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Ribera. Master of Drawing

11/22/2016 - 2/19/2017

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The Museo del Prado is inaugurating Ribera. Master of Drawing, an exhibition co-organised with the Meadows Museum, which will be presenting it in Dallas from March next year in a reflection of this outstanding and highly productive collaboration between the two museums.

Curated by Gabriele Finaldi (former Associate Director of Conservation and Research at the Museo del Prado and now Director of the National Gallery in London), the exhibition has been organised to mark the publication of the first catalogue raisonné of the artist’s drawings. The aim of this publication is to offer a complete vision of Ribera as a draughtsman and to catalogue all the known drawings by his hand (around 160). It marks a new high point of interest in this subject, which began in the early 20th century and has been particularly intense in the last forty years. Co-published by the Museo del Prado, the Meadows Museum in Dallas and Fundación Focus, the catalogue is edited by Gabriele Finaldi who is also its co-author together with Elena Cenalmor, Curatorial Assistant to the Prado’s director of Conservation and Research, and Edward Payne, Senior Curator of Spanish Art at Auckland Castle (UK).

On display in Room C of the Jerónimos Building, the exhibition combines drawings, paintings and prints organised chronologically and thematically in order to emphasise Ribera’s outstanding technical abilities in the use of pen, ink and chalk, as well as the remarkable originality of his subject matter. With this aim in mind, 52 drawings, ten paintings and eight prints are displayed, in addition to a small wax sculpture of A Soul in Hell by the artist’s father-in-law Giovan Bernardino Azzolino which can be related to Ribera’s anatomical prints.

In addition to a number of already known graphic masterpieces such as Samson and Delilah (Museo de Córdoba), Achilles among the Daughters of Lycomedes (Teylers Museum, Haarlem) and Saint Albert (British Museum, London), the exhibition includes major rediscoveries that confirm the artist’s remarkable technical abilities, such as the exquisite Risen Christ appearing to the Virgin (Kent History and Library Centre), or reflect his interest in depicting heads and scenes of daily life in Naples, such as Boy with a Pinwheel and old Man pulling a Cart with a Body, a sheet recently acquired by the Prado. Visitors will also see around a dozen drawings not previously exhibited in Spain, including the two sheets of The Adoration of the Shepherds from Berlin and New York, and Hercules resting from Malta.

The seventy-one works in the exhibition are loaned from museums and collections around the world, including the British Museum (London), the Fitzwilliam Museum (Cambridge), the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York), and the Istituto Centrale per la Grafica in Rome. From within Spain there are loans from the Museo de Bellas Artes de Córdoba, the Academia de San Fernando and the Calcografía Nacional. A number of sheets are from the collection of the Museo del Prado, which in recent decades has been able to build up one of the most important groups of drawings by Ribera. 

Access

Room C. Jerónimos Building

Co-organized by:
Meadows Museum
Meadows Foundation

Multimedia

Exhibition

José de Ribera

José de Ribera
Samson and Delilah
José de Ribera
Black and red chalk with traces of pen and brown ink, 280 x 397 mm.
Mid-1620s
Córdoba, Museo de Bellas Artes de Córdoba

A complex artist and a masterly draughtsman, José de Ribera was born in Xátiva (Valencia) in 1591, arriving in Rome in 1606 where he trained in a style that combined two seemingly opposing trends: Caravaggesque naturalism in his paintings and an academic classicism in his drawings. Ribera was principally active in Naples, where he settled in 1616 in the service of the Spanish viceroys, living there until his death in 1652. The artist’s biographers describe him as an assiduous draughtsman, which was unusual in the context of Caravaggesque painters who made little use of drawing. Almost 160 sheets by Ribera are known today, dating from around 1610-15 to the end of his life, of which only a few are preparatory studies for paintings or prints and most derive from his observation of the human figure or are the fruit of his imagination.

