The itinerary <em>TITULORECORRIDO</em> has been successfully created. Now you can add in works from the Collection browser
<em>TITULOOBRA</em> added to <em>TITULORECORRIDO</em> itinerary

Collection <Back
Felipe IV
Velázquez, Diego Rodríguez de Silva y
Close Continuar a ficha de la obra

Velázquez, Diego Rodríguez de Silva y

Sevilla, 1599 - Madrid, 1660

Miniatura autor

Felipe IV

1623. Oil on canvas, 198 x 101.5 cm.

We see King Philip IV of Spain (r. 1621-1665) when he was around twenty years old in an austere image filled with references to his status and responsibilities and to the reformist intentions with which he began his reign. The sword on whose hilt his left hand rests and the desk bearing a top allude to the administration of justice and the defense of his kingdoms. The Golden Fleece hanging at his waist symbolizes his lineage, while the paper in his right hand refers to his administrative duties. Even his suit is charged with meaning. It is much more sober than was customary in earlier royal portraits, lacking jewels and other adornments, and it is topped by a valona, a Walloon collar of the sort that replaced the more decorative and costly lechuguilla (ruff) in 1623. When this portrait was made, that plainer collar constituted the most important symbol of the desire for austerity, reform, work, and attention to public welfare that characterized the early reign of Philip IV, who sought to distance himself from the image of favoritism, caprice, and squandering associated with his predecessor, his father, King Philip III (r. 1598-1621).

During those early years of his reign, Philip IV frequently appeared in public with more costly and adorned clothing, but the official image created by Velázquez avoids these adornments and emphasizes one of the king`s most important activities as a ruler: his audiences. According to contemporary observers, he received his visitors on such occasions much as he is shown here: standing, leaning on a desk, and wearing the Golden Fleece. This play of references replete with political intent is brought out by the composition and the manner of painting. Velázquez places the king in a very stark space shaped with extremely subtle gradations of light and color and devoid of customary accessories such as curtains. Within this space, he locates the King very close to the viewer, wearing a suit painted with a prodigious variety of dark shades of color. The monarch`s posture is firm but relaxed, and the rendering of his face culminates a process of simplification that began with the portrait at the Meadows Museum; the result is an impassive expression directly related to the idea of royal majesty. With all those elements, Velázquez fashions an image of the king that differs considerably from any earlier one. The exceptional coherence between pictorial construction and narrative or symbolic elements places this among the summits of Spanish court portraiture, especially for its capacity to convey political ideals.

In its current state, the portrait reflects the manipulation of an earlier work, also by Velázquez. We know this through an X-radiography, as well as from versions and copies of the first image, including the version at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York and the copy at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. That first work dates from the months following August 30, 1623, when Velázquez made his first portrait of the king, which must have been a bust and may well be the work at the Meadows. With that as his model, he made a full-length portrait, which he significantly modified three or four years later, changing both its composition and its content. He made the figure more slender, reduced the cape`s fullness, and brought the king`s two feet much closer together. He raised the desk (which was abnormally low in the first version) to the height of the king`s hand, increased the visible surface of the paper in the right hand, and modified the face considerably. These changes served two purposes. First, they adjusted the monarch`s age to indicate his twenty-two or twenty-three years when the painting was redone. Second, by lengthening the king`s features and presenting them in a more summary fashion, they increased the sense of distance and majesty.

Nowadays, works of art from the past are so highly respected that this type of operation may strike us as strange, but such alterations were actually quite common in court portraits, and not at all rare in Velázquez`s circles. When he copied Peter Paul Rubens`s (1577-1640) equestrian portrait of Philip IV in the late 1640s, for example, he transformed the king`s face to convey his age at the time. Likewise, Philip IV in Armour, with a Lion at His Feet (P01219), a canvas associated with Velázquez`s workshop, was originally painted in the late 1630s, then updated at the beginning of the 1650s (Text from Portús, J.: Diego Velázquez. The early court portraits, Meadows Museum, Museo Nacional del Prado, 2012, pp. 86-87).

