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Dream of consummate witches
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
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Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

Fuendetodos, Zaragoza (Spain), 1746 - Bordeaux (France), 1828

Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de See author's file

Dream of consummate witches

1796 - 1797. Pencil, Iron gall ink, Black chalk lines on laid paper. Not on display

This is a preparatory drawing for the etching Blow (G02157), which is Capricho 69. Together, the twenty-six pen-and-ink drawings that constitute the basis for The Caprichos are known as The Dreams. The first, Dream 1, The Author Dreaming, became number 43 in the Caprichos. This was a common subject during that period and is related to preparatory drawing, Dream 6. Witches’ Proclamation… (D04156), as Goya presents the witch holding a child in a similar fashion. (­…) The initial idea for Capricho 69, Blow, already appears in drawing 57 of Album B, and its descriptive title, Aunt Oilstains lights the Hearth, Witches to Gather Up, conferred a greasy echo to the name of the head witch who uses a child as the bellows for fanning the fire in their den. A second pen-and-ink drawing (D04192), which Goya titled Dream of Consummate Witches, presents the definitive scene, in which supreme mastery is presented as the domination of children, bending them to one’s will in order to obtain the desired results—in this case, the precise aim needed to direct air at the flames. In the final print, the witch’s skill is conveyed by her boastful expression. She has succeeded under the admiring gazes of the other witches and warlocks. In the air, a flying witch directs a look of almost motherly tenderness at two very young children that she has brought to the conclave, while another extends her powerful owl’s wings and turns her grateful gaze to the heavens (…). Blow is one of the prints in which Goya used witches and their diabolical acts as a metaphor for human evil. It is one of the most refined and technically complex works in this series, and includes something rarely seen in these works: the artist’s signature. This may indicate that it was one of the first engravings. The Museo del Prado has a series of works related to Dream 7 (D04156/D04155/G02157/G00643), and there is a steel-plated copper plate from the same series at Madrid’s Calcografía Nacional (214 x 152 mm, 559.84 g. No. 3495), as well as a preliminary drawing in India ink from Album B, 57 in a private collection (235 x 145 mm). The mark of the plate is visible on the drawing as a result of its tracing on the copper plate (214 x 150 mm), as well as 25-26 mm vertical laid lines.

Mena Marqués, Manuela B., ''Sopla'', en Goya: luces y sombras, Madrid, Fundación ''la Caixa'', Museo Nacional del Prado, 2012, p.146


Technical data

Related artworks

Etching on ivory laid paper, 1797 - 1799
Inventory number
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Dream of consummate witches
1796 - 1797
Pencil; Iron gall ink; Black chalk lines
Laid paper
Height: 244 mm; Width: 169 mm
Caprichos [dibujo]. Serie Los Sueños, 69, 7
Javier Goya, Madrid, 1828; Mariano Goya, Madrid, 1854; Valentín Carderera, Madrid, c. 1861; Mariano Carderera, Madrid, 1880; Museo del Prado, 12-11-1886.

Bibliography +

Sánchez Cantón, Francisco Javier, Sala de los dibujos de Goya, II, Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1928, pp. 9, n.16.

Gassier, Pierre y Wilson-Bareau, Juliet, Vie et oeuvre de Francisco de Goya: l' oeuvre complet illustré: peintures, dessins, gravures, Office du Livre, Fribourg, 1970, pp. nº 590.

Gassier, Pierre, Dibujos de Goya. Estudios para Grabados y Pinturas, II, Noguer, Barcelona, 1975, pp. 83.

Mangiante, Paolo Erasmo, Goya e l' Italia, Fratelli Palombi, Roma, 1992, pp. 170 / lám. 256.

Glendinning, Nigel, Goya, la década de los Caprichos. Retratos 1792-1804, Real Academia Bellas Artes San Fernando, Madrid, 1992, pp. 97.