No other Neapolitan or Spanish artist of this period employed such a wide range of subjects as Ribera, for whom the principal focus of interest in his graphic work was the human figure. Around half the known sheets are on religious subjects, while mythological themes include Apollo and Marsyas, the Laocoön and the “Furies”. Many drawings depict heads wearing different types of hats and caps, while a series of recently rediscovered sheets show scenes of everyday life observed on the streets of Naples. In five drawings of enigmatic meaning tiny men climb up a larger figure. However, the most striking aspect of Ribera’s drawn output is perhaps his interest in ugliness and violence, both in the grotesque heads and in the scenes of martyrdom and torture, with drawings of men tied to trees, hangings and beheadings, aspects that allow the artist to be seen as a forerunner of Goya. 

The young artist 1610-20

The young artist 1610-20
Head of a Warrior
José de Ribera
Red chalk, 202 x 265 mm.
First half of the 1610s
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

Ribera arrived in Rome aged around fifteen with the aim of training as a painter. He may have studied in the city’s academic art circles with their emphasis on the study of classical sculptures and Renaissance art, particularly Raphael, as well as the works of living artists including Caravaggio, Guido Reni and the Cavaliere d’Arpino. While almost no information survives on Ribera’s early years in Italy it is known that following a trip to the north of that country, in 1613 he was made a member of the Accademia di San Luca in Rome where life drawing was a fundamental practice.

A group of paintings by the artist from his Roman period has recently been identified but so far only one drawing, Head of a Warrior, has been dated to this moment. All Ribera’s other drawings were executed following his arrival in Naples, where he settled in 1616 under the protection of the Viceroy Pedro Téllez-Girón, 3rd Duke of Osuna (1616-20), a key patron in Ribera’s career through whom he established long-lasting connections with the viceregal court.

Ribera produced his first etchings soon after his arrival in Naples, using them as a means to disseminate his compositions and as a teaching method.

Ribera in the 1620s

Ribera achieved artistic maturity in the 1620s, the decade when his exceptional gifts as a draughtsman became evident. While most of the drawings of these years are executed in pen with long, precise strokes, his mastery of the technique of red chalk is evident in a group of highly finished drawings characterised by their delicacy and detail and which combine Ribera’s roots in academic classicism and his quest for naturalism. These are works with firm, well defined outlines, drawn with the very sharp tip of the red chalk and using soft modelling. The white of the paper is a fundamental element which the artist used to suggest highlights and create volumes.

During this decade Ribera also produced various etchings that were probably intended for inclusion in a manual for teaching drawing. Nonetheless, his intentions extended beyond the mere depiction of different physical features and through these prints Ribera was capable of expressing emotions such as horror and pain, a concern also evident in his drawings and paintings.

On display in this section are various examples in red and black chalk. Two of them – Samson and Delilah and David and Goliath – may have been presentation drawings for Philip IV for paintings that were in the Alcázar in Madrid until they were destroyed in the fire of 1734. As such they demonstrate the early connections Ribera had established with the Madrid court by the mid-1620s. The artist’s best known drawing, Saint Albert (?), from the British Museum, is signed and dated 1626.

Saints and martyrs

Saints and martyrs
Hermit tied to a Tree (Saint Albert?)
José de Ribera
Red chalk, 232 x 170 mm.
1626
London. On loan from The British Museum

Much of Ribera’s drawn output consists of depictions of saints, particularly penitent ones and martyrs, whom he drew throughout his career. In order to do so the artist selected the most dramatic moments from their penitence or martyrdom, which allowed him to focus on the figures’ spiritual tension and physical suffering.

Among martyr saints the figures of Saint Sebastian and Saint Bartholomew are the most recurring and typical. Both offered Ribera the opportunity to experiment with one of his favourite motifs: a naked man tied to a tree. In fact, the majority of drawings traditionally described as Saint Sebastian or Saint Bartholomew are in fact anatomical studies of naked men devoid of any identifying attributes. Saint Peter, who was crucified upside-down, and Saint Jerome, whom Ribera depicts praying in the desert, were the subject of numerous drawings.

Ribera’s fascination with representing such torments meant that in the eighteenth and nineteenth century he was considered a cruel, sadistic artist. The large number of drawings on these themes indicates that at the very least he felt a certain fascination for them.