Multimedia

Technical data

Inventory number
P01182
Author
Velázquez, Diego Rodríguez de Silva y
Title
Felipe IV
Date
1623
Technique
Oil
Support
Canvas
Dimension
High/Height: 198 cm.; Width: 101.5 cm.
Provenance
Royal Collection

Bibliography +

Inventario Nuevo Palacio Real., Madrid, 1772.

Inventario. Real Palacio de Madrid., Madrid, 1814.

Inventario de las Pinturas del Museo Hecho a la Muerte del R, Madrid [s.n, 1834, pp. 8, 17.

Cruzada Villaamil, Gregorio, Anales de la vida y de las obras de Diego de Silva Velazquez, Madrid Libreria de Miguel Guijarro, 1885, pp. 309.

Beruete, Aureliano de1845-1912, Velazquez / A. de Beruete ; préface de Léon Bonnat ; illustr, Paris Librairie Renouard, Henri Laurents, ed., 1898, pp. 33.

Beruete y Moret, Aureliano de1876-1922, La Paleta de Velazquez. Coferencia Leida. . . En la Inaugura, Madrid Suc.De M.Minuesa de los Rios, 1922, pp. 19.

Justi, Carl1832-1912, Diego Velazquez Und Sein Jahrhundert. Vol. I, Bonn Verlag Friedrich Cohen, 1922, pp. 212.

Comba, J., La indumentaria del reinado de Felipe IV en los cuadros de Velázquez. SOCIEDAD ESPAÑOLA DE AMIGOS DEL ART, 1922/1923, pp. 89.

Mayer, August L.1885-1944, Velázquez: a catalogue raisonne of the pictures and drawings, Londres Faber and Faber, 1936, pp. 50.

Les chefs-d'oeuvre du Musée du Prado: exposition, Musée d'ar, Ginebra Musée d'Art et d'Histoire, 1939.

Lozoya, Juan de Contreras y López de Ayala, Marqués de, Historia del arte hispánico, Barcelona Salvat, 1945, pp. 96.

Trapier, Elizabeth du Gué., Velázquez /, Nueva York The Trustees,, 1948, pp. 90.

Encina, Juan de la1883-1963, Sombra y enigma de Velázquez, Buenos Aires Espasa-Calpe Argentina, 1952, pp. 16.

Justi, Carl, Velázquez y su siglo, Madrid Espasa-Calpe, 1953, pp. 196.

Proteccion del Patrimonio Artistico Nacional, Madrid Direccion General de Bellas Artes, 1954, pp. lám. 65.

Pijoan, José, Ter Borch y Velázquez FUNDACION LAZARO GALDIANO, 1954, pp. 135-136.

Pantorba, Bernardino de (1896-1990), La vida y la obra de Velázquez : estudio biográfico y crític, Madrid [Blass] : Compañía Bibliográfica Española,, 1955, pp. 90.

Metropolitan Museum of Art, H. O. Havemeyer Collection. Catalogue of Paintings, Prints,, Berlin-Munich Privately Printed, 1957, pp. 43.

Puente, Joaquín de la, Dos ensayos sobre Velázquez SOCIEDAD ESPAÑOLA DE AMIGOS DEL ART, 1960/1961, pp. 139.

Lafuente Ferrari, Enrique, Felipe IV FABRICA NACIONAL DE MONEDA Y TIMBRE, 1961, pp. 21.

Lopez Rey, Jose, Velázquez: a catalogue raisonné of his oeuvre, Londres Faber and Faber, 1963, pp. 210.

Camón Aznar, José1898-1979, Velázquez, Madrid Espasa-Calpe, 1964, pp. 126, 288, 340-345.

Camón Aznar, José1898-1979, Velázquez, Madrid Espasa-Calpe, 1964, pp. 740.

Bottineau, Yves, Tout L'Oeuvre Peint de Velazquez, Paris Flammarion, 1969.

Asturias, Miguel Angel, La obra pictórica completa de Velázquez, Barcelona.Madrid Noguer, 1970.

Ars hispaniae: historia universal del arte hispánico, Madrid Plus Ultra, 1971, pp. 170.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Museo del Prado: catálogo de las pinturas, Madrid Museo del Prado, 1972.

Gudiol, José1904-1985, Velázquez: 1599-1660, historia de su vida, catálogo de su ob, Barcelona Ediciones Polígrafa, 1973.

