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Philip IV in Armour, with a Lion at his Feet
Workshop of Velázquez, Diego Rodríguez de Silva y
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Workshop of Velázquez, Diego Rodríguez de Silva y

Sevilla (Spain), 1599 - Madrid (Spain), 1660

Velázquez, Diego Rodríguez de Silva y See author's file

Philip IV in Armour, with a Lion at his Feet

Ca. 1653. Oil on canvas.
Not on display

In its present state the painting reveals two different phases of creation. The apparent age of the sitter and the notable similarities with his appearance in Velázquez`s portrait of the elderly Philip IV in the Museo del Prado (P01185) have meant that this painting is generally dated to the 1650s. However, technical studies have revealed important changes, primarily affecting the head and right side of the work. The head was originally turned more towards the sitter`s left while the hair was shorter and Philip was depicted as more youthful in appearance. The right-hand side opened out towards a balustrade that gave onto a broad landscape. There are also changes to the curtain, which has been enlarged.

The scope and nature of these changes indicate that it was reworked from an earlier model, for which some suggestions regarding a date can be made. The original length of the hair and the King`s features indicate the late 1630s, while the type of armour is similar to that worn by Philip and the Count Duke of Olivares in their equestrian portraits or to that worn by Spinola in The Surrender of Breda (P01172), all of them works from the mid- or late 1630s. The changes made to Philip IV in Armour, with a Lion at his Feet, created in the late 1630s, must date from the mid-1660s. This is demonstrated by a lost portrait of Charles II as a boy, which is known as it appears in The Paintings Gallery of the Archduke Leopold William (Munich, Alte Pinakothek) by David Teniers (ca. 1610-1690). The young prince has the same pose as his father, wears similar armour with the helmet again on a table, a lion in profile at his feet and a curtain behind him. In the right-hand part of the image there is a balustrade similar to the one that originally appeared in the portrait of the King, proving that the latter was modified after 1665, which is the date of the portrait of his son, to judge from his apparent age. The overpainting of the balustrade was probably due to the desire to unify this work with the portrait of Mariana de Austria (P01191), who is located in an interior.

This is one of the portraits of Philip IV that places most emphasis on his military responsibilities. The King is shown standing, wearing armour, with a sash and staff of office that refer to his rank, his left hand on the pommel of his sword. Philip wears riding boots with spurs, a combination that would have held meaning for contemporary viewers who were accustomed to associate military command with equestrian culture. The helm and gauntlet rest on the table while on the floor is a lion, traditionally associated with contexts of power and evoking the idea of strength. With regard to the attribution of this canvas, it can be considered a typical studio project in the sense of being a work that is comprehensible only in relation to its closeness to Velázquez, the principal court portraitist, who devised its composition, but one that was actually painted by one of his assistants who imitated the most superficial aspects of his pictorial handling (Text from Portús, J.: Velázquez. Las Meninas and the Late Royal Portraits, Museo Nacional del Prado, 2013, pp. 110-113).


Technical data

Inventory number
Workshop of Velázquez, Diego Rodríguez de Silva y
Philip IV in Armour, with a Lion at his Feet
Ca. 1653
Height: 234 cm; Width: 131.5 cm
Royal Collection (Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo, El Escorial-Madrid, 1667-1847)

Bibliography +

Cruzada Villaamil, Gregorio, Anales de la vida y de las obras de Diego de Silva Velazquez, Libreria de Miguel Guijarro, Madrid, 1885, pp. n. 71.

Mayer, August L.1885-1944, Velázquez: a catalogue raisonne of the pictures and drawings, Faber and Faber, London, 1936, pp. n. 234.

Pantorba, Bernardino de, La vida y la obra de Velázquez: estudio biográfico y crítico, Compañía Bibliográfica Española, Madrid, 1955, pp. n. 108.

López Rey, José, Velázquez: a catalogue raisonné of his oeuvre, Faber and Faber, Londres, 1963, pp. 259.

Camón Aznar, José1898-1979, Velázquez, II, Espasa-Calpe, Madrid, 1964, pp. 780.

Queen Christina of Sweden : Documents and Studies, Magnus Von Platen, Estocolmo, 1966, pp. 95.

Bottineau, Yves, Tout L'Oeuvre Peint de Velazquez, Flammarion, París, 1969, pp. nº112.

Puente, Joaquín de la, Exposicion de Arte Español, Asahi Shimbun, Tokio, 1970.