Gods and heroes

Gods and heroes
Achilles among the daughters of Lycomedes
José de Ribera
Pen and two tones of brown ink, traces of red and black chalk, brush and grey brown wash, 270 x 384 mm.
Late 1630´s
Haarlem, Teylers Museum

In comparison to his numerous paintings on religious subjects, Ribera painted few classical or mythological works. Representing a tenth of his entire graphic output, his drawings on such themes include figure studies and rapid compositional sketches in addition to one of his masterpieces, Achilles among the Daughters of Lycomedes. Some of these sheets can be associated with the large-format paintings on the history of ancient Rome commissioned from a number of artists in Italy in the 1630s for the decoration of the Buen Retiro Palace in Madrid. The Triumph of Bacchus or Theoxenia, of which two fragments are in the Prado (on display here), may have been one of these paintings.

Like other painters of the time, Ribera was inspired by the classical sculptures which he could have studied during his years in Rome. Particularly important was the Laocoön (1st century BC), whose facial and bodily expressivity provided him with a fundamental model for his scenes of martyrdom. Another source was the Sleeping Ariadne (2nd century BC), whom Ribera reinterpreted in his Sleeping Nymph with Cupids and a Satyr, his only classical female nude.

Punishment and torture

The public meting out of justice in the early modern age often involved torture and execution. A number of drawings by Ribera seem to record tribunals of the Inquisition and executions in the city squares of Naples. The precise, schematic outlines and succession of rapid strokes used to create these images indicate the speed with which Ribera drew them, as if he had little time to capture the poses and gestures of the figures involved.

None of these drawings was made with the intention of including the figures in subsequent paintings or prints, nor do they include any element of ethical judgment or moralising content. They simply appear to be drawn with objective curiosity, as if the artist were producing a visual reportage on the event. Others, in contrast, are imaginary episodes in which Ribera invented terrible scenes of punishment and horror that seem to reflect a morbid interest in physical violence.

Years of achievement, 1634-37

Years of achievement, 1634-37
Apollo and Marsyas
José de Ribera
Oil on canvas, 182 x 232 cm.
1637
Naples, Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte

Ribera was at the height of his artistic maturity in the mid-1630s, during the viceroyalty of Manuel de Fonseca y Zúñiga, 6th Count of Monterrey (1631-37), and produced a number of masterpieces. While maintaining their economy of means and the importance of the white of the paper, his drawings become increasingly elegant and delicate with almost abstract forms and very light, agitated and broken but secure strokes, on occasions accompanied by subtle and transparent wash.

The most important group within the fifteen or so surviving preparatory drawings by the artist also date from this period. A number are related to commissions from the Viceroy for the convent and church of the Augustinian Recollect nuns that he founded in Salamanca, such as the very large painting of The Immaculate Conception (1635); others are for major paintings such as Apollo and Marsyas (1637), and for the Pietà (1637) in the Charterhouse of San Martino in Naples. These sketches, which can be precisely dated, allow us to reconstruct Ribera’s style in this decade and describe his working process. Firstly he devised and drew a scene, normally in pen, adding and eliminating elements in order to improve and refine the composition, then he made separate sketches of the figures or of specific details, working out the poses, forms and lighting through the use of wash. Finally, he arranged the models in the selected poses and painted them from life, which explains the difference in scale between his very elongated drawn figures and his painted ones with their more natural proportions. 

Heads

Heads
Head of a Satyr in pain
José de Ribera
Black and white chalk on blue paper, 300 x 221 mm.
First half of the 1620s
New York. Mrs. Judith M. Taubman

Ribera’s depictions of heads represent an extremely original and important theme within his graphic output. They appear in around twenty-five drawings (a significant percentage of his drawn work), were produced throughout his career and are executed in a range of techniques: red and black chalk, pen, brush with grey ink and red wash. A few are designs for paintings and prints and a number include unusual and sometimes fantastical headwear. Several include deformities such as goitres or very exaggerated features including long noses and very fleshy lips, leading them to be associated with the Leonardesque tradition of grotesque heads in which protuberances and defects were emphasised. Others in turn are studies made to record different physical types in the manner of illustrations for treatises on physiognomy such as Della fisonomia dell’huomo by the Neapolitan Giambattista della Porta (1586). Finally, Ribera drew life studies of figures from everyday life, of which some are presented in three-quarter profile or frontally but the majority in profile, probably in order to emphasise the subject’s character or deformities.

