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The Spanish Portrait: From El Greco to Picasso
Catalogue

The Spanish Portrait: From El Greco to Picasso

The Spanish Portrait: From El Greco to Picasso

Madrid 10/20/2004 - 2/6/2005

The Museo del Prado presents the major exhibition: The Spanish Portrait: From El Greco to Picasso, sponsored by BBVA. The exhibition features 87 paintings, some of which have never been shown before in Spain and others that have never been lent, such as Don Justino de Neve by Murillo from the National Gallery in London or The Duchess of Alba by Goya and Portrait of a Girl by Velázquez, both from the Hispanic Society of America. The exhibition is the first one to offer a complete overview of the Spanish portrait from its origins up to the early twentieth-century avant-garde.

Sponsored by:
Fundación BBVA

Exhibition

The Exhibition

The Exhibition
The Family of Carlos IV
Francisco de Goya y Lucientes
1800. Oil on canvas, 280 x 336 cm.
Museo Nacional del Prado

Over the course of three and a half months and through a selection of 87 works, the exhibition devoted to the Spanish portrait presents a survey of the development of this genre in Spanish art from the late fifteenth century to the early decades of the twentieth century. The exhibition is an unprecedented one, in that it is the first to cover 500 years of Spanish art from the viewpoint of the portrait. It features an outstanding group of works by all the leading names in this field, including El Greco, Ribera, Murillo, Velázquez, Zurbarán, Goya, Miró and Picasso, the latter represented for the first time inside the Prado. All previous investigations of this subject, whether books or exhibitions, have focused on narrower time scales and have been less ambitious in scope. For this reason The Spanish Portrait. From El Greco to Picasso offers the first opportunity to present the stylistic evolution of the Spanish portrait, the different social implications of the genre in Spain, the self-image formulated by the various sitters, the image they wished to convey to posterity, and the various devices and representational strategies used by artists of each period.

More than half the works in the exhibition are loans from the most important collections of Spanish portraits. Among them are a large number of masterpieces, including Fray Hortensio Félix Paravicino by El Greco (Boston, Museum of Fine Arts), Don Alonso Verdugo de Albornoz, by Francisco Zurbarán (Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie), The Infanta Margarita in Blue and Prince Felipe Próspero, by Velázquez (Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum), Don Justino de Neve, by Murillo (London, National Gallery), Self-Portrait by Luis Meléndez (Paris, Musée du Louvre), the two full-length portraits of theDuchess of Alba by Goya (Madrid, Fundación Casa de Alba and New York, The Hispanic Society of America), to be exhibited together for the first time, Self-portrait with Doctor Arrieta , by Goya (The Minneapolis Institute of Arts), The Family of the Infante don Luis, by Goya (Parma, Fundazioni Magnani-Rocca), Gertrude Stein, by Picasso (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art), Self-Portrait, by Picasso (Paris, Musée Picasso), and Self-Portrait by Miró) (Paris, Musée Picasso).

Some of the major works traveling to the Prado are being lent for the first time. Amongst these: Portrait of a Girl by Velázquez and the Duchess of Alba by Goya, both from the Hispanic Society of America, and Don Justino de Neveby Murillo from the National Gallery in London.

The collection of the Museo del Prado includes some of the most important examples of sixteenth- to nineteenth-century Spanish portraits to be found in any collection world-wide, and its own contribution to the exhibition thus includes major works such as the A Nobleman with his Hand on His Chest by El Greco, Las Meninas, which has not been included in any temporary exhibition since the Velázquez exhibition in 1990, the Portrait of a Man “The Pope’s Barber”, also by Velázquez, The Countess of Chinchón, and The Family of Charles IV by Goya.

The exhibition, curated by Javier Portús, takes place in the Central Gallery and Room 12 of the Museum. An accompanying catalogue (Spanish and English editions) is published which, given the innovative nature of the exhibition, is expected to be a new reference-point for future studies of this subject. It includes contributions by Javier Portús, Pilar Silva, Miguel Falomir, Leticia Ruiz, José Álvarez, Alfonso Pérez Sánchez, Gabriele Finaldi, Manuel Mena, Nigel Glendinning, José Luis Díez and Javier Barón.

