The itinerary <em>TITULORECORRIDO</em> has been successfully created. Now you can add in works from the Collection browser
<em>TITULOOBRA</em> added to <em>TITULORECORRIDO</em> itinerary

Adam and Eve
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)
Close Continuar a ficha de la obra

Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)

Pieve di Cadore, Belluno, Veneto (Italy), 1490 - Venice (Italy), 1576

Titian (Tiziano Vecellio) See author's file

Adam and Eve

Ca. 1550. Oil on canvas.
Room 025

The painting is a faithful visualisation of Genesis 30, 9-19 in which Eve is blamed for accepting the forbidden fruit (although the type of fruit is not stated, Titian follows tradition and opts for an apple) and there is a reference to a second tree, a fig, whose leaves are used by Adam and Eve to cover their nakedness. Although we do not have a definite date for this painting, nor do we know the name of its original owner, it is generally identified as the quadro grande de Adán y Eva de mano de Ticiano inventoried on 21 May 1585 as being among the possessions of Antonio Pérez. With regard to its dating, we know that from 1530 onwards Titian painted for Gonzalo Pérez, the father of Antonio, and that the former was still receiving works by Titian in 1573. Scholars have usually dated this painting to the 1550s, which seems compatible with the manner of modelling the forms, which are still defined, and the use of the Dying Gaul sculpture for the figure of Adam, as this was the period when that sculpture most influenced Titian, as many observed in the lost Tantalus or the Moses in The Glory. Other sources have been cited, such as the fresco by Raphael of the same subject in the Stanza della Signatura, from which Titian derived the idea of combining the seated Adam and standing Eve, and the figure of Dyrse in the Farnese Bull sculptural group from which he took the pose of Eve accepting the fruit. In addition, there is Dürer´s print of Adam and Eve of 1504, which has also been mentioned in relation to Eve´ and in the emphasis on the iconographic elements, although Titian limits them to the fox, traditionally associated with the devil, and the child-serpent who offers the apple. Other aspects of the painting recall earlier works by the artist, such as the device of darkening one of the protagonists´ faces, in this case that of Eve, to create a more dramatic effect, used by Titian since the Padua frescos of 1511, and found, for example, in the Hampton Court Lucretia.

The X-radiograph reveals significant changes. Adam appears as more up-right, with his torso more twisted to one side, his right leg closer to the left and his right arm more angled. Eve is also slightly turned, more evident in the face and hip, while her arm nearer the spectator was originally lower. The change in the arm was the result of including the child-serpent, as initially Eve took the apple herself from a lower branch, but Titian decided to show that the action was the result of temptation and not Eve´s own initiative, including the serpent slightly higher up. The change of pose and position of the arm was, however, not well resolved. Probably in order not to obscure the apple (whose consumption triggers the dramatic events that follow) from the spectator´s view, Eve makes an unnatural movement and turns her hand to take the fruit from behind, but this movement is not matched by a corresponding turn of her forearm. For the child-serpent´s forked tale, Titian reused what had formerly been two branches in his original composition.

The painting produces contradictory sensations. The brilliant colouring, particularly in the landscape, contrasts with a certain clumsiness in the treatment of the figures, particularly Eve´s gesture mentioned above and Adam´s wiry anatomy, whose excessive fidelity to its sculptural model meant that fig leaves had to be added to cover his genitals, spoiling the overall effect of the figure. Aware of these weaknesses, in his Adam and Eve after Titian (P1692), Rubens altered the pose and showed Adam turned more to the side in a pose closer to that seen in the X-radiograph of the present work. Thanks to this and to other less significant changes, Adam and Eve is the only one of Rubens´ numerous copies after Titian which is actually better than the original.

Like other paintings belonging to Antonio Pérez, in 1585 Titian´s Adam and Eve passed into the possession of Philip II, on whose death it was hanging in the Sacristy in the Alcázar in Madrid, remaining in that building until the fire of 1734 and copied there by Rubens during his second stay in Spain from 1628 to 1629. Just before 1636 it was moved from a sacred location (the Sacristy) to a secular one: the so-called vaults of Titian which housed the finest nudes in the royal collection, remaining there until 1734. It was inventoried in the Buen Retiro Palace in 1746 and later in the Palacio Real Nuevo before entering the Museo del Prado in 1827.