Blas, J., Matilla, J.M., Medrano, J.M., El Libro de los Caprichos: dos siglos de interpretaciones 1799-1999. Catálogo de los dibujos, pruebas de estado, láminas de cobre y estampas de la primera edición, Museo Nacional de Prado, Madrid, 1999, pp. 349.

Mena Marqués, Manuela B., Goya: prophet der moderne, Dumont, Köln, 2005.

Mena Marqués, Manuela B., ''Sopla'', en Goya: luces y sombras, Fundación ''la Caixa'', Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, 2012, pp. 146.

Matilla Rodríguez, José Manuel, Ligereza y atrevimiento. Dibujos de Goya, Fundación Botín, Santander, 2017, pp. 36 n.4; 159-160 n. 4.

Matilla, J.M. Mena M.B., Goya: dibujos. Solo la voluntad me sobra, Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, 2019, pp. 295 nº 196.

Filigree +

Motive: Gran escudo con yelmo y letras “H C W” en el interior
Height: 126 mm
Width: 112 mm
Las iniciales que aparecen en esta filigrana corresponden al comerciante de papel holandés Hendrik Christiaan Wend (o Went), activo en Ámsterdam desde 1754. No debe extrañar que un comerciante tuviera su propia marca de agua, y no el productor, pues se conocen otros ejemplos coetáneos como el de I.B. Dabyds o el de Daniel Sebille.

La primera noticia documental sobre Hendrik Christiaan Wend es un contrato firmado con el citado Daniel Sebille, fechado el 11 de febrero de 1754, en el que ambos acordaban la fundación de la compañía Sebille & Wend. Daniel Sebille provenía de una importante familia holandesa de comerciantes de papel, y al igual que ellos ejerció el mismo oficio, primero como socio de Wend y desde 1776, junto a Van Ketel y Wassenbergh . Por su lado Wend, después de separarse de Sebille, se asoció con sus hijos bajo el nombre H.C. Wend & Zoonen. Esta compañía consta en el registro de comerciantes de Ámsterdam desde 1776 y en los sucesivos años hasta 1814 .

Heawood, Edward, Watermarks, mainly of the 17th and 18th centuries, Paper Publications Society, Hilversum (Holland), 1950, pp. pl. 500, n. 3735 [año 1790].
Voorn, Henk, De papiermolens in de provincie Noord-Holland, Papierwereld,, Haarlem, 1960, pp. 205, n. 163 [año 1788]..
Churchill, William Algernon, Watermarks in paper, in Holland, England, France, etc., in the XVII and XVIII centuries and their interconnection, B. De Graaf, Nieuwkoop, 1985, pp. 201 [D. Sebille & Wend, s.a.].
Biblioteca Nacional de España, Catálogo de las estampas de Goya en la Biblioteca Nacional, Biblioteca Nacional, Sociedad Estatal Goya 96 y Lunwerg, Madrid, 1996, pp. 303, n. 19 [D. Sebille & Wend, año h. 1791].

Other inventories +

Colección Dibujos Goya (Numeración Sánchez Catón). Núm. 16.

Catálogo Goya, Pierre Gassier y Juliet Wilson. Núm. 590.

Catálogo Gassier, 1975. Núm. II 46.

Inscriptions +

Inscribed. Back, right side

Inscribed. Back, left side

Inscribed. Front, lower left corner

Inscribed. Front, upper central area

Inscribed. Front, lower right corner

Sueño de Brujas / consumadas
Inscribed. Front, lower central area

Exhibitions +

Goya. Drawings. "Only my Strength of Will Remains"
20.11.2019 - 16.02.2020

Solo la voluntad me sobra. Dibujos de Francisco de Goya
19.11.2019 - 16.02.2020

Ligereza y atrevimiento. Dibujos de Goya
22.06.2017 - 30.09.2017

Goya - Profeta de la Modernidad (Berlín / Viena)
12.07.2005 - 03.10.2005

Goya: la década de los Caprichos
26.10.1992 - 10.01.1993

Update date: 22-11-2021 | Registry created on 28-04-2015

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