The itinerary <em>TITULORECORRIDO</em> has been successfully created. Now you can add in works from the Collection browser
<em>TITULOOBRA</em> added to <em>TITULORECORRIDO</em> itinerary

Collection <Back
Adam and Eve
Tiziano, Vecellio di Gregorio
Close Continuar a ficha de la obra

Tiziano, Vecellio di Gregorio

Pieve di Cadore (Belluno, Véneto), 1490 - Venecia, 1576

Miniatura autor

Adam and Eve

Ca. 1550. Oil on canvas, 240 x 186 cm.

The painting is a faithful visualisation of Genesis 30, 9-19 in which Eve is blamed for accepting the forbidden fruit (although the type of fruit is not stated, Titian follows tradition and opts for an apple) and there is a reference to a second tree, a fig, whose leaves are used by Adam and Eve to cover their nakedness. Although we do not have a definite date for this painting, nor do we know the name of its original owner, it is generally identified as the quadro grande de Adán y Eva de mano de Ticiano inventoried on 21 May 1585 as being among the possessions of Antonio Pérez. With regard to its dating, we know that from 1530 onwards Titian painted for Gonzalo Pérez, the father of Antonio, and that the former was still receiving works by Titian in 1573. Scholars have usually dated this painting to the 1550s, which seems compatible with the manner of modelling the forms, which are still defined, and the use of the Dying Gaul sculpture for the figure of Adam, as this was the period when that sculpture most influenced Titian, as many observed in the lost Tantalus or the Moses in The Glory. Other sources have been cited, such as the fresco by Raphael of the same subject in the Stanza della Signatura, from which Titian derived the idea of combining the seated Adam and standing Eve, and the figure of Dyrse in the Farnese Bull sculptural group from which he took the pose of Eve accepting the fruit. In addition, there is Dürer´s print of Adam and Eve of 1504, which has also been mentioned in relation to Eve´ and in the emphasis on the iconographic elements, although Titian limits them to the fox, traditionally associated with the devil, and the child-serpent who offers the apple. Other aspects of the painting recall earlier works by the artist, such as the device of darkening one of the protagonists´ faces, in this case that of Eve, to create a more dramatic effect, used by Titian since the Padua frescos of 1511, and found, for example, in the Hampton Court Lucretia.

The X-radiograph reveals significant changes. Adam appears as more up-right, with his torso more twisted to one side, his right leg closer to the left and his right arm more angled. Eve is also slightly turned, more evident in the face and hip, while her arm nearer the spectator was originally lower. The change in the arm was the result of including the child-serpent, as initially Eve took the apple herself from a lower branch, but Titian decided to show that the action was the result of temptation and not Eve´s own initiative, including the serpent slightly higher up. The change of pose and position of the arm was, however, not well resolved. Probably in order not to obscure the apple (whose consumption triggers the dramatic events that follow) from the spectator´s view, Eve makes an unnatural movement and turns her hand to take the fruit from behind, but this movement is not matched by a corresponding turn of her forearm. For the child-serpent´s forked tale, Titian reused what had formerly been two branches in his original composition.

The painting produces contradictory sensations. The brilliant colouring, particularly in the landscape, contrasts with a certain clumsiness in the treatment of the figures, particularly Eve´s gesture mentioned above and Adam´s wiry anatomy, whose excessive fidelity to its sculptural model meant that fig leaves had to be added to cover his genitals, spoiling the overall effect of the figure. Aware of these weaknesses, in his Adam and Eve after Titian (P1692), Rubens altered the pose and showed Adam turned more to the side in a pose closer to that seen in the X-radiograph of the present work. Thanks to this and to other less significant changes, Adam and Eve is the only one of Rubens´ numerous copies after Titian which is actually better than the original.