Falomir Faus, Miguel, Tiziano, Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado, 2003, p.252


Technical data

Related artworks

Adam and Eve
Oil on canvas, 1628 - 1629
Rubens, Peter Paul
Museo del Prado, vista de una sala con obras de Tiziano
Gelatin / Collodion on photographic paper, 1949
Kessel, Dimitri
Inventory number
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)
Adam and Eve
Ca. 1550
Height: 240 cm; Width: 186 cm
Royal Collection (New Royal Palace, Madrid, "primera sala de la Furriera", 1747, no. 10; New Royal Palace, Madrid, "antecámara de su Majestad", 1772, no. 10; New Royal Palace, Madrid, "antecámara", 1794, n. 10; New Royal Palace, Madrid, "antecámara", 1814-1818, no. 10).

Bibliography +

Inventario de los Bienes de Felipe II. Alcazar de Madrid. 1598-1607., Madrid, 1607.

Inventario. Palacio de Madrid. I. Pinturas., Madrid, 1686.

Inventario Real Palacio de Madrid., Madrid, 1734.

Inventario: Real Palacio de Madrid, Madrid, 1747.

Inventario Nuevo Palacio Real, Madrid, 1772.

Ponz, Antonio, Viage de España, I, Joachin Ibarra, Madrid, 1776, pp. 29.

Palacio Nuevo Madrid., Madrid, 1794.

Inventario. Real Palacio de Madrid. 1814, Madrid, 1814.

Inventario de las Pinturas del Museo Hecho a la Muerte del Rey Fernando VII, [s.n], Madrid, 1834, pp. 40.

Ricketts, C.S., The Prado and It's Masterpieces, Archibald Constable and Company, Westminster, 1903, pp. 126.

Gronau, Georg, Titian, Duckworth and Co.Charles Scribners, Londres-Nueva York, 1911, pp. 303.

Venturi, Adolfo, Raffaello, Calzone Editore, Roma, 1920, pp. lám. XXIV.

Basch, Victor, Titien, Albin Michel, Paris, 1927, pp. lám. 216.

Beroqui, P., Tiziano en el Museo del Prado, Boletin de la Sociedad española de excursiones, 35, 1927, pp. 192.

Suida, W, Le Titien, Weber, Paris, 1935, pp. lám. 290.

Beroqui, P, Tiziano en el Museo del Prado, Hauser y Menet, Madrid, 1946.

Castillo de Lucas, Antonio, Algunos temas médicos en el Museo del Prado, Arte Español / Revista Española de Arte, 19, 1952/53, pp. 26.

Ceán Bermúdez, Juan Agustín, Diccionario histórico de los más ilustres profesores de Bellas Artes en España, Reales Academias de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, Madrid, 1965, pp. 39.

Panofsky, Erwin, Problems in Titian Mostly Iconographic, Phaidon, Londres, 1969, pp. lám. 29.

Wethey, Harold E., The paintings of Titian, Phaidon, Londres, 1969, pp. 255-257.

Pallucchini, Rodolfo, Tiziano, I, G.C. Sansoni, Florencia, 1969, pp. lám. 501.

Cagli, Corrado, La obra pictórica completa de Tiziano, Noguer, Barcelona. Madrid, 1971.

Salas, Xavier de, Museo del Prado. Catálogo de las pinturas, Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1972, pp. 700.

Wilde, Johannes, Venetian Art From Bellini To Titian, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1974, pp. 225.

Inventarios reales: testamentaria del Rey Carlos II : 1701-1, Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1975, pp. 68.

Rosand, David, Titian, Harrry N. Abrams, Nueva York, 1978, pp. 39/lám. 51.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Museo del Prado: pintura italiana anterior a 1600, Gredos, Madrid, 1979, pp. 181-182.

Downes, Kerry, Rubens, Jupiter Books, Londres, 1980, pp. 161/lám. 101.

Crawford Volk, Mary, Rubens in Madrid and the decoration of the Salon Nuevo in the Palace, The Burlington Magazine, 122, 1980, pp. 168/lám. 21.

Hope, Charles, Titian, Jupiter Book, London, 1980, pp. 139/lám. 71.