Notes on the exhibition, by Javier Portús

Notes on the exhibition, by Javier Portús
Francisco Lezcano, known as The boy from Vallecas
Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez
1635 - 1645. Oil on canvas, 107 x 83 cm.
Museo Nacional del Prado

Although a very large proportion of paintings executed in Spain in Modern times belong to the “history painting” genre (mainly religious or mythological subjects), any retrospective view includes a great number of portraits, a “minor” genre in terms of quantity and theoretical value, but which played a major role in the history of Spanish painting. One of the main reasons is that, even though the painters specialising in portraits were few, they include some of the best Spanish artists, such as Velázquez and Goya, and, more recently, Picasso. Besides, the works of other artists of similarly high standing, such as El Greco, include important examples of this genre. Amongst the portrait specialists, there are other painters who, without attaining the levels of the above, nevertheless achieved considerable excellency, such as Alonso Sánchez Coello, Juan Carreño and Claudio Coello.

The true relationship between quality and the portrait genre visible in Modern and Contemporary Spanish painting is directly related to the uses and functions associated to these works and to who the clients were. The portrait was an “urban” genre, mainly linked to power circles, particularly to the monarchy and the aristocracy, which were indeed the social classes that managed to attract the best artists of their times and use them to divulge their own image. The existence of an institution such as the monarchy, which continuously required such works, was a decisive factor in the creation of a portraitist “tradition” in Spain, built up by foreign and Spanish artists alike. Besides, once the figure of the “Court painter” had disappeared, some of the major artists turned their hands towards that tradition, and were inspired by it. Such was the case with Rosales, Sorolla, Zuloaga and Picasso.

In spite of the importance of portraits in Spanish painting, and of the fact that the great portraitists have been widely studied by specialists, this is the first time that the genre will be shown from a broad and ambitious perspective, spanning the Modern and Contemporary periods. The fact that it is organised by the Prado Museum makes it possible to include some fundamental pieces (such as the royal families painted by Velázquez and Goya) which would have been absent anywhere else. The works have been selected with the aim of showing the high standards of quality that this genre achieved in Spain throughout the centuries, the way this “tradition” – from which successive artists have drawn – has developed, the originality with which great artists have reacted to their predecessors, and the process of including new social classes in it. Although the contributions by El Greco, Velázquez, Goya and Picasso are greater than those by other artists, as befits the quality and originality with which their tackled the genre, we have tried to include a representative sample of the other great Spanish portraitists, as well as the most important typologies. All this through a discourse mainly chronological in nature, yet which bears in mind the possibility of “confronting” artists from different periods. Thus, in different places we will see paintings by El Greco next to others by Velázquez, or those of the latter next to paintings by Goya. We have also tried to stress the importance of foreign contributions to the history of this genre. We have achieved this by including works by Juan de Flandes, Titian, Pieter Kempener, Anthonis Mor Van Dashorst and Anton Raphael Mengs, for we must never forget that Spanish art is also European art.

Portrait is a “frontier” in which many ideas, meanings and experiences – both artistic and extra-artistic – converge. This is where, for example, the search for illusion that has characterised figurative Western art over many centuries is put to the test. It is also a field where the tensions between art and reality become extreme, and where images have most often exceeded their mere quality of significant forms and have acquired more complex contents. Similarly, social contents have often been associated to this genre, and its development has been very closely linked to its historical, political, economic and intellectual context. This exhibition will show some of these aspects, allowing the visitor to reflect not only upon the development of a pictorial subject and the creation of a tradition, but also upon the image that Spaniards have transmitted of themselves throughout the centuries. We also suggest a reflection on the boundaries of this genre through the inclusion of works which, while not being exactly portraits, have been carried out with a clear wish for naturalism.

