limbo

Bartolomé Bermejo

Oil on panel, 88.7 x 69.2 x 3 cm

c. 1470 – 1475

Barcelona, Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya

6

Entrance to Paradise

Bartolomé Bermejo

Óleo y temple sobre tabla, 104 x 69 cm

c. 1475

Barcelona, Fundació Institut Amatller d'Art Hispànic

7

Ascension

Bartolomé Bermejo

Oil on panel, 104 x 68.5 cm

c. 1470 – 1475

Barcelona, Fundació Institut Amatller d'Art Hispànic

8

Saint John the Baptist in the Desert

Bartolomé Bermejo

Oil on panel, 47.5 x 27.5 cm

c. 1470

Seville, Museo de Bellas Artes de Sevilla

9

Virgin of the Milk

Bartolomé Bermejo

Oil on panel, 58.2 x 43.3 cm

c. 1465 – 1470

Valencia, Museo de Bellas Artes de Valencia

A Bishop Saint (St. Benedict of Nursia?)
10

A Bishop Saint (St. Benedict of Nursia?)

Bartolomé Bermejo

Oil on panel, 48.2 x 26.8 cm

c. 1477 – 1485

Chicago, The Art Institute of Chicago, Mr. and Mrs. Martin A. Ryerson Collection, 1947.393

11

Arrest of Saint Engracia

Bartolomé Bermejo

Oil on panel, 97.2 x 53.8 cm

c. 1472 – 1477

San Diego, The San Diego Museum of Art, Gift of Anne R. and Amy Putnam, 1941.101

Flagellation of Saint Engracia
12

Flagellation of Saint Engracia

Bartolomé Bermejo

Oil on panel, 92.5 x 52 cm

c. 1472 – 1477

Bilbao, Museo de Bellas Artes

13

Imprisonment of Saint Engracia

Bartolomé Bermejo

Oil on panel, 58 x 51 cm

c. 1472 – 1477

Zaragoza, Arzobispado de Zaragoza. Parroquia de Santa María de los Corporales de Daroca

14

Crucifixion

Bartolomé Bermejo

Oil on panel, 82.5 x 63.6 cm

c. 1472 - 1477

Zaragoza, Arzobispado de Zaragoza. Parroquia de Santa María de los Corporales de Daroca

15

Saint Onophrius, Saint Peter of Mezonzo, Resurrection, Saint Braulius and Saint Catherine of Siena

Bartolomé Bermejo

Oil on panel, 72 x 224 cm

c. 1472 – 1477

Zaragoza, Arzobispado de Zaragoza. Parroquia de Santa María de los Corporales de Daroca

16

Enamelled bridle ornament from Nasrid Granada

Nasrid period, fifteenth century

Madrid, Instituto de Valencia de Don Juan

17

Silk textile from Nasrid Granada with the motto ‘Glory to our Lord the Sultan’

Silk, 38 x 58,5 cm

Nasrid period, early fifteenth century

Madrid, Instituto de Valencia de Don Juan

18

Manises ceramic ware, panel of tiles bearing the motto ‘Fer be’

Fifteenth century

Madrid,  Instituto de Valencia de Don Juan

21

Death of Saint Dominic

Bartolomé Bermejo and Martín Bernat

Oil on panel, 169.5 x 109.5 x 8.3 cm

1474 – 1479

Private Collection

Virgin of Mercy
22

Virgin of Mercy

Bartolomé Bermejo and Martín Bernat

Oil on panel, 181 x 103 cm

1479 – 1484

Grand Rapids Art Museum, Gift of Friends and Familly of Eugene Masselink, 1965.1.1  

