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Divine Liberty
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
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Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

Fuendetodos, Zaragoza (Spain), 1746 - Bordeaux (France), 1828

Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de See author's file

Divine Liberty

1814 - 1823. Wash, Brush, Bistre, Grey-brown ink, Pencil strokes, Iron gall ink on laid paper.
Not on display

Towards the end of Album C there are various drawings in which Freedom, Reason or Justice play a leading role, either as allegories or through textual references. This has led historians such as José López-Rey, author of the only monograph on this album, to date it between 1810 and 1020, as he believed this allegorical presence was related to the triumph of liberalism with the arrival of the Liberal Triennium in 1820. His idea is supported by Pierre Gassier in the catalogue raisonné of his drawings, and by other Spanish historians, including Lafuente Ferrari and Valeriano Bozal. On the other hand, a group of Anglo-Saxon historians led by Eleanor A. Sayre, see 1814 as the album’s ending date and this has more recently been ratified by Juliet Wilson. This debate about the dates proves that there are still numerous gaps and questions in our knowledge of Goya’s work. In part, this is due to the lack of documentary information about him in those years, but most of all, it is a result of the breadth of his intellectual interests, which led him to address matters whose essential humanity made them a permanent presence throughout his final years of life. In the coming years, our expanding knowledge of Goya’s work should allow us to reflect upon these aspects in order to determine a more accurate chronology and to analyze his overall oeuvre. Meanwhile, these uncertainties will remain.

In the context of his other drawings of prisoners and victims of the Inquisition, we can relate the present drawing to Goya’s hopes for the liberal reformist policies ushered in by the Cadiz parliament in 1812. Moreover, the allegories foun in drawings such as Light and Shadows (C 117), Divine Reasons. Do not Abandon Anyone (C 122) or Justice (C 118), lead us to the final prints from the Emphatic Caprichos, which were probably made around the same time. The personage in this drawing joyfully received Freedom, which is symbolically represented in the form of Heavenly light. At his feet, an inkwell and a sheet of paper half-full of writing may allude to freedom of the press, which the Cadiz parliament enacted in 1810. And his clothing reflects middle-class fashions from the war years. The loose brushstrokes in the final drawings from this album foreshadow the expressive freedom that characterizes the preparatory drawings for Goya’s Disparates (Matilla, J. M.: "Álbum C 115, Divina Libertad", in Goya en tiempos de guerra, Madrid: Museo del Prado, 2008, pp. 396, 398).

Goya’s Album C exemplifies the complexity of his work. Made during the Peninsular War and the posterior repression under the reign of Ferdinand VII, it addresses subjects linked to many facets of that period. Other authors believe this album extends through the years of the Liberal Triennium (1820-23), as they see a relation between some of its drawings and the joy associated with the restoration of the Constitution of Cadiz in 1820. Still, those compositions can just as well be viewed in the same context as similar compositions from Goya’s Disasters of War. The subjects in Album C range from aspects of daily life, including numerous beggars, to dream visions of the world of night. One especially large group consists of drawings with victims of the Inquisition or of cruelty in prisons, and this recently led Juliet Wilson-Bareau to call it the Inquisition Album, although as we already stated, this is not the only subject addressed therein. In fact, another notable group of images criticizes the habits of monastic orders and the life of friars defrocked by the French authorities’ disentailment decrees.

Of Goya’s albums, this is the one with the most works, as well as the only one to have survived almost intact. It was never taken apart, and was not subjected to consecutive sales. Hence, it was almost complete when it arrived at the Museo del Prado from the Museo de la Trinidad. Of 126 known drawings, 120 are at the Museo del Prado. One is at the Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid (C 56), one at the British Museum in London (C 88), and two at the Hispanic Society of America in New York (C 71 and C 128). Finally, two others are in a private collection in that city (C 11 and C 78) (Text drawn from Matilla, J. M.: "Álbum C 91, Muchos an acabado asi. Álbum C 101, No se puede mirar", en Goya en tiempos de guerra, Museo del Prado, 2008, p. 393).


Technical data

Inventory number
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Divine Liberty
1814 - 1823
Wash; Brush; Bistre; Grey-brown ink; Pencil strokes; Iron gall ink
Laid paper
Height: 205 mm; Width: 143 mm
Cuaderno C, 115
Javier Goya, Madrid, 1828; Mariano Goya, Madrid, 1854; Federico de Madrazo y/o Román Garreta, Madrid, c. 1855-1860; Museo de la Trinidad, Madrid, 5-4-1866; Museo del Prado, 1872.

Bibliography +

Sánchez Cantón, Francisco Javier, Sala de los dibujos de Goya, II, Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1928, pp. 47, n.346.

Sánchez Cantón, Francisco Javier, Los dibujos de Goya reproducidos a su tamaño y en su color, II, Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1954, pp. n. 377.

Gassier, Pierre y Wilson-Bareau, Juliet, Vie et oeuvre de Francisco de Goya: l' oeuvre complet illustré: peintures, dessins, gravures, Office du Livre, Fribourg, 1970, pp. 287, n. 1350.