Artworks

1

Hezekiah

Pedro Berruguete
Oil on panel, 94 x 65 cm
c. 1490
Paredes de Nava (Palencia), Iglesia Museo Parroquial de Santa Eulalia

2

Portrait of an Infanta

Juan de Flandes
Oil on panel, 31.5 x 22 cm
c. 1496
Madrid, Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza

3

Don Diego with Don Alonso Caballero and his Son

Pedro de Campaña
Oil on burlap and panel, 104 x 95 cm
1555
Seville, Catedral de Sevilla

4

Doña Leonor with Doña Mencía de Cabrera and her Daughters

Pedro de Campaña
Oil on burlap and panel, 105 x 95 cm
Seville, Catedral de Sevilla

5

The Adoration of the Name of Jesus

El Greco
Oil on canvas, 140 x 109.5 cm
c. 1577 - 1582
Madrid, Patrimonio Nacional, Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo de El Escorial

9

Philip II

Juan Pantoja de la Cruz
Oil on canvas, 181 x 95 cm
c.1590
Madrid, Patrimonio Nacional, Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo de El Escorial

13

The Infanta Margarita in Blue

Diego Velázquez
Oil on canvas, 127 x 107 cm
1659
Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien, Gemäldegalerie

17

Jorge Manuel Theotocopuli

El Greco
Oil on canvas, 74 x 51.5 cm
1605
Seville, Museo de Bellas Artes

18

Fray Hortensio Felix Paravicino

El Greco
Oil on canvas, 112.1 x 86.1 cm
1609
Boston, Museum of Fine Arts

19

Saint Luke

Francisco Ribalta
Oil on canvas, 83 x 36 cm
1625 - 1627
Valencia, Museo de Bellas Artes

20

Maddalena Ventura with her Husband (" The Bearded Woman")

José de Ribera
Oil on canvas, 196 x 127 cm
1631
Toledo, Hospital de Tavera

22

Portrait of a Jesuit

José de Ribera
Oil on canvas, 195.6 x 111.5 cm
1638
Milan, Museo Poldi Pezzoli

23

Don Alonso Verdugo de Albornoz

Francisco de Zurbarán
Oil on canvas, 186.6 x 104.5 cm
1635
Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gemäldegalerie

24

Fray Francisco Zúmel

Francisco de Zurbarán
Oil on canvas, 200 x 122 cm
1633
Madrid, Museo de la Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando

26

Four Figures on a Step

Bartolomé Esteban Murillo
Oil on canvas, 109.9 x 143.5 cm
c. 1655 - 1660
Fort Worth (Texas), Kimbell Art Museum

27

Boy Leaning on a Sill

Bartolomé Esteban Murillo
Oil on canvas, 52 x 38.5 cm
1670 - 1680
London, The National Gallery

29

Luis de Góngora

Diego Velázquez
Oil on canvas, 50.2 x 40.6 cm
1622
Boston, Museum of Fine Arts

30

Democritus

Diego Velázquez
Oil on canvas, 98 x 91 cm
1627 – 1630
Rouen, Musée des Beaux-Arts. Collection Gabriel Lemonnier

34

Portrait of a Man

Diego Velázquez
Oil on canvas, 76 x 64 cm
c. 1620
London, English Heritage (Apsley House)

35

Portrait of a Girl

Diego Velázquez
Oil on canvas, 51.5 x 41 cm
c. 1638-44
New York, The Hispanic Society of America

39

Doña Nicolasa Manrique

Claudio Coello
Oil on canvas, 82 x 61 cm
c. 1690-1692
Madrid, Instituto Valencia de Don Juan

40

Don Justino de Neve

Bartolomé Esteban Murillo
Oil on canvas, 206 x 129.5 cm
1665
London, The National Gallery

41

Don Miguel de Mañara

Juan Valdés Leal
Oil on canvas, 196 x 225 cm
1681
Seville, Hermandad de la Santa Caridad

43

The Family of the Painter

Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo
Oil on canvas, 148 x 174.5 cm
1659 - 1660
Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien, Gemäldegalerie