Master of drawing

Master of drawing
Risen Christ appearing to the Virgin
José de Ribera
Red chalk, 281 x 246 mm.
Late 1620´s
Kent History and Library Centre, Kent County Council

In contrast to Caravaggio and his followers, who did not habitually use drawing but rather painted directly onto the canvas, Ribera placed enormous importance on this medium. A member of the Accademia di San Luca in Rome from 1613 (a source of pride throughout his life), he had trained in the use of life drawing. This helps to explain the importance of this activity within his art and also his interest in teaching drawing.

His constant practice of drawing, the outstanding quality of many of his surviving works, the variety of techniques and the high degree of finish of some of them, indicating their status as independent works of art, mean that Ribera can be considered a true master of drawing.

The artist’s commitment to teaching is evident in his scuola, referred to by his biographers, where students drew models from life and received practical demonstrations from the master. In addition, his three anatomical etchings, which are highly individual and expressive in nature, were probably intended for inclusion in a drawing manual for teaching young painters. 

Urban and rural scenes

Urban and rural scenes
Boy with a Pinwheel and an Old Man Pulling a Cart with a Corpse on it
José de Ribera
Pen, brown ink and brown wash; traces of black chalk added at a later date, 235 x 170 mm.
Early 1640´s
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

With around 300,000 inhabitants, Naples was the second most populated capital in Europe in the first half of the seventeenth century. Its streets and squares were thronged with soldiers, clerics, nobles, street sellers, beggars and people of different ethnic origins, all involved in the daily routine of markets, festivals, processions and executions.

More than a dozen drawings are known by Ribera which depict aspects of daily life in Naples. Most are of small format and are executed in pen and ink, suggesting the private, immediate nature of images that he must have produced while watching the scenes depicted. The streets of Naples offered him a wide range of human types from which he derived interesting motifs for his works, while activities such as street wrestling and acrobatics provided him with an opportunity to observe movements and positions difficult to reproduce with studio models.

In addition, the discovery of new drawings by the artist has revealed Ribera’s interest in depicting rural scenes, which he could have observed on his trips to the countryside. 

Strange fantasies

Strange fantasies
A Masked Man with small Figures clambering up his Body
José de Ribera
Pen and grey-brown ink, 184 x 110 mm.
Late 1620´s
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

Ribera used drawing not just as a vehicle for preparing his paintings or as a pure academic exercise but also as a way of giving form to his enigmatic inventions and expressing his particular concerns, which on occasions seem to anticipate those of Francisco de Goya.

Executed in a wide range of techniques and with the human figure as the central theme, these “capriccios” alternate between the humorous and the satirical and between the caricatural, the ridiculous, the sinister and the disturbing. Some are complex scenes depicting large figures accompanied by tiny men in a range of positions similar to those adopted by the figures in Acrobats on the loose Wire, an iconography that must have had some specific meaning for Ribera. The earliest known example is A masked Man with small Figures clambering up his Body of the late 1620s, while the last dates from around ten years later. Other sheets depict full-length figures or heads with curious hats or caps, their peculiar features exaggerated by the artist. This section also includes a disturbing painting on copper of Hecate, depicting an imaginary scene with small-scale figures.

Last drawings

Last drawings
Nocturnal Adoration of the Shepherds
José de Ribera
Chalk and wash, 165 x 195 mm.
Early 1640´s
Liverpool, National Museums Liverpool, Walker Art Gallery, Purchased with the assistance of the Art Fund in 1992

Ribera’s drawings from the last years of his life return to some of his preferred subjects, such as the Martyrdom of Saint Bartholomew, the Apostle who was flayed alive, and the Adoration of the Shepherds. He painted at least six Adorations between 1629 and 1650 for important clients such as the King of Spain and the Viceroy Medina de las Torres. Four drawings by Ribera on this subject survive, all from the 1640s, and while none can be strictly identified as preparatory for a painting, they present undeniable formal and compositional similarities. In Ribera’s final years his graphic style, which reveals a less secure stroke possibly due to illness, evolved towards fine, tremulous lines and a more extensive use of wash to animate the composition, although now less subtle than in earlier periods. Also characteristic is a certain disregard for unifying the scale of the figures in the drawings, which include extremely elongated figures that are much larger than others, a feature not evident in the artist’s paintings.