Like other paintings belonging to Antonio Pérez, in 1585 Titian´s Adam and Eve passed into the possession of Philip II, on whose death it was hanging in the Sacristy in the Alcázar in Madrid, remaining in that building until the fire of 1734 and copied there by Rubens during his second stay in Spain from 1628 to 1629. Just before 1636 it was moved from a sacred location (the Sacristy) to a secular one: the so-called vaults of Titian which housed the finest nudes in the royal collection, remaining there until 1734. It was inventoried in the Buen Retiro Palace in 1746 and later in the Palacio Real Nuevo before entering the Museo del Prado in 1827 (Text drawn from Falomir, M.: Tiziano, Museo Nacional del Prado, 2003, pp. 396-397).

Multimedia

Technical data

Related artworks

Adam and Eve
Oil on canvas, 1628 - 1629
Inventory number
P00429
Author
Tiziano, Vecellio di Gregorio
Title
Adam and Eve
Date
Ca. 1550
Technique
Oil
Support
Canvas
Dimension
High/Height: 240 cm.; Width: 186 cm.
Provenance
Royal Collection (New Royal Palace, Madrid, "primera sala de la Furriera", 1747, no. 10; New Royal Palace, Madrid, "antecámara de su Majestad", 1772, no. 10; New Royal Palace, Madrid, "antecámara", 1794, n. 10; New Royal Palace, Madrid, "antecámara", 1814-1818, no. 10).

Bibliography +

Inventario de los Bienes de Felipe II. Alcazar de Madrid. 1598-1607., Madrid, 1607.

Inventario. Palacio de Madrid. I Pinturas., Madrid, 1686.

Inventario Real Palacio de Madrid., Madrid, 1734.

Inventario: Real Palacio de Madrid., Madrid, 1747.

Inventario Nuevo Palacio Real., Madrid, 1772.

Ponz, Antonio, Viage de España. Vol. I, Madrid Joachin Ibarra, 1776, pp. 29.

Palacio Nuevo Madrid., Madrid, 1794.

Inventario. Real Palacio de Madrid., Madrid, 1814.

Inventario de las Pinturas del Museo Hecho a la Muerte del Rey Fernando VII, Madrid [s.n], 1834, pp. 40.

Ricketts, C.S., The Prado and Its Masterpieces, Westminster Archibald Constable and Company, 1903, pp. 126.

Gronau, Georg, Titian, Londres. Nueva York Duckworth and Co. Charles Scribners, 1911, pp. 303.

Venturi, Adolfo, Raffaello, Roma Calzone Editore, 1920, pp. lám. XXIV.

Basch, Victor, Titien, Paris Albin Michel, 1927, pp. lám. 216.

Beroqui, P., Tiziano en el Museo del Prado CONSEJO SUPERIOR DE INVESTIGACIONES, 1927, pp. 192.

Suida, Wilhelm, Le Titien, Paris Weber, 1935, pp. lám. 290.

Beroqui, Pedro, Tiziano en el Museo del Prado, Madrid Hauser y Menet, 1946.

Castillo de Lucas, Antonio, Algunos temas médicos en el Museo del Prado SOCIEDAD ESPAÑOLA DE AMIGOS DEL ART, 1952/53, pp. 26.

Ceán Bermúdez, Juan Agustín, Diccionario histórico de los más ilustres profesores de Bellas Artes en España, Madrid Reales Academias de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, 1965, pp. 39.

Wethey, Harold E., The paintings of Titian, Londres Phaidon, 1969, pp. 255-257.

Pallucchini, Rodolfo, Tiziano. Vol. I, Florencia G.C.Sansoni, 1969, pp. lám. 501.

Panofsky, Erwin, Problems in Titian Mostly Iconographic, Londres Phaidon, 1969, pp. lám. 29.

Cagli, Corrado, La obra pictórica completa de Tiziano, Barcelona. Madrid Noguer, 1971.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Museo del Prado: catálogo de las pinturas, Madrid Museo del Prado, 1972, pp. 700.

Wilde, Johannes, Venetian Art From Bellini To Titian, Oxford Clarendon Press, 1974, pp. 225.

Inventarios reales: testamentaria del Rey Carlos II : 1701-1, Madrid Museo del Prado, 1975, pp. 68.