Thomson, Richard, Degas torse de femme and Ttian, Gazette des Beaux-Arts: La Chronique des Arts, 97/98, 1981, pp. 45.

Delaforce, Angela, The collection of Antonio Pérez secretary of state to Philip II, The Burlington magazine, 124, 1982, pp. lám. 25.

Rosand, David, Titian. His World and His Legacy, Columbia University Press, Nueva York, 1982, pp. 290.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Catálogo de las pinturas, Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1985, pp. 702-703.

Glang-Süberkrüb, Annegret, Einige Anmerkungen zu Tizians und Rubens Sündenfall, 1985.

Pérez Sánchez, Alfonso E., Carreño, Rizi, Herrera y la pintura madrileña de su tiempo, Ministerio de Cultura. Banco Herrero, Madrid, 1986, pp. 328.

Orso, Steven N., Philip IV and the decoration of the Alcazar of Madrid, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1986, pp. 45, 110/ lám. 20.

Brown, Jonathan, Velázquez: pintor y cortesano, Alianza Editorial, Madrid, 1986, pp. 66/lám. 79.

Cavalli-Bjorkman, Görel, Rubens and Titian, Nationalmuseum Bulletin (Stockholm), 11, 1987, pp. 102.

Réau, Louis, Iconographie de L'Art Chretien. T. I. Introduction Generale, Kraus Reprint, Millwood, 1988, pp. 86.

Fernandez Miranda y Lozana, Fernando, Inventarios Reales Carlos III 1789-1790, Patrimonio Nacional, Madrid, 1988, pp. 13.

Wilde, Johannes, La pintura veneciana: de Bellini a Ticiano, Nerea, Madrid, 1988, pp. 240/lám. 189.

Anatra, Bruno, Venezia e la Spagna, Electa, Milan, 1988, pp. 68/lám. 70.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Museo del Prado. Inventario general de pinturas (I) La Colección Real, Museo del Prado, Espasa Calpe, Madrid, 1990.

Vosters, Simon A., Rubens y España: estudio artístico-literario sobre la estética del Barroco, Cátedra, Madrid, 1990, pp. 130.

Walther, Angelo, Tizian, E.A.Seemann Verlag, Leipzig, 1990, pp. lám. 90.

Pilo, Giuseppe Maria, Rubens e L'Eredita Veneta, De Luca Edizioni D'Arte, Roma, 1991, pp. 72/lám. 58.

Checa Cremades, Fernando, Felipe II: mecenas de las artes, Nerea, Madrid, 1992, pp. 154.

Jiménez Priego, María Teresa, Un programa iconológico perdido, recuperado. Pinturas de la iglesia nueva de Guadalupe, de Juan García de Miranda, Espacio, Tiempo y Forma, 5, 1992, pp. 274/ lám. 6.

Orso, Steven, Velázquez, Los Borrachos and Painting at the Court of Philip IV, University Press, Cambrigde, 1993, pp. 94/lám. 50.

Checa Cremades, Fernando, Tiziano y la monarquía hispánica: usos y funciones de la pintura veneciana en España (siglos XVI y XVII), Nerea, Madrid, 1994, pp. 81; 252-253, n. 15.

Bettagno, Alessandro, El Museo del Prado, Fonds Mercator Fundación Amigos del Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1996, pp. 217.

Goldfarb, Hilliard T., Titian and Rubens: power, politics and style, Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Boston, 1998.

Checa Cremades, F, Un príncipe del renacimiento: Felipe II, un monarca y su época, Sociedad Estatal para la Conmemoración de los centenarios de Felipe II y Carlos V, Madrid, 1998, pp. 589.

Falomir, M, Pintura italiana del Renacimiento: guía, Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1999, pp. 180.

Portús Pérez, Javier, La sala reservada y el desnudo en el Museo del Prado, Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, 2002, pp. 84.

Alpers, Svetlana, Mitos entre artistas Tiziano, Rubens, Velázquez. En Historias inmortales, Barcelona, 2003, pp. 165-174.

Falomir Faus, Miguel, Tiziano, Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, 2003, pp. 252.

Rubens im Wettstreit mit Alten Meistern. Vorbild und Neuerf, Hatje Cantz, 2009, pp. 208-213.

Rubens & Van Dyck, Nationalmuseum, 2010, pp. 106.

