The itinerary <em>TITULORECORRIDO</em> has been successfully created. Now you can add in works from the Collection browser
<em>TITULOOBRA</em> added to <em>TITULORECORRIDO</em> itinerary

Collection <Back
The Surrender of Jülich
Leonardo, Jusepe
Close Continuar a ficha de la obra

Leonardo, Jusepe

Calatayud (Zaragoza), 1601 - Zaragoza, 1652

The Surrender of Jülich

1634 - 1635. Oil on canvas, 307 x 381 cm.

The capitulation of the Rhenish city of Jülich was one of the most outstanding events at the beginning of the Thirty Years War (1618-1648). Occupied by Maurice of Nassau’s French troops since 1610, Jülich surrendered to an army led by the Marquis of Los Balbases, General Ambrosio de Spínola, who would later triumph at Breda. This event took place after the truce established in 1609 broke down in 1621 and hostilities with Dutch rebels were renewed. The city, which was the capital of the Rhenish duchy of the same name, was not only important politically; it occupied a strategic location from which to control communication between the Dutch and their German allies. The siege lasted seven months, ending when the city capitulated on February 3, 1622. According to Gonzalo de Céspedes, the capitulation stipulated that Governor Frederick Pytham, his officers and soldiers would leave freely, with flags aloft, full military honors, children, wives, weapons and luggage, however, this stipulation was not observed, and the Dutch troops (2,500 foot soldiers and a company of cavalry) departed with neither flags nor honors. Leonardo followed convention in his depiction of the surrender, presenting a clear act of submission far different than Velázquez’s Surrender of Breda. General Spínola appears on horseback in the foreground, where he receives the keys to the city from the Dutch governor, who kneels before him. The general is accompanied by Diego Felipe Mexía de Guzmán, also on horseback, who married Spínola’s daughter and became the Marquis of Leganés in 1627. Diego had played a secondary role in the operations, but he figures prominently in this painting because of his family ties to the Count-Duke of Olivares, and because, in 1627, the other protagonist of the siege, Enrique de Bergh, had joined the Protestants and could not be included in this scene, nor in the depiction of Breda, despite having participated in both. In front of Spínola and Mexía, a Spanish general looks on. He stands in front of a page who looks out at the viewer and points to the capitulation ceremony. Pytham is also accompanied by various Dutch officials. The city appears in the background with the departing Protestant troops. The diagonal composition is firmly established, and while it is arranged like most of the battle scenes from the Hall of Realms, it manages to integrate the fore and backgrounds much more successfully than Carducho, Cajés or Castelo’s works. On the other hand, it is clear that Jusepe Leonardo had to base his portraits on earlier works by other artists. Spínola had died some years earlier, in September 1630, but he had already been painted by Rubens and Van Dyck, among others. The Marquis of Leganés left Madrid on April 2, 1634, when this painting had already been commissioned, but it is unlikely that Leonardo could have painted him from life, and he seems to have drawn on Van Dyck’s rendering in a painting now at the Fundación BSCH Collection. There are several replicas of Van Dyck’s work, as well as an engraving by Paulus Pontius. The Museo del Prado has a preparatory drawing (D3891) from the Fernández Durán Legacy that differs in some ways from the finished work (the position of the horse, which is stiffer in the drawing, a more simple presentation of the group of figures that accompany the Dutch governor, and a Spanish soldier instead of the General and his page). This drawing is inscribed Joseph Leonardo en el Retiro, which has sometimes been considered a signature, as well as an indication that the canvas was painted at the Buen Retiro Palace. In fact, as Pérez Sánchez pointed out, this inscription appears to have been written by painter and collector Francisco Solís, so its allusion to the Retiro should be understood to indicate that the composition corresponds to the canvas at the Hall of Realms (Text drawn from Álvarez Lopera, J. in El Palacio del Rey Planeta. Felipe IV y el Buen Retiro, Museo Nacional del Prado, 2005, pp. 130-131).

