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Ecce Homo
Tiziano, Vecellio di Gregorio
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Tiziano, Vecellio di Gregorio

Pieve di Cadore, Belluno, Véneto, 1490 - Venecia, 1576

Miniatura autor

Ecce Homo

1547. Oil on slate, 69 x 56 cm.

Although we do not know when Titian first treated this subject, it was probably in 1535, when he painted a Christ for Federico Gonzaga following a model provided by the duke. The earliest surviving Ecce Homo is the one he did for Charles V and in which one detects his attempt to distance himself from the usual iconic impression of these images which are typically frontal and bust length. Instead, Titian shows Christ in three quarter length and at an angle. He combines the inherent drama of the subject, visible in the whip marks and the blood, with the serenity of someone who accepts his tragic destiny.

This treatment of the Ecce Homo subject was extremely successful, either as a single figure or within a narrative context in the company of Pontius Pilate and showing Christ mocked by his torturers. In 1546 Titian gave Pope Paul III an Ecce Homo and another to Aretino in 1548 which was soon copied by Domenico Molino. We also know of a replica made that same year for Cardinal Granvelle of an Ecce Homo very similar to the Rome one.

The devotional nature of these works has been emphasised in the literature, and they are often considered to be an example of how Titian adapted to Counter-Reformation requirements. The work clearly expressed an emotional pathos arousing the viewer´s empathy, as Pietro Aretino indicated in relation to his Ecce Homo, possibly the one now in the Musee Conde in Chantilly, which only differed from the present one in that Christ held a rod in his right hand. Having described the image, which he kept in his bedroom, as devout, Aretino adds: The suffering which Christ experiences would move to repentance anyone who looks with Christian compassion at his arms wounded by the rope which ties his hands: it would inspire to humility anyone who contemplates the pain caused by the rod which he holds in his right hand. This pietistic tone was the one sought by Charles V, which explains his satisfaction with the Ecce Homo which he took to Yuste, pairing it with a lost Virgin Dolorosa by Michiel Coxcie. In 1555 he commissioned a copy of it on slate by Jan Cornelisz. Vermeyen for the chapel in the Palace of Coudenbergh in Brussels.

It is not known when Titian painted this Ecce Homo, but it was probably produced in Rome at the same time as the version painted for Paul III. Two circumstances make this likely: the monumental treatment of the anatomy, clearly inspired by Michelangelo, and the fact that it is the only painting by Titian on slate. While we know of Charles V´s interest in this support, in Rome Titian must have come across Sebastiano´s use of slate for devotional paintings, and its success among members of the imperial court such as Francisco de los Cobos and the Count of Cifuentes.

Philip II paired his Ecce Homo with the Virgin Dolorosa with her Hands Apart (P444) in his aposento (chamber) in the Alcazar in Madrid. It remained in that building until the fire of 1734 apart from a brief period in the Palace of El Pardo. That fire probably caused the abrasion apparent on the painting which is also evident, although to a lesser extent, on its pendant. The painting was later in the Palacio Real Nuevo, and then entered the Museo del Prado in 1821 (Text drawn from Falomir, M.: Tiziano, Museo Nacional del Prado, 2003, p. 384).

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Inventory number
P00437
Author
Tiziano, Vecellio di Gregorio
Title
Ecce Homo
Date
1547
Technique
Oil
Support
Slate
Dimension
High/Height: 69 cm.; Width: 56 cm.
Provenance
Royal Collection (New Royal Palace, Madrid, “antecámara de Su Majestad”, 1772, no. 957).

Bibliography +

Inventario del Alcazar de Madrid 1636-1666. Vol. II, Madrid, 1666.

Inventario Palacio Real de Madrid. 1686. Vol. III. I Pinturas., Madrid, 1686, pp. 39.

Inventuario Nuevo Palacio Real 1772., Madrid, 1772.

Ponz, Antonio, Viage de España. Vol. I, Joachin Ibarra, Madrid, 1773, pp. 124.

Ponz, Antonio1725-1792, Viage de España: en que se da noticia de las cosas mas apreciables, y dignas de saberse, que hay en ella, Atlas, Madrid, 1793.

Inventario de las Pinturas del Museo Hecho a la Muerte del Rey, Madrid, 1834, pp. 46.

Crowe, J. A(Joseph Archer), A new history of painting in Italy: from the II to the XVI, J.M.Dent and CoE.P.Dutton and Co, Londres-Nueva York, 1908.

Gronau, Georg, Titian, Duckworth and Co.Charles Scribners, Londres-Nueva York, 1911, pp. 305.

Beroqui, Pedro, Tiziano en el Museo del Prado, Boletín de la Sociedad Española de Excursiones, 35, Madrid, 1927, pp. 14.