Rosand, David, Titian, Nueva York Harrry N.Abrams, 1978, pp. 39/lám. 51.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Museo del Prado: pintura italiana anterior a 1600, Madrid Gredos, 1979, pp. 181-182.

Hope, Charles, Titian, London Jupiter Book, 1980, pp. 139/lám. 71.

Downes, Kerry, Rubens, Londres Jupiter Books, 1980, pp. 161/lám. 101.

Crawford Volk, Mary, Rubens in Madrid and the decoration of the Salon Nuevo in the Palace THE BURLINGTON MAGAZINE PUBLICATION, 1980, pp. 168/lám. 21.

Thomson, Richard, Degas torse de femme and Ttian LES BEAUX-ARTS.SOCIETE D EDITION ET, 1981, pp. 45.

Rosand, David, Titian. His World and His Legacy, Nueva York Columbia University Press, 1982, pp. 290.

Delaforce, Angela, The collection of Antonio Perez secretary of state to Philipp II. THE BURLINGTON MAGAZINE PUBLICATION, 1982, pp. lám. 25.

Museo Nacional del Prado., Museo del Prado: catálogo de las pinturas, Madrid Museo del Prado, 1985.

Glang-Süberkrüb, Annegret, Einige Anmerkungen zu Tizians und Rubens Sündenfall Nymphenburger, 1985.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Museo del Prado: catálogo de las pinturas, Madrid Museo del Prado, 1985, pp. 702-703.

Brown, Jonathan1939-, Velázquez: pintor y cortesano, Madrid Alianza Editorial, 1986, pp. 66/lám. 79.

Carreño, Rizi, Herrera y la pintura madrileña de su tiempo, Madrid Ministerio de Cultura : Banco Herrero, 1986, pp. 328.

Orso, Steven N., Philip IV and the decoration of the Alcazar of Madrid, Princeton Princeton University Press, 1986, pp. 45, 110/ lám. 20.

Cavalli-Bjorkman, Görel, Rubens and Titian NATIONALMUSEUM, 1987, pp. 102.

Wilde, Johannes, La pintura veneciana: de Bellini a Ticiano, Madrid Nerea, 1988, pp. 240/lám. 189.

Anatra, Bruno, Venezia e la Spagna, Milan Electa, 1988, pp. 68/lám. 70.

Réau, Louis, Iconographie de L'Art Chretien. T. I. Introduction Generale, Millwood Kraus Reprint, 1988, pp. 86.

Fernandez Miranda y Lozana, Fernando, Inventarios Reales Carlos III 1789-1790, Madrid Patrimonio Nacional, 1988, pp. 13.

Vosters, Simon A., Rubens y España: estudio artistico-literario sobre la estética del Barroco, Madrid Cátedra, 1990, pp. 130.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Museo del Prado: inventario general de pinturas, Madrid Museo del Prado, 1990.

Walther, Angelo, Tizian, Leipzig E.A.Seemann Verlag, 1990, pp. lám. 90.

Pilo, Giuseppe Maria, Rubens e L'Eredita Veneta, Roma De Luca Edizioni D'Arte, 1991, pp. 72/lám. 58.

Jiménez Priego, María Teresa, Un programa iconológico perdido, recuperado. Pinturas de la iglesia nueva de Guadalupe, de Juan García de Miranda Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia,, 1992, pp. 274/ lám. 6.

Checa Cremades, Fernando, Felipe II: mecenas de las artes, Madrid Nerea, 1992, pp. 154.

Orso, Steven, Velázquez, Los Borrachos and Painting at the Court of Philip IV, Cambrigde University Press, 1993, pp. 94/lám. 50.

Checa Cremades, Fernando, Tiziano y la monarquía hispánica: usos y funciones de la pintura veneciana en España (siglos XVI y XVII), Madrid Nerea, 1994, pp. 81; 252-253, n. 15.

Bettagno, Alessandro, El Museo del Prado, Madrid Fonds MercatorFundación Amigos del Museo del Prado, 1996, pp. 217.

