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The Surrender of Jülich
Leonardo, Jusepe
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Leonardo, Jusepe

Calatayud, Zaragoza (Spain), 1601 - Zaragoza (Spain), 1653

See author's file

The Surrender of Jülich

1634 - 1635. Oil on canvas.
Not on display

The capitulation of the Rhenish city of Jülich was one of the most outstanding events at the beginning of the Thirty Years War (1618-1648). Occupied by Maurice of Nassau’s French troops since 1610, Jülich surrendered to an army led by the Marquis of Los Balbases, General Ambrosio de Spínola, who would later triumph at Breda. This event took place after the truce established in 1609 broke down in 1621 and hostilities with Dutch rebels were renewed. The city, which was the capital of the Rhenish duchy of the same name, was not only important politically; it occupied a strategic location from which to control communication between the Dutch and their German allies. The siege lasted seven months, ending when the city capitulated on February 3, 1622. According to Gonzalo de Céspedes, the capitulation stipulated that Governor Frederick Pytham, his officers and soldiers would leave freely, with flags aloft, full military honors, children, wives, weapons and luggage, however, this stipulation was not observed, and the Dutch troops (2,500 foot soldiers and a company of cavalry) departed with neither flags nor honors. Leonardo followed convention in his depiction of the surrender, presenting a clear act of submission far different than Velázquez’s Surrender of Breda. General Spínola appears on horseback in the foreground, where he receives the keys to the city from the Dutch governor, who kneels before him. The general is accompanied by Diego Felipe Mexía de Guzmán, also on horseback, who married Spínola’s daughter and became the Marquis of Leganés in 1627. Diego had played a secondary role in the operations, but he figures prominently in this painting because of his family ties to the Count-Duke of Olivares, and because, in 1627, the other protagonist of the siege, Enrique de Bergh, had joined the Protestants and could not be included in this scene, nor in the depiction of Breda, despite having participated in both. In front of Spínola and Mexía, a Spanish general looks on. He stands in front of a page who looks out at the viewer and points to the capitulation ceremony. Pytham is also accompanied by various Dutch officials. The city appears in the background with the departing Protestant troops. The diagonal composition is firmly established, and while it is arranged like most of the battle scenes from the Hall of Realms, it manages to integrate the fore and backgrounds much more successfully than Carducho, Cajés or Castelo’s works. On the other hand, it is clear that Jusepe Leonardo had to base his portraits on earlier works by other artists. Spínola had died some years earlier, in September 1630, but he had already been painted by Rubens and Van Dyck, among others. The Marquis of Leganés left Madrid on April 2, 1634, when this painting had already been commissioned, but it is unlikely that Leonardo could have painted him from life, and he seems to have drawn on Van Dyck’s rendering in a painting now at the Fundación BSCH Collection. There are several replicas of Van Dyck’s work, as well as an engraving by Paulus Pontius. The Museo del Prado has a preparatory drawing (D3891) from the Fernández Durán Legacy that differs in some ways from the finished work (the position of the horse, which is stiffer in the drawing, a more simple presentation of the group of figures that accompany the Dutch governor, and a Spanish soldier instead of the General and his page). This drawing is inscribed Joseph Leonardo en el Retiro, which has sometimes been considered a signature, as well as an indication that the canvas was painted at the Buen Retiro Palace. In fact, as Pérez Sánchez pointed out, this inscription appears to have been written by painter and collector Francisco Solís, so its allusion to the Retiro should be understood to indicate that the composition corresponds to the canvas at the Hall of Realms.

Museo Nacional del Prado, El Palacio del Rey Planeta, Museo Nacional del Prado, 2005, p.130-131

Technical data

Inventory number
Leonardo, Jusepe
The Surrender of Jülich
1634 - 1635
Height: 307 cm; Width: 381 cm
Serie de Batallas, Salón de Reinos, Palacio del Buen Retiro
Royal Collection (Buen Retiro Palace, Madrid, 1701, no. 245; Buen Retiro Palace, 1794, no. 518; New Royal Palace, Madrid, "pinturas descolgadas en el callejón de tribunas", 1814-1818, no. 518).