Technical data

Related artworks

The Surrender of Jülich
Grey-brown wash on yellow paper, 1634
The Victory at Fleurus
Oil on canvas, 1634
The Relief of Constance
Oil on canvas, 1634
The Storming of Rheinfelden
Oil on canvas, 1634
The Recapture of San Juan in Puerto Rico
Oil on canvas, 1634 - 1635
The Defence of Cadiz against the English
Oil on canvas, 1634 - 1635
The Liberation of Brisach
Oil on canvas, 1634 - 1635
The Surrender of Breda
Oil on canvas, Ca. 1635
Inventory number
P00858
Author
Leonardo, Jusepe
Title
The Surrender of Jülich
Date
1634 - 1635
Technique
Oil
Support
Canvas
Dimension
High/Height: 307 cm.; Width: 381 cm.
Series
Serie de Batallas, Salón de Reinos, Palacio del Buen Retiro
Provenance
Royal Collection (Buen Retiro Palace, Madrid, 1701, no. 245; Buen Retiro Palace, 1794, no. 518; New Royal Palace, Madrid, "pinturas descolgadas en el callejón de tribunas", 1814-1818, no. 518).

Bibliography +

Ponz, Antonio1725-1792, Viage de España: en que se da noticia de las cosas mas apreciables, y dignas de saberse, que hay en ella, Atlas, Madrid, 1793, pp. 115.

Inventario Real Palacio del Buen Retiro, Madrid, 1794.

Lefort, P., Les Musees de Madrid. Le Prado, San Fernando, L'Armeria, Gazette des BeauxArts, Paris, 1896, pp. 121.

Tormo y Monzó, Elías, Velazquez y el Salon de Reinos del Palacio del Buen Retiro, Imprenta San Francisco de Sales, Madrid, 1912, pp. 21.

Mayer, August L., Historia de la Pintura Española, Espasa Calpe, Madrid, 1928, pp. 405/ lám.342.

Metropolitan Museum of Art, H. O. Havemeyer Collection. Catalogue of Paintings, Prints,, Privately Printed, Berlin, 1957, pp. 120/ lám.109.

Caturla, Mª Luisa, Cartas de pago de los doce cuadros de batallas para el Salón de Reinos del Buen Retiro, Archivo español de arte y arqueología, 33, 1960, pp. 333-355.

Lopez Rey, Jose, Velázquez: a catalogue raisonné of his oeuvre, Faber and Faber, Londres, 1963, pp. lám.8.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Museo del Prado: catálogo de las pinturas, Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1972.

Mazon de la Torre, Maria Angeles, Jusepe Leonardo y su tiempo, Institución "Fernando el Católico", Zaragoza, 1977, pp. 138-147/ lám.2.

Menéndez Pidal, Ramón, Historia de España. Vol. XXIV. La España de Felipe III, EspasaCalpe, Madrid, 1983, pp. 252.

Angulo Íñiguez, Diego, Historia de la pintura española: escuela madrileña del segundo tercio del siglo XVII, Instituto Diego Velázquez, Madrid, 1983, pp. 99/ láms.98-100.

López Rey, J., Velázquez, Compañía Internacional Editora, Barcelona, 1984, pp. 96.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Museo del Prado: catálogo de las pinturas, Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1985, pp. 363.

Barghahn, Barbara Von, Philip IV and the Golden House of the Buen Retiro in the Tradition of Caesar, I, Garland PublishingInc., Nueva York / Londres, 1986, pp. 226.

Brown, Jonathan, Velázquez: pintor y cortesano, Alianza Editorial, Madrid, 1986, pp. 118/ lám.137.

Fernandez Miranda y Lozana, Fernando, Inventarios Reales Carlos III 1789-1790, Patrimonio Nacional, Madrid, 1988, pp. 296.

Brown, Jonathan, La Edad de Oro de la pintura en España, Nerea, Madrid, 1990, pp. 146/ lám.126.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Museo del Prado: inventario general de pinturas, Museo del Prado, Espasa Calpe, Madrid, 1990.

Buendía, José Rogelio, El Prado. Colecciones de Pintura, Lunwerg Editores, Madrid, 1994, pp. 122.

López Torrijos, Rosa, Mitologia e Historia en las Obras Maestras del Prado, Scala Books, Londres, 1998, pp. 78,79.

Brown, Jonathan, Painting in Spain 1500-1700, Yale University Press, Yale, 1998, pp. 122/ lám.157.

