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The Virgin and Child between Saint Anthony of Padua and Saint Roch
Titian
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Titian

Pieve di Cadore, Belluno, Véneto, 1490 - Venecia, 1576

Miniatura autor

The Virgin and Child between Saint Anthony of Padua and Saint Roch

Ca. 1508. Oil on canvas, 92 x 133 cm.

This work was first recorded in 1641 as a work by Titian belonging to the Duke of Medina de las Torres in Naples. It was, however, attributed to Giorgione for centuries until Wilhelm Schmidt again attributed it to Titian in 1904. Most specialists now share Schmidt’s opinion, except for Charles Hope, who considers it the work of an artist yet to be determined, and Paul Holberton, who believes it to be by Domenico Mancini because of certain similarities between it and Mancini’s 1511 altarpiece at the Duomo di Lendinara. Mancini must have known Titian’s work, and that would explain the similarities, but the quality of his painting is significantly inferior to that of the present work. Titian must have painted The Virgin and Child between Saint Anthony of Padua and Saint Roch around 1508, possibly for the Scuola di San Antonio at the church of San Rocco in Venice, at a time when his relations with Giorgione were closest (both were then painting frescoes on the facades of the Fondaco dei Tedeschi), which would explain its strong resemblance to the latter’s work.

This is a reduced and simplified version of the Virgin and Child between Saint Nicasio and Saint Francis that Giorgione painted for the Duomo di Castelfranco around 1505. From that work Titian drew the symmetrical and pyramidal arrangement of the figures, the setting of the scene in front of a landscape, the inclusion of an architectural structure and the backdrop behind the Virgin. The latter’s physiognomy and the soft, sfumato surfaces are also derived from Giorgione, but he was not Titian’s only source of inspiration. The Virgin and Child are derived from an altarpiece that Giovanni Bellini painted for the church of San Zaccaria in Venice, while Saint Roch’s posture, with one leg resting on a rock, comes from the classical sculpture Apollo playing the kithara (Museo Archeologico, Venice). Gregorio de Gregoriis’s monumental wood engraving from 1517, The triumph of Christ, is based on drawings by Titian in which Saint Anthony of Padua clearly resembles his depiction in the present painting, while Saint George here recalls the profile of Saint Roch.

X-rays show various changes were made to the painting during its creation: originally, the curtains seemed to move more, while the Christ Child was looking at Saint Roch’s wound. The latter’s profile was also somewhat higher. Further small changes appear in Saint Anthony’s head, which was first turned to the left, and in the Virgin’s, which was in a lower position. Those changes reveal a shift in focus from Saint Roch to Saint Anthony, which is supported by the change in the Christ Child’s gaze. With his renowned modesty, Anthony avoids his attention. This painting is unfinished. While Saint Roch and the Christ Child are complete, the Virgin and her backdrop are not, and the landscape is barely sketched in. Reflectography shows drawing underneath Saint Roch’s profile, and on the contours and folds of the Virgin’s robe, but does not detect other drawing under the robe: the diagonal shading, suggesting areas of shadow, and another, more hasty and powerful area of drawing in the robe’s main folds. This is a technique derived from fresco painting, which served to help fix the aquamarine, a costly and unwieldy pigment. If Titian had applied the final coat of aquamarine to the robe, this underlying drawing would not be visible.

Medina de las Torres gave this painting to Philip IV, who sent it to El Escorial, whence it entered the Museo del Prado in 1839 (Falomir, M.: Italian Masterpieces. From Spain´s Royal Court, Museo del Prado, 2014, p. 72).

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Inventory number
P00288
Author
Titian
Title
The Virgin and Child between Saint Anthony of Padua and Saint Roch
Date
Ca. 1508
Technique
Oil
Support
Canvas
Dimension
High/Height: 92 cm.; Width: 133 cm.
Provenance
Royal Collection (Monastery of El Escorial, Madrid, Sacristy, 1839).