Un príncipe del renacimiento: Felipe II, un monarca y su época, Madrid Sociedad Estatal para la Commemoración de los centnerarios de Felipe II y Carlos V, 1998, pp. 589.

Goldfarb, Hilliard T., Titian and Rubens: power, politics and style, Boston Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, 1998.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Pintura italiana del Renacimiento: guía, Madrid Museo del Prado, 1999, pp. 180.

Portús, Javier, La sala reservada y el desnudo en el Museo del Prado, Madrid Museo Nacional del Prado, 2002, pp. 84.

Alpers, Svetlana, Mitos entre artistas Tiziano, Rubens, Velázquez. En Historias inmortales, Barcelona, 2003, pp. 165-174.

Falomir Faus, Miguel, Tiziano, Madrid Museo Nacional del Prado, 2003, pp. 252.

Rubens im Wettstreit mit Alten Meistern : Vorbild und Neuerf : Hatje Cantz, 2009, pp. 208-213.

Rubens & Van Dyck : Nationalmuseum, 2010, pp. 106.

Checa Cremades, Fernando, Tiziano y las cortes del Renacimiento Marcial Pons Historia, 2013, pp. 431 f.60.

Vergara, A. Alba, L. Gayo, Mª.D, Rubens in Madrid (1628-1629): New technical evidence concerning his copies after Titian an a new portrait. : Museo del Prado, 2013, pp. 18-33 [22-23 f.7, 8b].

Wethey, H. E., Titian's Adan and Eva and Philip II, Granada Universidad, pp. 437.

Other inventories +

Inv. Felipe V, Palacio Nuevo, 1747. Núm. 10.
PINTURAS EXISTENTES ANTIGUAS [...] En la primera Sala de este Oficio [de la Furriera] [...] {10229} 10 / Otro [lienzo] de Adan y Eua en el Paraiso tomando la manzana del arbol original de el Ticiano de tres varas de caida y dos y quarta de ancho = en veinticinco mil reales

Inv. Carlos III, Palacio Nuevo, 1772. Núm. 10.
Antecamara de S.M. [12692] 10 / Vn quadro de Adan y Eva en el Paraiso tomando las manzanas del arbol de tres varas de caida y dos y quarta de ancho del mismo autor [Ticiano]

Inv. Testamentaría Carlos III, Palacio Nuevo, 1794. Núm. 10.
Antecámara [...] [3] 10 / Tres varas de alto y dos y quarta de ancho: Adan y Eva en el Paraiso Yd [Ticiano] ... 15000

Inv. Fernando VII, Palacio Nuevo, 1814-1818. Núm. 10.
Antecámara [...] {21126} 10 / 3 varas alto dos y quarta ancho Adan y Eva = id. [Ticiano]

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1854-1858. Núm. 812.

Inv. Real Museo, 1857. Núm. 812.
Tiziano. / 812. El Pecado original. / Eva, apoyada con la mano derecha en un arbolito cargado de fruta que se encorva bajo el peso de su cuerpo, está en acción de recibir la manzana prohibida de la engañadora serpiente que rodea el tronco de un árbol corpulento. Adán al otro lado, sentado en una piedra observa con sentimiento la desobediencia de su compañera a las órdenes del omnipotente. (figuras semi-colosales) . / Alto 8 pies, 7 pulg; ancho 6 pies, 8 pulg.

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1872-1907. Núm. 456.

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1910. Núm. 429.

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1942-1996. Núm. 429.

Exhibitions +

Looking and Admiring. Rubens in Competition with Old Masters
Estocolmo
25.02.2010 - 23.05.2010

Looking and Admiring. Rubens in Competition with Old Masters
Munich
23.10.2009 - 03.02.2010

Titian
10.06.2003 - 07.09.2003

Location +

Room 025 (On Display)

Update date: 27-01-2016 | Registry created on 28-04-2015

Other works by Tiziano, Vecellio di Gregorio

Print on demand

Print artworks available in our catalogue in high quality and your preferred size and finish.

Image archive

Request artworks available in our catalogue in digital format.

Up