Millner Kahr, Madlyn, Velázquez. The art of painting., Nueva York, 1976, pp. 48.

Boehn, Max Von, Die Mode. Vol. I. Eine Kulturgeschichte Vom Mittelalter Bis, Munich Bruckmann, 1976, pp. 288 / lám. 122.

Iribas de Miguel, Jesus, Dos Horas con Velazquez en el Museo del Prado, Madrid [s.n], 1978, pp. 34.

Lopez Rey, J., Velazquez. The Artist As a Maker, Lausanne-Paris Bibliotheque des Arts, 1979, pp. 265.

Chiericati, C., Velazquez, Barcelona Editorial Marin, 1979, pp. 111.

Díez del Corral, Luis1911-1998, Velázquez, la Monarquía e Italia, Madrid Espasa-Calpe, 1979, pp. 120.

Brown, Jonathan1939-, A Palace For a King. The Buen Retiro and the Court of Philip, New Haven-Londres Yale University Press, 1980, pp. 51 / lám. 21.

Pérez Sánchez, Alfonso E., Velazquez, Bolonia Capitol, 1980, pp. 76.

Sérullaz, Maurice, Velazquez, Nueva York Harry N.Abrams, 1981, pp. 18 / lám. 16.

Menéndez Pidal, Ramón, Historia de España, Madrid Espasa-Calpe, 1982, pp. lám. 148.

Harris, E., Velazquez, Oxford Phaidon, 1982, pp. 62 / lám. 52.

Lopez Rey, J., Velazquez, Barcelona Compañia Internacional Editora, 1984, pp. 41.

Museo Nacional del Prado., Museo del Prado : catálogo de las pinturas /, Madrid Museo del Prado,, 1985.

Splendeurs d'Espagne et les villes belges: 1500-1700, Bruselas Europalia 85 EspañaCrédit Communal, 1985, pp. 426-427.

Museo Nacional del Prado., Museo del Prado : catálogo de las pinturas /, Madrid Museo del Prado,, 1985, pp. 734.

Brown, Jonathan1939-, Velázquez: pintor y cortesano, Madrid Alianza Editorial, 1986, pp. 47 / lám. 50, 53.

Barghahn, Barbara Von, Philip IV and the Golden House of the Buen Retiro in the Tra, Nueva York.Londres Garland PublishingInc., 1986, pp. 355 / lám. 1259.

Beruete, Aureliano de1845-1912, Velázquez, Madrid CEPSA, 1987, pp. 21 / lám. 12.

Brown, Jonathan1939-, Art and History. Images and Their Meaning, Cambridge.Nueva York Cambridge University Press, 1988, pp. 139 / lám. 1.

Lafuente Ferrari, Enrique1898-1985, Velazquez, Ginebra Albert Skira, 1988, pp. 44.

Mckim-Smith, Gridley, Examining Velazquez, New Haven-Londres Yale University Press, 1988, pp. 70.

Pérez Sánchez, Alfonso E., Velázquez, Nueva York The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1989, pp. 100.

Saxl, Fritz, La vida de las imagenes: estudios iconográficos sobre el art, Madrid Alianza Editorial, 1989, pp. lám. 218.

Velázquez, Madrid Ministerio de Cultura, 1990, pp. 132.

Vosters, Simon A., Rubens y España: estudio artistico-literario sobre la estéti, Madrid Cátedra, 1990, pp. 331.

Brown, Jonathan1939-, La Edad de Oro de la pintura en España, Madrid Nerea, 1990, pp. 134 / lám. 116.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Museo del Prado: inventario general de pinturas, Madrid Museo del PradoEspasa Calpe, 1990.

Harris, Enriqueta, Velazquez, Vitoria Ephialte, 1991, pp. 62 / lám. 52.

Calderon, E., Velazquez, Madrid Cirene, 1991, pp. 26, 74.

Buendía, José Rogelio1928-, Velazquez, Madrid Anaya, 1991, pp. 26 / lám. 1.

Ayala Mallory, Nina, Del Greco a Murillo: la pintura española del Siglo de Oro, 1, Madrid Alianza, 1991, pp. 141 / lám. 124.

Garrido Pérez, Carmen, Velázquez: técnica y evolución, Madrid Museo del Prado, 1992, pp. 119.