Bibliography +

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Museo Nacional del Prado, Catálogo de los cuadros del Museo del Prado de Madrid, [s.n.], París, 1876, pp. 400-403.

Cavalcaselle, Giovanni Battista, Tiziano, la sua vita e i suoi tempi con alcune notizie della sua famiglia, I, Successori Le Monnier, Florencia, 1877, pp. 540.

Lefort, P., Les museés de Madrid. Le Museé du Prado. Le peinture italienne. Les venetians, Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 7/8, 1892, pp. 470.

Frizzoni, G., Capolavori del Prado in Madrid, Archivio storico dell' arte, 1893, pp. 282.

Monneret de Villard, Ugo, Giorgione Da Castelfranco. Studio Critico, Istituto Italiano D'Arti Grafiche, Bérgamo, 1904, pp. 46.

Schmidt, Wilhelm, Zu Giorgione, Repertorium für Kunstwissenschaft, 27, 1904, pp. 160.

Venturi, Lionello, Giorgione e Il Giorgionismo, Ulrico Hoepli, Milán, 1913, pp. 134-138.

Norton, R., Bernini and the other studies, New York, 1914, pp. 193-194.

Dreyfous, Georges, Giorgione, Librairie Felix Alcan, París, 1914, pp. 70.

Beroqui, P., Tiziano en el Museo del Prado, Boletín de la Sociedad Española de Excursiones, 1925, pp. 135.

Venturi, Adolfo, Storia dell' arte italiana, U. Hoepli, Milán, 1929, pp. 33.

Hourticq, Louis, Le Probleme de Giorgione. Sa Legende. Son Oeuvre. Ses Eleves, Hachette, París, 1930, pp. 153.

Richter, G. M., The problem of the noli me tangere, The Burlington magazine, 1934.

Richter, G. M., Unfinished picture by Giorgione, The Art Bulletin, 1934, pp. 285.

Suida, W., Giorgione, nouvelles attributions, Gazette des beaux-arts, 13/14, 1935, pp. 81.

Suida, Wilhelm, Le Titien, Weber, Paris, 1935, pp. lám. 13.

Justi, Ludwig, Giorgione, I, Dietrich Reimer, Berlín, 1936, pp. 140-6.

Beroqui, Pedro, Tiziano en el Museo del Prado, Hauser y Menet, Madrid, 1946, pp. 6.

Arte Veneta, Rivista fondata nel 1947, 1954, pp. 174.

Zampetti, Pietro, Giorgione e i Giorgioneschi, Casa Editrice Arte Veneta, Venecia, 1955, pp. 130.

Caturla, Maria Luisa, Giorgione en 1955. Separata, C.S.I.C. Instituto Diego Velazquez, Madrid, 1955, pp. 305.

Ferroni, U., Giorgione y los giorgionescos, Goya, 1955, pp. 120.

Della Pergola, P., Giorgone, Milán, 1955, pp. 60.

Coletti, Tutta la pittura di Giorgione, Milán, 1955, pp. 61.

Berenson, Bernard (1865-1959), Italian pictures of the renaissance: list of the principal artists and their works with and index of places :Venetian school, Phaidon, Londres, 1957, pp. 84.

Valconover, F., Tutta la pittura di Tiziano, I, Milán, 1960, pp. 48.

Baldass, L. ; Heinz, G., Giorgione, Londres, 1965, pp. 49.

Wethey, Harold E. 1902-1984, The paintings of Titian, Phaidon, Londres, 1969.

Pallucchini, Rodolfo, Tiziano. Vol. I, I, G.C.Sansoni, Florencia, 1969, pp. lám. 27.

Pignatti, Terisio, Giorgione, Alfieri, Milán, 1970, pp. 128-129, lám. 154.

Magugliani, Lodovico, Introduzione a Giorgione e Alla Pittura Veneziana del Rinasc, Casa Editrice Ceschina, Milan, 1970, pp. 147, lám. 78.