Gassier, Pierre, Dibujos de Goya. Los álbumes, I, Noguer, Barcelona, 1973, pp. 380, n. 259, il. p. 337.

Salas, Xavier de, Goya Das Zeitalter Der Revolution 1789-1830, Prestel Verlag: Kunsthalle, Múnich ; Hamburgo, 1980, pp. 160.

Pita Andrade, J. M., Álvarez Lopera, J. et al., Goya y la constitución de 1812, Ayuntamiento, Delegación de Cultura, Madrid, 1982, pp. n. 32.

Goya y el espíritu de la Ilustración, [El Viso], Madrid, 1988, pp. 342-344.

Goya and the spirit of enlightenment, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1989, pp. 238-240.

Gamaboni, D., Emblemes de la Liberte. L'Image de la Republique Dans L'Art, Editions Staempfli & Cie S.A., Berna, 1991.

Goya en tiempos de guerra, Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, 2008, pp. 396.

Matilla, J.M. Mena M.B., Goya: dibujos. Solo la voluntad me sobra, Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, 2019, pp. 176 nº 103.

Matilla, J.M, Cuaderno C Francisco de Goya, Museo del Prado. Skira, Madrid, 2020.

Filigree +

Motive: Gaudó, escudo del Carmen con letra "GA -- U -- DO / HE HIJO" (mitad inferior)

26 x 39 mm
9 - Horizontales
23 mm.
Centro del margen izquierdo, entre los corondeles 4 y 7
Gaudó e Hijo
Esta marca de agua de escudo de la orden del Carmen coronado con la letra “Gaudó e Hijo” en el interior, hace referencia al papel fabricado por la familia Gaudó en Valderrobres, Teruel, a partir de 1816. En esa fecha, Juan Bautista Gaudó Socada (1763-1852), que fue el primer miembro de la familia Gaudó dedicado al negocio papelero en la localidad, se asoció con su hijo, Juan Bautista Gaudó Celma (1791-h. 1860), para fabricar papel. Tras la muerte del padre, continuaría el negocio el hijo y, hacia 1860, el hijo de este, Antonio Gaudó Cibor.

En la fábrica Gaudó trabajaron varios operarios procedentes de Cataluña, como Pablo Ferrer y María Miró, en 1806, y Juan Iglesias Renau, hacia 1817, que era natural de La Pobla de Claramunt, Barcelona. Es probable, que el escudo de la orden del Carmen de esta filigrana haga referencia al origen de estos trabajadores, que llegaron procedentes de molinos papeleros situados en los alrededores del río Noya y su afluente, la riera de Carme, quienes solían emplear este escudo como filigrana del papel que producían. [Extractado de: M. Siurana Roglán y O. Monserrat Zapater, "Valderrobres 1479-1833. El crecimiento de una gran villa rural aragonesa", Valderrobres, 2021, pp. 479-490 y 756-759, anexo G.5]

Basanta Campos, José Luis (coord.), Marcas de agua en documentos de los archivos de Galicia, Fundación Pedro Barrié de La Maza, [A Coruña], 2000-2002, pp. v. 7, p. 511, n. 60 [Ramón Gaudó, año 1824], y p. 133, n. 123 [Letra "Gaudó", año 1835].
Siurana Roglán, Manuel, y Monserrat Zapater, Octavio, Valderrobres 1479-1833. El crecimiento de una gran villa rural aragonesa, Fundación Valderrobres Patrimonial Asunción Tomás Foz, Valderrobrees, 2021, pp. 479-490, 756-759, anexo G.5.

Other inventories +

Catálogo Gassier, 1975. Núm. I 259.

Colección Dibujos Goya (Numeración Sánchez Catón). Núm. 346.

Catálogo Goya, Pierre Gassier y Juliet Wilson. Núm. 1350.

Inscriptions +

Blue ink stamp. Front, upper central area

En el recto del soporte principal, margen superior derecho, a pincel, tinta parda: “115”. En el margen inferior, a pluma, tinta parda: “Divina Libertad”. En el margen inferior derecho, a lápiz compuesto: “18”.
Inscribed. Front

Exhibitions +

Goya: Dibujos del Museo del Prado. Melbourne
25.06.2021 - 03.10.2021

Goya. Drawings. "Only my Strength of Will Remains"
20.11.2019 - 16.02.2020

Solo la voluntad me sobra. Dibujos de Francisco de Goya
19.11.2019 - 16.02.2020

Temporary Installation: Constitutional ideas in Goya's work
10.05.2012 - 17.09.2012

Goya in Times of War
15.04.2008 - 13.07.2008

Emblémes de la Liberté. L' Image de la République dans L'Art du XVIeme au XIXeme Siècle
31.05.1991 - 15.09.1992

Goya y el Espíritu de la Ilustración
Nueva York NY
09.05.1989 - 16.07.1989

Goya y el Espíritu de la Ilustración
18.01.1989 - 26.03.1989

Goya y el Espíritu de la Ilustración
04.10.1988 - 18.12.1988

Update date: 12-08-2022 | Registry created on 28-04-2015

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