Bibliography +

Inventario Real Palacio del Buen Retiro, Madrid, 1794.

Ponz, Antonio, Viage de España: en que se da noticia de las cosas mas apreciables, y dignas de saberse, que hay en ella, Atlas, Madrid, 1794; ed. facs. 1972, pp. 115.

Lefort, Paul, Les Musées de Madrid. Le Prado, San Fernando, L'Armeria, Gazette des Beaux Arts, Paris, 1896, pp. 121.

Tormo y Monzó, Elías, Velázquez y el Salón de Reinos del Palacio del Buen Retiro, Imprenta San Francisco de Sales, Madrid, 1912, pp. 21.

Mayer, August L., Historia de la Pintura Española, Espasa Calpe, Madrid, 1928, pp. 405/ lám.342.

Metropolitan Museum of Art, H. O. Havemeyer Collection. Catalogue of Paintings, Prints,, Privately Printed, Berlin, 1957, pp. 120/ lám.109.

Caturla, Mª Luisa, Cartas de pago de los doce cuadros de batallas para el Salón de Reinos del Buen Retiro, Archivo español de arte y arqueología, 33, 1960, pp. 333-355.

Salas, Xavier de, Museo del Prado. Catálogo de las pinturas, Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1972.

Mazón de la Torre, María Angeles, Jusepe Leonardo y su tiempo, Institución "Fernando el Católico", Zaragoza, 1977, pp. 138-147/ lám.2.

Menéndez Pidal, Ramón, Historia de España. La España de Felipe III, XXIV, Espasa-Calpe, Madrid, 1983, pp. 252.

Angulo Íñiguez, Diego; Pérez Sánchez, Alfonso E., Historia de la pintura española: escuela madrileña del segundo tercio del siglo XVII, Instituto Diego Velázquez, Madrid, 1983, pp. 99/ láms.98-100.

López Rey, José, Velázquez, Compañía Internacional Editora, Barcelona, 1984, pp. 96.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Catálogo de las pinturas, Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1985, pp. 363.

Barghahn, Barbara Von, Philip IV and the Golden House of the Buen Retiro in the Tradition of Caesar, I, Garland PublishingInc., Nueva York / Londres, 1986, pp. 226.

Brown, Jonathan, Velázquez: pintor y cortesano, Alianza Editorial, Madrid, 1986, pp. 118/ lám.137.

Fernandez Miranda y Lozana, Fernando, Inventarios Reales Carlos III 1789-1790, Patrimonio Nacional, Madrid, 1988, pp. 296.

Brown, Jonathan, La Edad de Oro de la pintura en España, Nerea, Madrid, 1990, pp. 146/ lám.126.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Museo del Prado. Inventario general de pinturas (I) La Colección Real, Museo del Prado, Espasa Calpe, Madrid, 1990.

Buendía, José Rogelio, El Prado. Colecciones de Pintura, Lunwerg Editores, Madrid, 1994, pp. 122.

López Torrijos, Rosa, Mitologia e Historia en las Obras Maestras del Prado, Scala Books, Londres, 1998, pp. 78,79.

Brown, Jonathan, Painting in Spain 1500-1700, Yale University Press, Yale, 1998, pp. 122/ lám.157.

En torno a Velázquez: pintura española del siglo de Oro, Apelles Ltd., Londres, 1999, pp. 118/ lám.1.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Pintura barroca española: guía, Museo Nacional del PradoAldeasa, Madrid, 2001, pp. 272.

Boccardo, Piero, Genova e la Spagna : Opere, Artisti, Commitenti, Collezionis, Silvana Editoriale, Genova, 2002, pp. 182.

Brown, Jonathan, A Palace For a King : the Buen Retiro and the Ourt of Philip..., Yale University Press, New Haven, 2003, pp. 165/ lám.118.

Elliot J.H., Historia y mito en el Salón de Reinos. En Historias inmortales, Barcelona, 2003, pp. 211-228.

Portús Pérez, Javier, La colección de pintura española en el Museo del Prado, Edilupa, Madrid, 2003, pp. 99.