Mckim-Smith, Gridley, Ciencia e historia del arte: Velazquez en el Prado, Madrid Museo del Prado, 1993, pp. 61 / lám. 35.

Orso, Steven, Velazquez, Los Borrachos and Painting at the Court of Philip, Cambridge University Press, 1993, pp. 67 / lám. 34.

Lopez Rey, Jose, Velazquez. Le Peintre des Peintres, Koln Benedikt Taschen, 1996, pp. 84.

Mulcahy, Rosemarie, Alonso Sánchez Coello and Grand Duke Ferdinando I de'Medici THE BURLINGTON MAGAZINE PUBLICATION, 1996, pp. 517-521.

1648, war and peace in Europe, Munster s.n., 1998, pp. 80.

López-Rey, José, Velázquez: el pintor de los pintores : la obra completa, Colonia TaschenWildenstein Institute, 1998, pp. 52.

Brown, Jonathan1939-, Painting in Spain 1500-1700, Yale Yale University Press, 1998, pp. 111 / lám. 144.

Brown, Jonathan1939-, Velazquez. La Tecnica del Genio Ediciones Encuentro, 1998, pp. 27-30.

Marías, Fernando1949-, Velazquez. Pintor y Criado del Rey, Madrid Nerea, 1999, pp. 66 / lám. 40.

Alcolea Gil, Santiago, Velazquez. La Esencia del Tiempo. Edicion Conmemorativa del, Barcelona Circulo de Lectores, 1999, pp. 119.

Morales, Alfredo J., Velázquez y Sevilla, Sevilla Junta de Andalucía, Consejería de Cultura, 1999, pp. 218.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Velázquez: guía, Madrid Museo del PradoAldeasa, 1999, pp. 58.

Brown, Jonathan, Velázquez y lo velazqueño: los problemas de las atribuciones MUSEO DEL PRADO, 2000, pp. 53.

Cepeda Adan, José, Madrid, de villa a corte, Un paseo sentimental por su Histor, Madrid Fundación Universitaria, 2001, pp. 101.

Salort Pons, Salvador, Velázquez and Giulio Sacchetti: two unpublished portraits of the king and queen of Spain. THE BURLINGTON MAGAZINE PUBLICATION, 2001, pp. 69.

Museo Nacional del Prado, La almoneda del siglo: relaciones artísticas entre España y, Madrid Museo Nacional del Prado, 2002, pp. 178.

Portús, Javier (1961-), La Coleccion de Pintura Española en el Museo del Prado, Madrid : Edilupa, 2003, pp. 114.

Museo Nacional del Prado, El retrato español: del Greco a Picasso, Madrid Museo Nacional del Prado, 2004, pp. 331.

Garrido, Carmen, Puntualizaciones sobre algunos retratos de Diego Velázquez FUNDACION LAZARO GALDIANO, 2004, pp. 8.

Argullol, Rafael1949-, El Retrato, Barcelona Galaxia Gutenberg, 2004, pp. 254.

Pérez Sánchez, Alfonso E., Felipe IV y Velázquez. Tras el centenario de Felipe IV, Madrid : Fundación Universitaria Española, 2006, pp. 5.

Lahuerta, J.J, Guantes, 2007, pp. 72-96.

Bass, Laura R., The drama of the portrait : theater and visual culture in ea... : Pennsylvania State University Pre, 2008, pp. 7.

Reyero,C., Los Velázquez del Prado en América. Crónica de una exposición de copias en 1925. : Museo del Prado., 2008, pp. 73-86.

Velazquez :obra completa : Electa, 2008, pp. 88.

Art in Spain and the Hispanic world : essays in honour of Jo... : Paul Holberton : Center for Spain, 2010, pp. 25-56.

Bodart, Diane H., Pouvoirs du portrait : sous les Habsbourg d' Espagne : CTHS Editions, 2011.

Cruz Valdovinos, José Manuel, Velázquez : vida y obra de un pintor cortesano : Caja Inmaculada, 2011, pp. 73-74, 83-84.

Moser, Wolf, Diego de Silva Velázquez. Das werk und der maler, Lyon Saint-Georges, 2011, pp. 172.