Vergara, A. Alba, L. Gayo, Mª.D, Rubens in Madrid (1628-1629): New technical evidence concerning his copies after Titian an a new portrait., Boletín del Museo del Prado., Tomo XXXI n.49, 2013, pp. 18-33 [22-23 f.7, 8b].

Checa Cremades, Fernando, Tiziano y las cortes del Renacimiento, Marcial Pons Historia, 2013, pp. 431 f.60.

Barbeitio, J. M., De arte y arquitectura. El Salón de los Espejoa en el Alcázar de Madrid, Boletín del Museo del Prado, XXXIII (51), 2015, pp. 24-43 [30].

Martínez Leiva, Gloria; Rodríguez Rebollo, Ángel, El inventario del Alcázar de Madrid de 1666. Felipe IV y su colección artística, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, 2015, pp. 615 nº 952.

Grosso, Marsel, Fonti antiche e moderne per la pittura religiosa di Tiziano nel sesto decennio, Arte Veneta., 72, 2015, pp. 60-75 [61,65-69, f.13,14].

Portús Pérez, Javier, Displaying the Nude in Spain 1550-1834. The Sala Reservada, en: Splendor, Myth, and Vision: Nudes from the Prado, Clark Art Institute; Museo Nacional del Prado, 2016, pp. 50-66 [55].

Fiore, A, Un lungo equivoco: I Santi Giacomo Minore e Filippo ' di Paolo Veronese da Lecce a Dublino, Prospettiva, 163-164, 2016, pp. 148-163. [154 f.3,9] o.r.

Wethey, H. E., Titian's Adan and Eva and Philip II, Universidad, Granada, pp. 437.

Other inventories +

Inv. Felipe V, Palacio Nuevo, 1747. Núm. 10.
PINTURAS EXISTENTES ANTIGUAS [...] En la primera Sala de este Oficio [de la Furriera] [...] {10229} 10 / Otro [lienzo] de Adan y Eua en el Paraiso tomando la manzana del arbol original de el Ticiano de tres varas de caida y dos y quarta de ancho = en veinticinco mil reales

Inv. Carlos III, Palacio Nuevo, 1772. Núm. 10.
Antecamara de S.M. [12692] 10 / Vn quadro de Adan y Eva en el Paraiso tomando las manzanas del arbol de tres varas de caida y dos y quarta de ancho del mismo autor [Ticiano]

Inv. Fernando VII, Palacio Nuevo, 1814-1818. Núm. 10.
Antecámara [...] {21126} 10 / 3 varas alto dos y quarta ancho Adan y Eva = id. [Ticiano]

Inv. Testamentaría Carlos III, Palacio Nuevo, 1794. Núm. 10.
Antecámara [...] [3] 10 / Tres varas de alto y dos y quarta de ancho: Adan y Eva en el Paraiso Yd [Ticiano] ... 15000

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1910. Núm. 429.

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1942-1996. Núm. 429.

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1872-1907. Núm. 456.

Inv. Real Museo, 1857. Núm. 812.
Tiziano. / 812. El Pecado original. / Eva, apoyada con la mano derecha en un arbolito cargado de fruta que se encorva bajo el peso de su cuerpo, está en acción de recibir la manzana prohibida de la engañadora serpiente que rodea el tronco de un árbol corpulento. Adán al otro lado, sentado en una piedra observa con sentimiento la desobediencia de su compañera a las órdenes del omnipotente. (figuras semi-colosales) . / Alto 8 pies, 7 pulg; ancho 6 pies, 8 pulg.

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1854-1858. Núm. 812.

Inscriptions +

Signed. Front, lower left corner

Inscribed in red color. Front, lower left corner

Inscribed in orange. Front, lower left corner

Exhibitions +

06.06.2020 - 25.07.2021

Looking and Admiring. Rubens in Competition with Old Masters
25.02.2010 - 23.05.2010

Looking and Admiring. Rubens in Competition with Old Masters
23.10.2009 - 03.02.2010

10.06.2003 - 07.09.2003

Location +

Room 025 (On Display)

Update date: 09-04-2022 | Registry created on 28-04-2015

Other works by Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)

Print on demand

Print artworks available in our catalogue in high quality and your preferred size and finish.

Image archive

Request artworks available in our catalogue in digital format.