En torno a Velázquez: pintura española del siglo de Oro, Apelles Ltd., Londres, 1999, pp. 118/ lám.1.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Pintura barroca española: guía, Museo Nacional del PradoAldeasa, Madrid, 2001, pp. 272.

Boccardo, Piero, Genova e la Spagna : Opere, Artisti, Commitenti, Collezionis, Silvana Editoriale, Genova, 2002, pp. 182.

Brown, Jonathan, A Palace For a King : the Buen Retiro and the Ourt of Philip..., Yale University Press, New Haven, 2003, pp. 165/ lám.118.

Elliot J.H., Historia y mito en el Salón de Reinos. En Historias inmortales, Barcelona, 2003, pp. 211-228.

Portús, Javier, La Coleccion de Pintura Española en el Museo del Prado, Edilupa, Madrid, 2003, pp. 99.

Goeppert, S., Pablo Picasso. The Illustrated Books: Catalogue Raisonne, Patrick Cramer, Madrid, 2005, pp. 130-131.

Schreffler, Michael, The art of allegiance. Visual culture and imperial power in baroque New Spain, Pennsylvania State University Press, Pennsylvania, 2007, pp. 93.

Rodríguez Rebollo, Angel, Un 'modello' inédito de Jusepe Leonardo., Ars magazine, 2008, pp. 138-139 [139].

Luna, J. J., Guerra y pintura en las colecciones del Museo del Prado. S. XVI a Goya, Arte en tiempos de guerra Jornadas de Arte (14º.2008.Madrid), 2009.

Picouet, Pierre, Les Tercios Espagnols 1600-1660, LRT Éditions, 2010.

Marías, Fernando, Pinturas de historia, imágenes políticas. Repensando el Salón de Reinos. Discurso leído en la recepción de la Real Academia de la Historia 24 de junio 2012, 2012, pp. 17-20,68.

Marinetto Sánchez, P. Cambil Campaña, I., 'El calzado en el Siglo de Oro' En:, La moda española en el Siglo de Oro., Junta de Comunidades de Castilla-La Mancha. Fundación Cultura y Deporte, 2015, pp. 91-101 [100].

Other inventories +

Inv. Testamentaría Carlos II, Buen Retiro, 1701-1703. Núm. [245].
[245] Ottra Pinttura del mismo tamaño [cuatro varas de largo y tres y media de alto] marco [dorado] del Marques de espinola y el de Leganes en la toma de Breda de mano de Anjelo Leonardi tassada en Zientto y Veinte doblones ... 7200

Inv. Testamentaría Carlos III, Buen Retiro, 1794. Núm. 518.
Otra [pintura] de Angelo Leonardi, del mismo tamaño [quatro varas de largo, y tres y media de alto] y marco [dorado]; con el Marqs. de Spinola y el de Leganes en la toma de Vedra...8000

Inv. Fernando VII, Palacio Nuevo, 1814-1818. Núm. 518.
Pinturas descolgadas / En el callejon de las Tribunas [...] {21932} 518 / El marques de Espínola y el de Leganes en la toma de Vedra = idem [Angelo Leonardi]

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1854-1858. Núm. 248.

Inv. Real Museo, 1857. Núm. 248.
Leonardo. / 248. Rendición de la plaza de Breda en los Países Bajos. / El marques de Espinola, general de las tropas de Felipe 4º, acompañado del marqués de Leganés, recibe montado en su caballo las llaves de la plaza que el gobernador flamenco le presenta en actitud humilde, rodeado de algunos soldados de ambas partes. Fondo: campiña de Breda con la ciudad en lontananza (C.L.). / Alto 11 pies; ancho 13 pies, 8 pulg.

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1872-1907. Núm. 767.

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1910. Núm. 858.

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1942-1996. Núm. 858.

Exhibitions +

El palacio del Rey Planeta. Felipe IV y el Buen Retiro
Madrid
06.07.2005 - 30.10.2005

Update date: 21-09-2017 | Registry created on 28-04-2015

Other works by Leonardo, Jusepe

Print on demand

Print artworks available in our catalogue in high quality and your preferred size and finish.

Image archive

Request artworks available in our catalogue in digital format.

Up