De Andrés, G., Relación anónima del siglo XVII, Archivo español de arte y arqueología, 44, 1971, pp. 57.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Museo del Prado: catálogo de las pinturas, Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1972, pp. 243.

Pallucchini, Rodolfo, Profilo Di Tiziano, Aldo Martello, Florencia, 1977.

Ruggeri, A.; Fantelli, P. L.; Merkell, E., Giorgone a Venezia, Electa Editrice, Milán, 1978, pp. 160.

Anderson, J., Giorgione. Atti del Convegno Internazionale Di Studio per il 5 centenario della nascita, Comitato Per Le Celebrazioni Giorgi, Castelfranco Veneto, 1979, pp. 37-40.

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Ruiz Gómez, Leticia, Catálogo de las colecciones históricas de pintura veneciana, Editorial Patrimonio Nacional, Madrid, 1991, pp. 20-31.

Holberton, Paul. En: Joseph Manca (ed.), Titian 500, National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1993, pp. 257.

Checa Cremades, Fernando, Tiziano y la monarquía hispánica: usos y funciones de la pintura veneciana en España (siglos XVI y XVII), Nerea, Madrid, 1994, pp. 309, n. 170.

Joannides, Paul, Titian To 1518. The Assumption of Genius, Yale University Press, New Haven. Londres, 2001.

Falomir Faus, Miguel, Tiziano, Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, 2003, pp. 142.

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Brown, David Alan, Bellini, Giorgione, Titian and the Renaissance of Venetian, National Gallery of Art; Vienna, Washington, 2006.

Enciclopedia del Museo del Prado, VI, T.F. Editores. Fundación Amigos, Madrid, 2006, pp. 2195.

Bouza, Fernando, De Rafael a Ribera y de Nápoles a Madrid. Nuevos inventarios de la colección Medina de las Torres-Stigliano (1641-1656), Boletín del Museo del Prado, XXVII, 2009, pp. 44-71.

Le botteghe di Tiziano, Alinari 24 ORE, 2009, pp. 82.

Karpinski, Caroline, Titian and Bernardino da Parenzo cohabit in the vicinity of the santo, Venezia cinquecento, XX,40, 2010.

Falomir Faus, M., Titian 'The Virgin and Child betwenn Sain Anthony of Padua and Saint Roch' En:, Italian masterpieces from Spain's royal court, Museo del Prado, National Gallery of Victoria Thames & Hudson, 2014, pp. 72.

Marinetto Sánchez, P. Cambil Campaña, I., 'El calzado en el Siglo de Oro' En:, La moda española en el Siglo de Oro., Junta de Comunidades de Castilla-La Mancha. Fundación Cultura y Deporte, 2015, pp. 91-101 [94].

Other inventories +

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1854-1858. Núm. 418.

Inv. Real Museo, 1857. Núm. 418.
Pordenone (Juan Antonio Regillo ó Liginio, llamado el) / 418. La Virgen con el Niño Dios entre San Antonio y San Roque. (E.) / Alto 3 pies, 3 pulg, 6 lin; ancho 4 pies, 9 pulg.

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1872-1907. Núm. 341.

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1910. Núm. 288.

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1942-1996. Núm. 288.

Exhibitions +

In the Age of Giorgione
Londres
08.03.2016 - 05.06.2016

Maestros italianos. Melbourne
Melbourne
16.05.2014 - 31.08.2014

Italian Masterpieces from Spain's Royal Court. Museo Nacional del Prado
Melbourne
16.05.2014 - 31.08.2014

Bellini, Giorgione, Titian and the Renaissance of Venetian Painting
Viena
16.10.2006 - 07.01.2007

Bellini, Giorgione, Titian and the Renaissance of Venetian Painting
Washington D.C.
18.06.2006 - 17.09.2006

Titian
10.06.2003 - 07.09.2003

Le siecle de titien, de Giorgione a Veronese
París
09.03.1993 - 14.06.1993

Location +

Room 042 (On Display)

Expuesto
Update date: 19-09-2016 | Registry created on 02-12-2015

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