Bouza, F., The Majesty of Philip IV: Between Painted and Storied. En: Portús, J., Dallas Meadows Museum-SUM-MNP, 2012, pp. 36-49.

Portús, J., Velázquez in Gray: Decorum and Representation. En: Portús, J., Dallas Meadows Museum-SUM-MNP, 2012, pp. 16-35 [25, il. 4].

Portús, Javier, Velázquez 'Felipe IV'. En: Guía de la colección. Velázquez, Madrid Museo Nacional del Prado, 2012, pp. 31.

Portús, J., Philip IV, c. 1623-1628. En: Portús, J., Dallas Meadows Museum-SMU-MNP, 2012, pp. 86-87, n. 1 [185-186].

Garrido, C., Velázquez y el inquisidor : Ars Magazine, 2013, pp. 56-69 [60,67].

García Cueto, D., 'I doni di Monsignor Innocenzo Massimo alla corte di Spagna e la crisi di uno stile diplomatico' En:, Milan Silvana, 2013, pp. 201-221 [202 f.2].

García Sierra, Mª José, 'Quién vestía a los reyes. Real Guardarropa y sastres de Cámara' En: Vestir a la española en las cortes europeas (siglos XVI y XVII), Madrid CEEH, 2014, pp. 113-135 [97, 132 n.12 f.21].

Herrero Garcia, Miguel., Estudios sobre indumentaria española en la época de los Austrias Centro de Estudios Europa Hispánica,, 2014, pp. 33 f.8.

Portús, J., 'Velazquez und die Rhetorik des höfischen Portraits' En:, Wien Hirmer,, 2014, pp. 32-55 [35 fg.2].

Portús, J., 'Velazquez. Anbetung der Könige' En:, Wien Hirmer,, 2014, pp. 130-131 n.3.

López-Rey, José The Wildenstein Institute, 'Diego Velázquez. Philip IV standing ' En: Velázquez. The complete works, Colonia Taschen, 2014, pp. 343-344 n.33.

Portús, Javier, 'Retrato, indumentaria y ostentación en la españa del Quijote' En: Junta de Comunidades de Castilla-La Mancha. Fundación Cultura y Deporte, 2015, pp. 35-45 [44-45].

Kientz, Guillaume., Velázquez. L'Affrontement de la peinture, Paris Cohen&Cohen,, 2015, pp. 102-108.

Kientz, Guillaume., Velázquez. L'Affrontement de la peinture, Paris Cohen&Cohen,, 2015, pp. 210 cat.51.

García-Máiquez, J, 'La cuadratura del círculo: calco y originalidad en la pintura del primer Velázquez' En:, Sevilla ICAS, Instituto de la Cultura y las Artes de Sevilla., 2015, pp. 575-593 [593].

Lefort, Paul, Velazquez, Paris Librairie de L'Art, pp. 26.

Other inventories +

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1854-1858. Núm. 258.

Inv. Real Museo, 1857. Núm. 258.
258. / Velazquez. / Retrato de Felipe 4º joven. / Bestido de negro con capa. En la mano derecha un papel y apoyada la izquierda en una mesa sobre la cual tiene el sombrero. / Alto 7 pies, 2 pulg; ancho 3 pies, 8 pulg.

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1872-1907. Núm. 1070.

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1910. Núm. 1182.

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1942-1996. Núm. 1182.

Exhibitions +

The Prado at the Meadows. 2012
Dallas
16.09.2012 - 13.01.2013

The Spanish Portrait: From El Greco to Picasso
20.10.2004 - 06.02.2005

Veláquez y Sevilla
Sevilla
01.10.1999 - 12.12.1999

1648 Krieg und frieden in Europa [1648. Guerra y paz en Europa]
Münster
24.10.1998 - 17.01.1999

Velázquez
Madrid
23.01.1990 - 31.03.1990

Velázquez
Nueva York NY
28.09.1989 - 07.01.1990

Location +

Room 012 (On Display)

Update date: 15-12-2015 | Registry created on 28-04-2015

Other works by Velázquez, Diego Rodríguez de Silva y

Print on demand

Print artworks available in our catalogue in high quality and your preferred size and finish.

Image archive

Request artworks available in our catalogue in digital format.

Up