For Ribera drawing was an independent terrain that allowed him to record and set down, experiment and try out, devise solutions and reject them without being tied to a rigorous preparatory process or a fixed studio practice.

Artworks

3

Penitence of Saint Peter

José de Ribera

Pen, brown and black ink, red and grey washes, with traces of red chalk and white chalk heightening, 220 x 138 mm

1617-18

Paris, Fondation Custodia, Collection Frits Lugt

4

Tears of Saint Peter (Penitence of Saint Peter)

José de Ribera

Etching and burin on paper, 329 x 247 mm

1621

Madrid, Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando. Calcografía Nacional. 

5

The penitence of Saint Peter

José de Ribera

Oil on canvas, 179 x 130 cm

1617-18

Seville, Colegiata de Osuna

6

Hermit tied to a Tree (Saint Albert?)

José de Ribera

Red chalk, 232 x 170 mm

1626

London. On loan from The British Museum

7

Head of a Satyr

José de Ribera

Red chalk on brownish paper, 303 x 211 mm

First half of the 1620s

New York, Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Elisha Whittelsey Collection

8

Studies mouths and noses

José de Ribera

Engraving, 139 x 213 mm

About 1620

Private Collection

9

Soul in Hell / Anima dannata

G. Bernardino Azzolino (sometimes attributed to Gaetano Zumbo)

Coloured wax, 20.5 x 15.5 cm

c. 1690

Firenze, Gallerie degli Uffizi-Tesoro dei Granduchi

10

Head of a Satyr in pain

José de Ribera

Black and white chalk on blue paper, 300 x 221 mm

First half of the 1620s

New York. Mrs. Judith M. Taubman

11

David and Goliath

José de Ribera

Red and black chalk, 258 x 423 mm

About 1624

New York, Private Collection, promised gift to The Hispanic Society of America

12

Susannah and the Elders

José de Ribera

Red Chalk, 207 x 177 mm

Mid-1620s

Firenze, Gabinetto Disegni e Stampe degli Uffizi

13

Samson and Delilah

José de Ribera

Black and red chalk with traces of pen and brown ink, 280 x 397 mm

Mid-1620s

Córdoba, Museo de Bellas Artes de Córdoba

14

Saint Jerome in prayer with the Lyon

José de Ribera

Brown and grey wash on paper. 148 x 226 mm

Second half of the 1630´s

Cambridge, The Syndics of The Fitzwilliam Museum, University of Cambridge

15

Saint Jerome reclining in a Landscape; Kneeling Mary Magdalene

José de Ribera

Pen and brown ink, 232 x 173 mm

Mid-1620s

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

16

Martyrdom of Saint Bartholomew

José de Ribera

Etching and burin on paper, 317 x 237mm

1624

Madrid, Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando. Calcografía Nacional 

17

Saint Bartholomew tied to a Tree

José de Ribera

Pen, brown ink and brown wash, 163 x 144 mm

Second half of the 1630s

Oxford, By permission of the Governing Body of Christ Church

18

The Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian with Archers

José de Ribera

Pen and brown ink, 195 x 253 mm

Second half of the 1620s

London, Victoria and Albert Museum. Bequeathed by Rev. Alexander Dyce. Dyce 610

19

Saint Sebastian seated and attached to a tree

José de Ribera

Red Chalk, 256 x 165 mm

Late 1620s

Bloomington, Indiana University Art Museum, William Lowe Bryan Memorial

20

Saint Sebastian

José de Ribera

Oil on canvas, 121 x 100 cm

1651

Naples, Museo di San Martino - Polo Museale della Campania

21

Saint Sebastian

José de Ribera

Pen, brown ink and wash, 249 x 150 mm

Early 1620´s

Oxford, Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford

22

Saint Sebastian

José de Ribera

Engraving. Etching, 89 x 70 mm

1620

Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France

23

Study for the Crucifixion of Saint Peter

José de Ribera

Pen and brown ink, 145 x 168 mm

Mid- 1620´s

New York, Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Rogers Fund, 1919 (19.150)