Suida, Wilhelm, Le Titien, Weber, Paris, 1935, pp. lám. 264.

Bucarelli, Palma, Carnet Vénitien, Gazette des Beaux-Arts: La Chronique des Arts, 13/14, 1935, pp. 248.

Beroqui, Pedro, Tiziano en el Museo del Prado., Hauser y Menet, Madrid, 1946, pp. 122.

Ceán Bermúdez, Juan Agustín1749-1829, Diccionario histórico de los más ilustres profesores de las, Reales Academias de Bellas Artes de San Fernando y, Madrid, 1965, pp. 42.

Pallucchini, Rodolfo, Tiziano. Vol. I, G.C.Sansoni, Florencia, 1969.

Wethey, Harold E., The paintings of Titian, Phaidon, Londres, 1969.

Cagli, Corrado, La obra pictórica completa de Tiziano, Noguer, Barcelona.Madrid, 1971, pp. lám. 328.

Sánchez Cantón, Francisco Javier, Museo del Prado: catálogo de las pinturas, Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1972.

Rosand, David, Titian, Harrry N.Abrams, Nueva York, 1978, pp. 38/lám. 48.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Museo del Prado: pintura italiana anterior a 1600, Gredos, Madrid, 1979, pp. 183.

Rosand, David, Titian. His World and His Legacy, Columbia University Press, Nueva York, 1982.

Pérez Sánchez, Alfonso E., Museo del Prado: catálogo de las pinturas, Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1985, pp. 706.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Museo del Prado: inventario general de pinturas, Museo del Prado, Espasa Calpe, Madrid, 1990, pp. nº914.

Ruiz Gómez, Leticia, Catálogo de las colecciones históricas de pintura veneciana, Editorial Patrimonio Nacional, Madrid, 1991, pp. 44.

Checa Cremades, Fernando, Tiziano y la monarquía hispánica: usos y funciones de la pintura veneciana en España (siglos XVI y XVII), Nerea, Madrid, 1994, pp. 68; 247, n. 4.

Bettagno, Alessandro, El Museo del Prado, Fonds MercatorFundación Amigos del Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1996, pp. 209.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Pintura italiana del Renacimiento: guía, Museo del PradoAldeasa, Madrid, 1999, pp. 176.

González Mozo, Ana; Garrido, Carmen, Nouvelles recherches de systèmes digitaux pour l'etude technologique de la peinture' en Le Dessin Sous-Jacent et la Technologie Dans la Penture. Col..., Uitgeverij Peeters, Lovaina, 2003, pp. 219.

Falomir Faus, Miguel, Tiziano, Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, 2003, pp. 224.

Puttfarken, Thomas, Titian & Tragic Painting : Aristotle's Poetics and the Rise, Yale University Press, New Haven, 2005.

Le botteghe di Tiziano, Alinari 24 ORE, 2009, pp. 133-377.

Cranston, Jodi, The muddied mirror : materiality and figuration in Titian's..., Pennsylvania State University Press, 2010, pp. 47-73 / 18.

Checa Cremades, Fernando, Tiziano y las cortes del Renacimiento, Marcial Pons Historia, 2013, pp. 251 f.33.

Baker-Bates, Piers, Art and ideology at Juste, Hispanic research journal, 14 n.5, 2013, pp. 427-445 [431 f.2].

Malo Lara, Lina Santos Márquez, Antonio Joaquín, Jerónimo Sánchez Coello. Un discípulo de Tiziano en Sevilla, Archivo español de arte, LXXXVII (345) Enero-marzo, 2014, pp. 15-28 [20-21,26 fg.3].

Other inventories +

Inv. Carlos III, Palacio Nuevo, 1772. Núm. 957.
Antecamara de S. M. / [12663] 957 / Dos pinturas de igual numero y tamaño de vara de alto tres quartas de ancho la vna de vn Ecce Homo y la otra de Nuestra Señora pintados sobre pizarra de medios cuerpos originales de Ticiano

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1854-1858. Núm. 914.

Inv. Real Museo, 1857. Núm. 914.
Tiziano. / 914. Ecce-homo. / Nuestro señor coronado de espinas despues de azotado, y presentado al pueblo con los brazos atados (figura de menos de medio cuerpo) (pizarra). / Ato 2 pies, 5 pulg, 6 lin; ancho 2 pies.

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1872-1907. Núm. 467.

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1910. Núm. 437.

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1942-1996. Núm. 437.

Exhibitions +

Titian
10.06.2003 - 07.09.2003

Location +

Room 043 (On Display)

Update date: 05-04-2016 | Registry created on 28-04-2015

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