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Dream of Some Men Who Were Eating Us
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
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Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de

Fuendetodos, Zaragoza (Spain), 1746 - Bordeaux (France), 1828

Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de See author's file

Dream of Some Men Who Were Eating Us

1796 - 1797. Pencil, Iron gall ink on laid paper.
Not on display

Preparatory drawing for the etching Capricho 13. They are Hot (G02101). This work is one of twenty-six pen drawings that make up the Dreams series on which the Caprichos were based. Both the preliminary and preparatory drawings differ in some ways from the final print. While the first version of Drawing 63 from the Madrid Album (Jolly Caricature -obverse D04369-) is much harsher in its criticism -it is a version not intended for public consumption- the work is increasingly self-censored as the creative process advances. In a second drawing that belongs to the Dreams series, the enormous phallic nose is eliminated although slight references to its origin remain, and the other caricatural elements remain, including stupid and sarcastic faces and gluttonous poses. Thus, its anti-monastic critical stance is preserved. And it is further reinforced by Goya’s own brief note on this drawing, Dream of Some Men Who Were Eating Us, which clearly alludes to the heavy burden that this unproductive institution imposes on society. The mark of the copper plate indicates that Goya used this drawing to transfer the composition’s main lines to it. During the engraving process, he made state proofs to test the work and adjust it as need be. One example is the state proof of Capricho 13, in which the aquatint of the foreground monk’s habit has not yet been burnished to obtain the white highlights that add volume to the figure and appear in the definitive print. Curiously, the sexual character of the first drawing, which is lost in the later Dream and in the definitive print, is recovered through the inclusion of the title: They are Hot. Contemporary handwritten comments already identified the protagonists with monks and their vices. Thus, the Museo del Prado’s commentary reads: They are so eager to gobble them up that they swallow them when they are boiling. Temperance and moderation are necessary even when taking one’s pleasure. As usual, the Biblioteca Nacional’s manuscript is more sarcastic: The stupid Friars stuff themselves in their dining halls while laughing at the world; It’s hardly surprising, then, that they are so hot!. Both commentaries explicitly allude to the friars’ lack of self-control, and the drawing from the Madrid Album makes it clear that Goya was referring not only to gluttony, but also to lechery. And even at that time, the term hot had a sexual meaning. As Esteban Terrero observed in his Diccionario castellano con las voces de ciencias y artes (Castilian Dictionary with Science and Art Terms. Madrid, 1786-93): Hot [alludes] to female animals who are in heat, and also to whoever is burning with passion. In that period’s slang, to be hot could also imply having drunk too much alcohol. Goya does not attempt to represent something he actually saw and then deformed, as was the case in other prints. Instead, his friars are fantastic figures drawn from dreams, as that is precisely what best conveys the critical and satirical mood he seeks to generate in the viewer. Goya may well have been influenced, in that sense, by English satirical prints, which were widely known in Europe. He may have seen such works at Sebastián Martínez’s house in Cadiz, or at the Moratín library, which he had recently visited in England. But unlike William Hogarth, Thomas Rowlandson or James Gillray, whose prints were quite specific in their criticism, Goya offers a more general satire of the Church’s vices and corruption, its gluttony and sexual appetites. The Museo del Prado has a series of pieces related to Dream 25 (D04232 / G01933 / G02101 / G00682 / D04369-obverse-), and the Calcografía Nacional in Madrid has a copper place with a steel electrolyte coating from the same series (219 x 153 mm, 512.30 g. No. 3439). In terms of appearance, the drawing bears the mark of the plate, which was left by the process of transferring the image to the 218 x 153 mm copper plate, as well as some vertical frisket holes (Text drawn from Matilla, J. M., Caricatura alegre / Sueño 25. Sueño de unos hombres que se nos comían / Están calientes, in Matilla, J. M. and Mena Marqués, M. (dir.), Goya: Luces y Sombras, Barcelona: Fundación La Caixa, Barcelona: Obra Social La Caixa-Madrid: Museo Nacional del Prado, 2012, pp. 136-137).


Technical data

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Inventory number
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
Dream of Some Men Who Were Eating Us
1796 - 1797
Pencil; Iron gall ink
Laid paper
Height: 243 mm; Width: 167 mm
Caprichos [dibujo]. Serie Los Sueños, 13, 25
Javier Goya, Madrid, 1828; Mariano Goya, Madrid, 1854; Valentín Carderera, Madrid, c. 1861; Mariano Carderera, Madrid, 1880; Museo del Prado, 12-11-1886.

Bibliography +

Sánchez Cantón, Francisco Javier, Sala de los dibujos de Goya, II, Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1928, pp. 10, n.20.

Gassier, Pierre y Wilson-Bareau, Juliet, Vie et oeuvre de Francisco de Goya: l' oeuvre complet illustré: peintures, dessins, gravures, Office du Livre, Fribourg, 1970, pp. nº 477.

Gassier, Pierre, Dibujos de Goya. Estudios para grabados y pinturas, II, Noguer, Barcelona, 1973, pp. 94.

Vega, Jesusa, 'El sueño dibujado' En:, Realidad y sueño en los viajes de Goya. Actas de las I Jornadas de arte de Fuendetodos (1994)., Zaragoza, 1996, pp. 41-67 [52 f.12].