23

The Miracle of Snow

Bartolomé Bermejo

Oil on panel, 140 x 66 cm

1479 – 1484

Colección Laia-Bosch

24

Saints Vincent and Lawrence

Bartolomé Bermejo and Martín Bernat

Oil on panel, 140 x 72 cm

1479 – 1484

Colección Casacuberta Marsans

25

Saint Damian

Bartolomé Bermejo and Martín Bernat

Tempera and oil on panel, 165 x 77 cm

c. 1477 – 1483

Lisbon, Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga

26

Descent

Miguel Ximénez and Martín Bernat

Oil on panel, 195.5 x 116 cm

c. 1481 – 1486

Zaragoza, Museo de Zaragoza

27

Descent from the Cross

Bartolomé Bermejo and Martín Bernat

Oil on panel, 150 x 153.5 cm

c. 1477 – 1483

Zaragoza, Museo de Zaragoza

28

Processional cross with the bust of Christ and the instruments of the Passion

Martín Bernat

Oil on panel, 182 x 93.5 cm

Late fifteenth century

Barcelona, Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya

29

Records of the fabric fund of Zaragoza cathedral

Pen and sepia ink on laid paper, portfolio-type parchment binding, 29 x 23.5 x 4 cm

1482 – 1483

Excmo. Cabildo Metropolitano de Zaragoza. Catedral del Salvador (La Seo). Archivo Capitular

30

Adoration of the Magi / The Holy Face

Bartolomé Bermejo

Oil on panel

c. 1477 – 1483

Cabildo de la Capilla Real de Granada

31

Holy Face

Joan Gascó

Oil on panel, 47.5 x 35 cm (frame)

Early sixteenth century

Museu Episcopal de Vic, MEV 1947

Triptych of the Virgin of Montserrat
32

Triptych of the Virgin of Montserrat

Bartolomé Bermejo

Oil on panel, Central: 156.5 x 100.5 x 2.1 cm Left: 156.2 x 50.2 x 1.6 cm. Right: 156.2 x 50.2 x 1.6 cm

c. 1483 – 1489

Cattedrale Nostra Signora Assunta, Aula Capitolare, Acqui Terme (Alessandria)

34

The Taking of Christ

Rodrigo and Francisco de Osona

Oil on panel, 126 x 84 cm

c. 1500

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

35

Adoration of the Magi

Rodrigo and Francisco de Osona

Oil on panel, 78 x 46 cm

c. 1500

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

36

Triptych of the Lamentation of Christ

Maestro de la Leyenda de Santa Lucía

Oil on panel, 75 x 61 cm / 75 x 27 cm / 75 x 27 cm

c. 1475

Madrid, Museo Nacional Thyssen-Bornemisza

Desplà Pietà
37

Desplà Pietà

Bartolomé Bermejo

Oil on panel, 175 x 189 cm (frame)

1490

Barcelona, Catedral de Barcelona

38

Pietà

Michael Lochner

Woodcarving, 200 x 210 x 9 cm

c. 1490

Barcelona, Catedral de Barcelona

40

Galba

Antonio del Pollaiuolo

Marble framed with Montjuïc Stone, 41.5 x 30 x 6 cm

1485 – 1490

Barcelona, Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya

41

Courtyard of Casa del Arcediano in Barcelona

Adolphe Hedwige Alphonse Delamare

Watercolour, pen and ink and graphite on vellum paper, 26.4 x 20.4 cm

1827

Barcelona, Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya

42

Courtyard of Casa del Arcediano in Barcelona

Adolphe Hedwige Alphonse Delamare

Watercolour, pen and ink and graphite on vellum paper, 27.1 x 21.1 cm

1827

Barcelona, Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya

Saint Michael
43

Saint Michael

Edmond Dyer

Oil on panel, 182.5 x 82 cm

1926

Córdoba, Palacio de Viana, Fundación Cajasur

44

Saint Sebastian

Anonymous forger

Oil on panel, 127 x 39 cm

c. 1920 – 1930

Paris, Petit Palais, Musée des Beaux-Arts de la Ville de Paris

45

Saint Michael

Anonymous forger

Oil on panel, 122 x 52 cm

c. 1920 – 1930

Paris, Petit Palais, Musée des Beaux-Arts de la Ville de Paris

46

Bartolomé Bermejo : el más recio de los primitivos españoles, Madrid, 1926

Elías Tormo y Monzón

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, Biblioteca 

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