Asturias, Miguel Angel, La obra pictórica completa de Velázquez, Noguer, Barcelona, 1970, pp. nº112.

Salas, Xavier de, Museo del Prado. Catálogo de las pinturas, Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1972.

La peinture espagnole du siècle d'or: de Greco a Velazquez, Association Française d'Action Artistique, París, 1976, pp. nº64.

The Golden Age of Spanish Painting, Royal Academy of Arts, Londres, 1976, pp. nº80.

Iribas de Miguel, Jesús, Dos horas con Velázquez en el Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1978, pp. 116.

Huffer, B., Bilder Vom Menschen in Der Kunst des Abendlandes, Staatliche Museen, Berlín, 1980, pp. 218.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Catálogo de las pinturas, Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1985, pp. 745.

Valdivieso, E., Spanish Painting of 16th & 17th Century. Pintura Española de..., The Seibu Museum of Art, Tokio, 1985.

Brown, Jonathan, Velázquez: pintor y cortesano, Alianza Editorial, Madrid, 1986, pp. 229/ lám.269.

Du Greco a Goya: chefs-d'oeuvre du Prado et de collections e, Musée d'Art et d'Histoire, Ginebra, 1989, pp. 84.

La pintura española en su siglo de oro, Madrid, 1989.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Museo del Prado. Inventario general de pinturas (I) La Colección Real, Museo del Prado, Espasa Calpe, Madrid, 1990.

Velázquez, Ministerio de Cultura, Madrid, 1990, pp. n. 72.

Garrido Pérez, Carmen, Velázquez: técnica y evolución, Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1992, pp. 539-547.

Arte y saber: la cultura en tiempos de Felipe III y Felipe I, Ministerio de Educación y Cultura, Madrid, 1999, pp. 315.

Arte y saber: la cultura en tiempos de Felipe III y Felipe I, Ministerio de Educación y Cultura, Madrid, 1999, pp. 315.

Marías, Fernando, Velázquez. Pintor y criado del rey, Nerea, Madrid, 1999, pp. 218/ lám.165.

Museo Nacional del Prado, Velázquez: guía, Museo del Prado Aldeasa, Madrid, 1999, pp. 186.

Velazquez, Leonardo Arte, Milán, 2001, pp. 254.

Bassegoda i Hugas, B., El Escorial como museo. La decoración pictórica mueble en el Monasterio de El Escorial desde Diego Velázquez hasta Frédéric Quilliet (1809), Universitat Autnoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, 2002, pp. 224.

Pérez Sánchez, Alfonso E., Felipe IV y Velázquez. Tras el centenario de Felipe IV, Fundación Universitaria Española, Madrid, 2006, pp. 27.

Dalí and the spanish baroque, Salvador Dalí Museum, San Petersburgo (Florida), 2007.

Carlos II: el rey y su entorno cortesano, Centro de Estudios Europa Hispánica, Madrid, 2009, pp. 221-238.

Ruíz Gómez, L., El retrato español en el Museo del Prado (1490-1800), En: Ruíz Gómez, L.; Barón, J. El retrato español en el Prado. Del Greco a Sorolla, Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, 2010, pp. 21.

Portús Pérez, Javier, Felipe IV, armado, con un león a los pies, En Ruíz Gómez, L.; Barón, J. El retrato español en el Prado. Del Greco a Sorolla, Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, 2010, pp. 68, n. 15.

Portús Pérez, Javier, Taller de Velázquez 'Felipe IV,armado, con un león a los pies', en: Velázquez y la familia de Felipe IV, [1650-1680], Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, 2013, pp. 108-113 n.10.

Other inventories +

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1872-1907. Núm. 1077.

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1910. Núm. 1219.

Catálogo Museo del Prado, 1942-1996. Núm. 1219.

Inv. Real Museo, 1857. Núm. 2937.
2937. Id. de Felipe 4º. / Con armadura y baston de mando en la mano dra. / Velazquez. / Alto 8 pies, 3 pulg; ancho 4 pies, 8 pulg.

Inv. Testamentaría Carlos III, Monasterio de El Escorial, 1794. Núm. 62.
Segunda Pieza del Taller / {4039} 62 Un Quadro de ocho pies y medio de alto y quatro y tres quartos de ancho un retrato de Cuerpo entero de Felipe quarto armado con un Leon á los pies original de Diego Velazquez marco dorado en ... 200

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23.01.1990 - 31.03.1990

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Baton, Captain General's

Update date: 06-09-2022 | Registry created on 28-04-2015

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