Blas, J., Matilla, J.M., Medrano, J.M., El Libro de los Caprichos: dos siglos de interpretaciones 1799-1999. Catálogo de los dibujos, pruebas de estado, láminas de cobre y estampas de la primera edición, Museo Nacional de Prado, Madrid, 1999, pp. 111.

Veiga, Margarida, Os Caprichos de Goya.Desenhos e Gravuras Do Museu Do Prado e..., Fundaçao Centro Cultural de Belem, Lisboa, 2001, pp. 48-53.

Matilla, José Manuel, Estampas españolas de la Guerra de la Independencia: propaganda, conmemoración y testimonio, Universidad de Salamanca, 2008.

Goya: luces y sombras. Obras maestras del Museo del Prado, The Yomiuri Shimbun, Tokyo, 2011, pp. 132.

Matilla, José Manuel, ''Caricatura alegre / Sueño 25. Sueño de unos hombres que se nos comían / Están calientes'', en Goya: luces y sombras, Fundación ''la Caixa'', Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, 2012, pp. 136-137.

Tomlinson, J.A, 'Other worlds, other states. Men of the Cloth' En:, Goya: Order & Disorder, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 2014, pp. 242-245 [242 n.157].

Eyewitness: Francisco Goya, Farideh Lashai: Ooggetuigen .., Museum voor Schone Kunsten,, Ghent, 2017, pp. 19 f.19.

Matilla, J.M. Mena M.B., Goya: dibujos. Solo la voluntad me sobra, Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, 2019, pp. 115 nº48.

Filigree +

Motive: Gran escudo con yelmo y letras “H -- C / W” en el interior
Height: 130 mm
Width: 115 mm
Las iniciales que aparecen en esta filigrana corresponden al comerciante de papel holandés Hendrik Christiaan Wend (o Went), activo en Ámsterdam desde 1754. No debe extrañar que un comerciante tuviera su propia marca de agua, y no el productor, pues se conocen otros ejemplos coetáneos como el de I.B. Dabyds o el de Daniel Sebille.

La primera noticia documental sobre Hendrik Christiaan Wend es un contrato firmado con el citado Daniel Sebille, fechado el 11 de febrero de 1754, en el que ambos acordaban la fundación de la compañía Sebille & Wend. Daniel Sebille provenía de una importante familia holandesa de comerciantes de papel, y al igual que ellos ejerció el mismo oficio, primero como socio de Wend y desde 1776, junto a Van Ketel y Wassenbergh . Por su lado Wend, después de separarse de Sebille, se asoció con sus hijos bajo el nombre H.C. Wend & Zoonen. Esta compañía consta en el registro de comerciantes de Ámsterdam desde 1776 y en los sucesivos años hasta 1814 .

Heawood, Edward, Watermarks, mainly of the 17th and 18th centuries, Paper Publications Society, Hilversum (Holland), 1950, pp. pl. 500, n. 3735 [año 1790].
Voorn, Henk, De papiermolens in de provincie Noord-Holland, Papierwereld,, Haarlem, 1960, pp. 205, n. 163 [año 1788].
Churchill, William Algernon, Watermarks in paper, in Holland, England, France, etc., in the XVII and XVIII centuries and their interconnection, B. De Graaf, Nieuwkoop, 1985, pp. 201 [D. Sebille & Wend, s.a.].
Voorn, Henk, De papiermolens in de provincie Gelderland, Haarlem Vereniging van Nederlandse Papier- en Kartonfabricken, Haarlem, 1985, pp. 162.
Biblioteca Nacional de España, Catálogo de las estampas de Goya en la Biblioteca Nacional, Biblioteca Nacional, Sociedad Estatal Goya 96 y Lunwerg, Madrid, 1996, pp. 303, n. 19 [D. Sebille & Wend, año h. 1791].

Other inventories +

Catálogo Gassier, 1975. Núm. II 57.

Colección Dibujos Goya (Numeración Sánchez Catón). Núm. 20.

Catálogo Goya, Pierre Gassier y Juliet Wilson. Núm. 477.

Inscriptions +

18 [sobrepuesto a la numeración 6]
Inscribed in pencil. Front, lower left corner

Inscribed in pencil. Front, upper central area

Sueño / De unos hombres qe. se nos comian
Inscribed in pencil. Front, lower central area

Exhibitions +

Goya. Drawings. "Only my Strength of Will Remains"
20.11.2019 - 16.02.2020

Solo la voluntad me sobra. Dibujos de Francisco de Goya
19.11.2019 - 16.02.2020

Eyewitness: Francisco de Goya & Farideh Lashai. Gante
11.02.2017 - 07.05.2017

Goya: luces y sombras. Obras maestras del Museo del Prado
15.03.2012 - 24.06.2012

Goya: luces y sombras. Obras maestras del Museo del Prado / Goya: Lights and Shadows. Masterpieces of the Museo del Prado
22.10.2011 - 29.01.2012

Gravures de Goya au Petit Palais
11.03.2008 - 08.06.2008

Francisco de Goya. El proceso creativo de los Caprichos
11.10.2001 - 31.12.2001

Goya: la década de los Caprichos
26.10.1992 - 10.01.1993

Update date: 13-04-2022 | Registry created on 28-04-2015

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