24

The Crucifixion of Saint Peter

José de Ribera

Brush and red ink wash, over red chalk, 250 x 258 mm

Mid-1620s

Madrid, Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando Museum

25

Studies of Laocoön

José de Ribera

Pen and wash in brown ink, 124 x 259 mm

First half of the 1630s

Rome, Istituto Centrale per la Grafica (Deposit dall´Accademia dei Lincei)

26

Studies of Tytius

José de Ribera

Pen and brown ink and brown wash, 160 x 123 mm

Early 1630s

Rome, Istituto Centrale per la Grafica (Deposit dall´Accademia dei Lincei)

27

Sleeping Nymph with Cupids and a Satyr

José de Ribera

Pen and brown ink on white paper, 174 x 258 mm

Late 1620´s

Cambridge, The Syndics of The Fitzwilliam Museum, University of Cambridge

28

Sileno drunk

José de Ribera

Engraving, 268 x 439 mm

1628

Private Collection

31

Achilles among the daughters of Lycomedes

José de Ribera

Pen and two tones of brown ink, traces of red and black chalk, brush and grey brown wash, 270 x 384 mm

Late 1630´s

Haarlem, Teylers Museum

32

Hercules at rest/ Ercole in riposo

José de Ribera

Brush and brown wash, over pen and brown ink, 250 x 178 mm

Late 1620´s

Mdina, Cathedral Museum Mdina, Malta

33

Woman Standing, holding a Cloak, at her Feet a Man lying on the Ground (Venus mourning the dead Adonis?)

José de Ribera

Pen and brown ink, brown wash, 129 x 158 mm

Early 1630´s

Munich, Staatliche Graphische Sammlung München

34

Man bound to a Stake

José de Ribera

Pen and brown ink with wash, 215 x 163 mm

First half of the 1640s

San Francisco, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco. Achenbach Foundation for Graphic Arts

35

Old Man tied to a Tree and a young Man Defecating

José de Ribera

Red chalk on white paper, 241 x 150 mm

Late 1620´s

London, The Samuel Courtauld Trust, The Courtauld Gallery

36

Inquisition Scene

José de Ribera

Pen and brown ink with wash, 206 x 165 mm

Late 1630´s

Providence, Lent by Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design

37

Scene of Torture with a Man raising an Axe

José de Ribera

Pen and brown ink with wash, 136 x 269 mm

Late 1630´s

Haarlem, Teylers Museum

38

Immaculate Conception with God the Father

José de Ribera

Pen and ink, 261 x 158 mm

1635

Rome, Istituto Centrale per la Grafica (Deposit dall´Accademia dei Lincei)

39

Studies of Putti and Cherubim

José de Ribera

Pen, brown ink and wash, 109 x 178 mm

1635

Rome, Istituto Centrale per la Grafica (Deposit dall´Accademia dei Lincei)

40

Saint John the Evangelist supporting the Dead Christ

José de Ribera

Pen and brown ink and brown wash, 141 x 121 mm

1637

Rome, Istituto Centrale per la Grafica (Deposit dall´Accademia dei Lincei)

41

Apollo and Marsyas

José de Ribera

Oil on canvas, 182 x 232 cm

1637

Naples, Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte

42

Apollo and Marsyas

José de Ribera

Pen and brown ink, 100 x 124 mm

1637

Rome, Istituto Centrale per la Grafica (Deposit dall´Accademia dei Lincei)

 