44

The Family of the Infante don Luis

Francisco de Goya
Oil on canvas, 248 x 330 cm
1783-1784
Parma, Fondazione Magnani-Rocca

46

Philip IV on Horseback

Diego Velázquez
Oil on canvas, 301 x 314 cm
c. 1634 - 1635
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

47

Charles IV on Horseback

Francisco de Goya
Oil on canvas, 336 x 282 cm
1800 - 1801
Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado

51

Francisco Cabarrús

Francisco de Goya
Oil on canvas, 210 x 217 cm
1788
Madrid, Colección Banco de España

52

Prince Felipe Próspero

Diego Velázquez
Oil on canvas, 128.5 x 99.5 cm
1659
Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien, Gemäldegalerie

53

Manuel Osorio Manrique de Zúñiga

Francisco de Goya
Oil on canvas, 127 x 101.6 cm
c. 1790
New York, Lent by the Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Jules Blanche Collection

54

Self Portrait

Antón Rafael Mengs
Oil on canvas
c. 1758
Fundación Casa de Alba

55

Self Portrait

Luis Meléndez
Oil on canvas, 100 x 82 cm
1746
Paris, Musée du Louvre, Legs. Paul Cosson (1926)

58

Self Portrait while painting

Francisco de Goya
Oil on canvas, 40 x 27 cm
c. 1790 - 1795
Madrid, Museo de la Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando

59

Sebastián Martínez

Francisco de Goya
Oil on canvas, 93 x 67.6 cm
1792
New York, Lent by the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Rogers Fund

60

The Duchess of Alba

Francisco de Goya
Oil on canvas, 194 x 130 cm
1795
Madrid, Fundación Casa de Alba

61

The Duchess of Alba

Francisco de Goya
Oil on canvas, 210.2 x 149.3 cm
1797
New York, The Hispanic Society of America

65

Self Portrait with Dr. Arrieta

Francisco de Goya
Oil on canvas, 114.6 x 76.5 cm
1820
Minneapolis, Lent by The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, The Ethel Morrison Van Derlip Fund

74

Santiago Rusiñol

Ramón Casas y Carbo
Oil on canvas, 164.5 x 94 cm
c. 1889
Private collection

75

Study of a Gipsy

Isidro Nonel
Oil on canvas, 185 x 110 cm
Oviedo, Masaveu Collection

76

The Dwarf Doña Mercedes

Ignacio Zuloaga
Oil on canvas
1899
París, Musée d’Orsay

77

"Mujeres de la vida"

José Gutierrez Solana
Oil on canvas, 99 x 121 cm
c. 1915 - 1917
Bilbao, Museo de Bellas Artes de Bilbao

78

Self Portrait

Pablo Picasso
Oil on canvas, 81 x 60 cm
1901
Paris, Musée Picasso

79

Señora Canals

Pablo Picasso
Oil on canvas, 90 x 70 cm
1905
Barcelona, Museu Picasso

80

"La Celestina"

Pablo Picasso
Oil on canvas, 81 x 60 cm
1903
Paris, Musée Picasso

81

Woman in Blue

Pablo Picasso
Oil on canvas, 133 x 100 cm
1901
Madrid, Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía

82

"La Nana"

Pablo Picasso
Oil on card, 104.5 x 61 cm
1901
Barcelona, Museu Picasso

83

Gertrude Stein

Pablo Picasso
Oil on canvas, 100 x 81.3 cm
1906
New York, Lent by the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Bequest of Gertrude Stein

84

Self Portrait

Pablo Picasso
Wax crayon on paper, 65.7 x 50.5 cm
1972
Private collection, courtesy of Fuji Television Gallery

85

Self Portrait

Joan Miró
Oil on canvas, 73 x 60 cm
1919
Paris, Musée Picasso

86

Homage to Pablo Picasso

Juan Gris
Oil on canvas, 94 x 79 cm
1912
Chicago, Art Institute of Chicago

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