Museo Nacional del Prado, El Palacio del Rey Planeta, Museo Nacional del Prado, 2005, pp. 130-131.

Goeppert, S., Pablo Picasso. The Illustrated Books: Catalogue Raisonne, Patrick Cramer, Madrid, 2005, pp. 130-131.

Schreffler, Michael, The art of allegiance. Visual culture and imperial power in baroque New Spain, Pennsylvania State University Press, Pennsylvania, 2007, pp. 93.

Rodríguez Rebollo, Angel, Un 'modello' inédito de Jusepe Leonardo, ARS Magazine. Revista de Arte y Coleccionismo, 2008, pp. 138-139 [139].

Luna, J. J., Guerra y pintura en las colecciones del Museo del Prado. S. XVI a Goya, Arte en tiempos de guerra Jornadas de Arte (14º.2008.Madrid), 2009.

Picouet, Pierre, Les Tercios Espagnols 1600-1660, LRT Éditions, 2010.

Marías, Fernando, Pinturas de historia, imágenes políticas. Repensando el Salón de Reinos. Discurso leído en la recepción de la Real Academia de la Historia 24 de junio 2012, 2012, pp. 17-20,68.

Marinetto Sánchez, P. Cambil Campaña, I., 'El calzado en el Siglo de Oro' En:, La moda española en el Siglo de Oro., Junta de Comunidades de Castilla-La Mancha. Fundación Cultura y Deporte, 2015, pp. 91-101 [100].

Sennewald, Roland, Pieter Snayers , 1592-1667: battle painter of the 17th century, Zeuchaus Verlag,, Berlin, 2018, pp. 138-139.

Other inventories +

Inv. Testamentaría Carlos II, Buen Retiro, 1701-1703. Núm. [245].
[245] Ottra Pinttura del mismo tamaño [cuatro varas de largo y tres y media de alto] marco [dorado] del Marques de espinola y el de Leganes en la toma de Breda de mano de Anjelo Leonardi tassada en Zientto y Veinte doblones ... 7200

Inv. Real Museo, 1857. Núm. 248.
Leonardo. / 248. Rendición de la plaza de Breda en los Países Bajos. / El marques de Espinola, general de las tropas de Felipe 4º, acompañado del marqués de Leganés, recibe montado en su caballo las llaves de la plaza que el gobernador flamenco le presenta en actitud humilde, rodeado de algunos soldados de ambas partes. Fondo: campiña de Breda con la ciudad en lontananza (C.L.). / Alto 11 pies; ancho 13 pies, 8 pulg.

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1854-1858. Núm. 248.

Inv. Testamentaría Carlos III, Buen Retiro, 1794. Núm. 518.
Otra [pintura] de Angelo Leonardi, del mismo tamaño [quatro varas de largo, y tres y media de alto] y marco [dorado]; con el Marqs. de Spinola y el de Leganes en la toma de Vedra...8000

Inv. Fernando VII, Palacio Nuevo, 1814-1818. Núm. 518.
Pinturas descolgadas / En el callejon de las Tribunas [...] {21932} 518 / El marques de Espínola y el de Leganes en la toma de Vedra = idem [Angelo Leonardi]

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1872-1907. Núm. 767.

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1910. Núm. 858.

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1942-1996. Núm. 858.

Exhibitions +

El palacio del Rey Planeta. Felipe IV y el Buen Retiro
06.07.2005 - 30.10.2005

Displayed objects +





Shield / Coat of Arms


Lances / Spears


Trompet: A la derecha del cuadro, en segundo plano, dos músicos de trompeta a caballo marchan delante de un grupo de caballeros con armadura. Sólo se ve parte del tubo metálico y su final en campana, así como el estandarte que pende de ellos, de color amarillo, ya que los músicos van cabalgando de espaldas al espectador (Proyecto Iconografía Musical, UCM).
Se usó en casi todos los pueblos de la Antigüedad y más tarde en Oriente, antes de generalizarse en el mundo cristiano aproximadamente a partir del s. XIII. En este caso es un instrumento militar que se usa para hacer señales.


Update date: 25-10-2022 | Registry created on 28-04-2015

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