43

The Large Grotesque Head

José de Ribera

Etching and engraving, 215 x 140 mm

1622

London, On loan from The British Museum

44

Grotesque Head with Goitres and Pointed Ear

José de Ribera

Red chalk on discolored white paper, 207 x 147 mm

First half of the 1620s

Cambridge, The Syndics of The Fitzwilliam Museum, University of Cambridge

47

Man with Goitres wearing a Hood

José de Ribera

Pen and brown ink, 353 x 165 mm

Mid- 1620

Madrid, Colomer Collection

48

Head of a Man with a Balaclava over his Eye

José de Ribera

Brush and two shades of brown ink, 245 x 180 mm

Late 1630´s

Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett

49

Risen Christ appearing to the Virgin

José de Ribera

Red chalk, 281 x 246 mm

Late 1620´s

Kent History and Library Centre, Kent County Council

51

Ancora Imparo

Maestro de la Anunciación de los pastores

Painting. 143 x 194 cm

Collection Masaveu

52

Studies ears

José de Ribera

Engraving, 140 x 216 mm

About 1622

Private Collection

53

Studies eyes

José de Ribera

Engraving, 143 x 216 mm

About 1622

Private Collection

54

Studies of Male Heads in Profile

José de Ribera

Red chalk on cream laid paper, lightly toned with brush and grey wash, 251 x 206 mm

About 1622

Princeton University Art Museum. Museum purchase, Laura P. Hall Memorial Fund and Fowler McCormick, Class of 1921

55

A bat and two Ears

José de Ribera

Red chalk, brush and red wash, 159 x 279 mm

Early 1620´s

New York, Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Rogers Fund, 1972 (1972.77)

56

An oriental Nobleman and his Page carrying a Halberd

José de Ribera

Point of the brush with carmine red ink; squared in pen and brown ink, 230 x 135 mm

About 1628

Los Angeles, The J. Paul Getty Museum

57

Turkish Dignitary and Other Figures

José de Ribera

Pen and sepia wash, 188 x 216 mm

Late 1630,s

Madrid, Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando Museum

 

58

Acrobats on a loose Wire

José de Ribera

Pen, brown ink and brown wash, 258 x 198 mm

Late 1630´s

Madrid, Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando Museum

59

Hunting Scene

José de Ribera

Pen and brown ink and wash, 123 x 185 mm

Mid- 1630´s

Private Collection  

60

Landscape with fortress

José de Ribera

Oil on canvas, 127 x 269 cm

1639

Salamanca, Fundación Casa de Alba

61

Boy with a Pinwheel and an Old Man Pulling a Cart with a Corpse on it

José de Ribera

Pen, brown ink and brown wash; traces of black chalk added at a later date, 235 x 170 mm

Early 1640´s

Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

62

Family of Gypsies around a Forge

José de Ribera

Pen and wash in brown ink, 120 x 177 mm

Early 1640´s

Private Collection

63

Bust of a Man with fanciful Hat

José de Ribera

Pen and brown ink, 121 x 95 mm

Mid-1630´s

Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional de España

65

Cabeza grotesca con pequeñas figuras sobre su sombrero

José de Ribera

Brush and brown and grey wash, 196 x 252 mm

Late 1630´s

Private Collection

66

Group of Figures with a hanged Man being taken down from a Tree

José de Ribera

Pen, brown ink and wash, 175 x 250 mm

Late 1630´s

Bassano del Grappa, Museo Civico 

67

Hecate: Procession to a Witches' Sabbath

José de Ribera

Oil on copper, 34.3 x 65.5 cm

Before 1620

London, The Wellington Collection, Apsley House (English Heritage) 

68

The Martyrdom of Saint Bartholome

José de Ribera

Pen and brown ink with brown wash, over traces of black chalk, 177 x 132 mm

About 1649

New York, The Morgan Library & Museum

69

The Adoration of the Shepherds

José de Ribera

Pen and grey ink with grey wash, 143 x 249 mm

About 1650

New York, Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Rogers Fund, 1968 (68.64)

70

Nocturnal Adoration of the Shepherds

José de Ribera

Chalk and wash, 165 x 195 mm

Early 1640´s

Liverpool, National Museums Liverpool, Walker Art Gallery, Purchased with the assistance of the Art Fund in 1992

71

The Adoration of the Shepherd

José de Ribera

Pen and brown ink with brown wash, 235 x 187 mm

About 1640

Berlin, Staatliche Museen, Kupferstichkabinet

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